441 Works

Effective Methods of Allocation from Natural Sources (Relic Lakes of Azerbaijan) Strains of Micro Algae for the Biotechnological Industry

F. Omarov & Y. Abdulrahimbayov
The work purpose to create system of effective allocation from natural relic lakes of Azerbaijan highly productive new strains of micro Algae. This system includes carried out (scientific regulations) and preparation of laboratory base (a collection of micro algae). Many micro­algae have a high nutritional value since they contain proteins, vitamins, minerals, and nonsaturated fats. Moreover, they can yield higher outputs for the same levels of water and land than many conventional agricultural products. The...

Effects of Pressure on the Gasification of Poultry Litter

C. Font-Palma & A.D. Martin
The poultry industry is large in the EU which generates litter as waste. Improper application and/or overuse of poultry litter as fertiliser can cause the spread of pathogens and ground water pollution. Therefore, gasification is proposed as a potential solution for disposal and energy generation. Conventional gasification systems are large scale with an atmospheric gasifier that requires cooling of the product gas. This work, however, employs a small on-site pressurised gasifier to maintain all stages...

Research on the Heating Value of Shrub Biomass from Mixed Pine and Eucalyptus Forest and Effect of Field Seasoning

J. Figueiredo Da Silva, D.F.R. Silva, A.S. Marques & A.P. Gomes
The effect of seasoning shrub biomass was studied in the conditions typical of north-west Portugal. Biomass of gorse, heath, pine, acacia, bramble and rockrose was stored in piles, exposed to local weather conditions from November 2008 to April 2009. Piles with whole plants and with shredded plants were compared. The biomass was sampled initially, after 2 and 5 months by collecting whole plants and shredded biomass. The moisture increased over time, under the effect of...

Effects of Temperature and Water Potential on the Emergence of Miscanthus and the Germination of Switchgrass

C. Demay, S. Cadoux, H. Boizard & C. Dürr
The stand establishment of miscanthus and switchgrass is not yet mastered. However, there are few references on the factors affecting this stage. Soil temperature and water potential have a major influence on the establishment of most crops, particularly on the physiological process leading to germination and seedling growth. A controlled experiment was carried out to quantify the effects of water potential and temperature on miscanthus emergence and switchgrass germination. The calculated base temperature was 8.4°C...

Italian Feed-In Tariff Mechanism Applied to a Cogenerative Plant Fuelled by Solid Biomass: A Technical-Economic Comparison between Microturbine and Stirling Engine

G. Comodi, C. De Carolis, E. Foppa Pedretti, G.L. Riva & S. Vagni
The paper presents part of the results of two researches focused on an area situated in Central Italy: the European Project “Radar” (Raising Awareness on renewable energy Developing Agro-eneRgetic chain models) and the “energy and environmental plan for the consortium of the Commons in the mountain area of Esino-Frasassi”. This area is characterized by a huge availability of forestry biomass and, in a lower measure, of agricultural discards. This work presents a technical-economic study for...

Forest Fuel Availability, Harvesting Costs and Economy of Wood Fired CHP in Europe in the Light of Case Studies in Poland, Czech Republic, France and Western Russia (2005-2009)

M. Virkkunen, A. Leinonen, J. Raitila, M. Flyktman & V.-P. Heiskanen
The aim of the case studies was to evaluate the wood biomass availability for fuel to find cost-effective wood fuel production technology and to calculate the wood fuel supply costs in each study location. Also the most suitable combustion technology was evaluated and heat and power production costs and the associate emissions of heat and power production in CHP power plant were estimated. Four case studies were implemented between 2005 and 2009. These studies aimed...

Optimisation of Biomass Grate Furnaces with a New 3D Packed Bed Combustion Model - On Example of a Small-Scale Underfeed Stoker Furnace

R. Mehrabian, R. Scharler, A. Weissinger & I. Obernberger
The design and optimisation of a biomass grate furnace requires accurate and efficient models for the combustion process on the grate as well as the turbulent reactive flow in the combustion chamber. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have been successfully applied for gas phase combustion. However, no numerical models for the biomass packed bed combustion, which can be used as engineering design tools, are commercially available at present. This paper presents an innovative 3D CFD model...

Environmental and Economic Potential of Rice Husk Use in Angiang Province, Vietnam

T. Pham Thi Mai, K.H. Kurisu & K. Hanaki
To evaluate CO2 emission mitigation potential and cost effectiveness of rice husk utilization, Life Cycle Cost Analysis was conducted for 9 scenarios developed in our study. The results reveal that ceasing open burning alone has a large CO2 mitigation potential. The use of briquettes, even though CO2 is emitted during the production stage, can still contribute to CO2 emission mitigation than rice husk burning or dumping. In the power generation scenarios, gasification is the most...

The Biomass Futures Project

C. Panoutsou, A. Bauen, H. Bottcher, S. Leduc, E. Alexopoulou, J. Eleftheriadis, U. Fritsche, K.J. Hennenberg, A. Uslu, B. Elbersen, K. Van Diepen, C. Bowyer & P. Capros
Bioenergy and especially biofuels have been named as ‘crimes to humanity’, the key reasons for ‘food price increases’ and ‘future threats for poverty and starvation’. The lack of clear ‘real­time’ answers on critical questions about the merits assumed to be generated by the implementation of bioenergy can pose a significant risk for policy frameworks and binding targets. The aim of the Biomass Futures project is to use modelling frameworks in order to inform policy with...

Global Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Biofuel and Bioproduct Chains

D. Rutz, M.C. Jinke, J.M.C. Van Dam, R. Janssen, W. Hiegl, R. Diaz-Chavez, J. Woods, A.P.C. Faaij, E.M.W. Smeets, J. Vos, M. Vis, N. Rettenmaier, G. Reinhardt, R. Nussbaum, K. Bottriell, A. Gozzi, S. Haye, A.C. Da Silva Walter, J.A. Hilbert, O. Coto, A. Fallot, E.N. Sawe, I. Togola, O. Ouattara & R. Jaax
Many countries worldwide are increasingly engaging in the promotion of biomass production for industrial uses such as biofuels and bioproducts. Biomass raw materials and biofuels offer the opportunity to replace petrochemical resources for a large variety of bioproducts (chemicals, bioplastics, etc.) and fossil fuels. Until today, mainly biofuels were supported by European policies, but support for bioproducts is still lacking behind. Thus, also the public sustainability debate concentrated on biofuels, but so far not on...

Factors Affecting Maize Biomass Production for Biogas in Latvia

J. Bartusevics & Z. Gaile
Maize (Zea mays L.) has been recently established as an energy-rich and technically advantageous substrate for the production of electricity from renewable sources of energy in biogas plants. Maize as a substrate for biogas production only has been started to investigate in Latvian conditions. Researchers have mentioned that key factors for a maximum biogas yield from maize are selected hybrid (genotype), time of harvesting, type of conservation and pretreatment of the biomass. Also the nutrient...

An Update on European Pellet Markets

W. Hiegl, R. Janssen, P. Helm, M.T. Hansen, W. Pichler, M. Steiner, M. Junginger, R. Sikkema, E. Manning, F. Vivarelli, S. Capaccioli, M. Bastian, M. Habicht, P. Gyuris, C. Barel, M. Voulgaraki & S. Hayes
The importance of wood pellets for small and medium scale heat production and large scale power generation is continuously increasing across Europe. Pellet usage can contribute substantially to renewable heat and electricity targets set by the EU Renewable Energy Directive. However, with increasing market volumes, several emerging problems have to be considered: Raw material availability, pellet quality and supply security, as well as the sustainability of pellet supply chains have to be addressed at a...

Development of Process Routes for Synthetic Biofuels from Biomass (BTL)

G. Weber, A. Potetz, R. Rauch & H. Hofbauer
In Güssing a nearly nitrogen free product gas can be provided by the Fast Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed (FICFB) – gasification system. The main components of the product gas are hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). A Fischer – Tropsch (FT­) trial plant uses the product gas components H2 and CO in an exothermic, catalytic reaction to produce hydrocarbon chains. Catalysts based on iron and cobalt are used for the...

Combustion of Two Imported Biomass Feedstocks for Co-firing in the UK

B. Gudka, X.C. Baxter, L.I. Darvell, J.M. Jones, A. Saddawi, A. Williams, A. Malmgren, P.J. Kilgallon & N.J. Simms
Two commonly imported biomass feedstocks, Palm Kernel Expellers (PKE) and Distillers Dried Grains and Solubles (DDGS) have been examined for their combustion properties. The fuels were characterized and thermal decomposition tests were done using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Pyrolysis products were detected via Pyrolysis Gas Chromatograpy­Mass Spectrometry (Py GC­MS) and lastly chars from the fuels were prepared and combustion tests were performed to determine the conversion of nitrogen in the char to nitrogen – containing species....

Potentialities of the Use of Miscanthus Biomasses for the Production in Fluidized Bed Gasification Units

P.S.D. Brito, A.S. Oliveira & L.F. Rodrigues
In this work the result of a study on the potential use of Miscanthus biomasses as a source for syngas production by gasification is presented. The study was performed in a pilot gasification plant based on the fluidized bed technology and with a capacity of 50 kg/h, and installed at Portalegre’s Industrial Park, in Portugal. The gasification tests were performed continuously for 5 days, with different proportions of Miscanthus pellets mixed with wood pellets in...

Separation of FAME-in-Water Emulsion out of Producer-Gas Scrubbers - A Performance Analysis under Different Boundary Conditions

M. Strigl, A. Hofmann, G. Kreutner, J. Krueger & M.B. Huber
Gasification of biomass to generate heat and power for decentralized purposes has become a very attractive technology over recent years. These gasification processes and systems have to handle with a very high organic-condensate load [1] in the producer gas. To cope with these high condensate loads and to clean up the producer gas of the high tar content the biodiesel scrubber [2] was developed. Beside the complex cleaning process of the producer gas with the...

Gasification Behavior of Blended Biomass Pellets in a Small-Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor

A. Schneider, D. Hein, F. Wiedenmann & W. Krumm
Pellets blended from biogeneous residues, energy crops, and industrial residues offer alternative options for energetic use of wood. Incineration and gasification behavior of alternative fuels partly differ widely from those of wood. A combination of all advantages and disadvantages of each fuel may lead to a well-designed fuel blend. The effects of different fuel blends on the gasification behavior are the focus of this investigation. Wood, straw, miscanthus and their blends were gasified with steam...

CFD Simulation of a Fixed Bed 60 kW Biomass Boiler

R. Comesaña, J. Collazo, J.L. Míguez & J. Porteiro
The simulation of a biomass combustion system includes many sub-models to account the different processes that are taking place, such as fluid dynamics, homogeneous reactions, pollutant formation, heat transfer and biomass drying, devolatilization, and char oxidation. This work is focused on the simulation and the analysis of a commercial 60 kW biomass boiler with special focus on the treatment of the bed, species mixing and reaction, temperatures in the combustion chamber and heat exchange processes....

10% Transportation Biofuels in 2020 - Possible Contribution of Producing Biofuels in the Austrian Pulp and Paper Industry

G. Jungmeier, R. Rauch & J. Spitzer
The EU Directive on Renewable Energy aims reaching a share of 10% transportation biofuels in 2020. The purpose of the work was to analyse and asses the possibilities to produce biofuels from wood in the Austrian Pulp&Paper Industry. The considered wood based raw materials were black liquor, wood chips from forest and saw mill residues to produce FT-biofuels -via gasification and syntheses -and bioethanol -via saccarification and fermentation. In total 22 different concepts for three...

Environmental Approach of the Algerian Oasis Biomass Energy Conversion. Mzab Area Case

K. Bousdira
This study is an analyse of the environmental approach of the energetic upgrading related to the biomass in the Algerian oasis `ecosystem (Mzab area case), since it has several assets (availability, variety, an interesting energy asset) despite the environment aridity. Technically, this biomass could provide a variety of bio-fuel of first, second and even third generation. Facing the world greed about the bio-energy, a controversy rose related to the absence of any environmental risks consideration...

Socio-economical Aspects of the Straw Removal at the Farmer Level

S. Marsac, F. Labalette, C. Jacquin, C. Bordet, M.L. Savouré & S. Briand
By-products such as cereal straw are being introduced into the supply chain of energy plants for CHP (Combined Heat and Power generation) or semi-industrial biofuel plants. Methods have been developed in France to estimate the sustainable and available amount of straw. Farmers’ behaviour can affect the availability of the cereal straw by their willingness to collect and market it. This willingness was studied during the Ecobiom project financed by the French National Research Agency (ANR)...

Can the Region of Algarve, in Portugal, be Self Sustained Energetically?

A.L. Fernando, C. Bastos & B. Mendes
The aim of this study is to analyze the potentialities of bioenergy provision from biomass in the Region of Algarve, in Portugal. The Algarve energy market is based on large share of imported fossil fuels. The inland energy production represents only 2.3% of total electricity consumption and power production from bioresources amounts to only 8.5% of the total energy production. In this study, an estimation of the energy potential from bioresources is made, namely from...

Preconditioning of Biomass through Fast Pyrolysis for Different Biofuels Applications: Outcomes of the Project Precond

F. Broust, G. Mauviel, A. Quignard, G. Boissonnet, A. Bensakhria, C. Bellot, M. Bourgogne, G. Martin & A.V. Bridgwater
This paper presents the main results of the French project PRECOND which aimed at evaluating the technical & economical viability of fast pyrolysis as biomass preconditioning route for the following utilizations: gasification and FT-synthesis into synthetic transport bio-fuels; petroleum co-refining into transport bio-fuels; combustion for CHP. First, the expected bio-oil specifications have been assessed according to the utilization. A bench scale fluidized bed, identified as the reference technology, was constructed and operated on different biomasses....

Differences on the Quality of the Biomass Obtained from Different Species of Winter Cereals

R. Barro, M.J. Fernández, J. Losada, L. Rovira, A. Salvadó, J. Serra & J.E. Carrasco
The quality of the biomass obtained from different small grain cereal species (oat, lopside oat, triticale, and rye) that can be used as solid biofuels was evaluated by means of a statistical study. In this context, 13 varieties were evaluated at two different Spanish locations. Yield and parameters influencing the quality of the biomass, namely calorific value, carbon, nitrogen, chlorine, sulphur, and ash contents, as well as major elements contained in the ashes and the...

Food Deprival Footprint and Nitrogen-Related Carbon Intensity: Two Sustainability Indicators for Dedicated Energy Crops

E. Ceotto & M. Di Candilo
Environmental indicators are synthetic variables, specifically conceived for aggregating relevant information about agroecosystems. The assessment of sustainability for bioenergy cropping systems might be improved by specific indicators, because the diffusion of these systems raised novel scientific points, notably: i) the demand of biofuels compete for cropland against the demand for food production and nature conservation; ii) the intensive agricultural management, needed to sustain productivity of bioenergy crops, might negate the greenhouse gases benefits of replacing...

Registration Year

  • 2010
    441

Resource Types

  • Text
    441

Data Centers

  • ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
    441