441 Works

Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physical Properties of Bio-Oil from Agricultural Residues and Woody Biomass

S. Adhikari, S. Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, H. Ravindran, O. Fasina & S. Taylor
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on bio­oil’s physical properties. Bio­oil was produced in a bench scale auger reactor from locally available biomass feedstocks. Agricultural wastes (poultry litter and peanut hulls), pine wood (abundant in the southern United States), and an energy crop (switchgrass) were selected as feedstocks for bio­oil production. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 450 oC to 600 oC, in increments of 50 oC. The...

Fiber Sorghum Natural Drying Tests Using the CRA-ING/Cressoni Mower Conditioner Prototype

L. Pari, A. Assirelli & A. Suardi
Fiber sorghum is an important annual energy crop with large potential utilization related not only to combustion but also to anaerobic digestion (biogas), as well as second generation bioethanol production. In Italy, the harvesting of dried fiber sorghum for direct combustion has frequently been a serious problem. Thus, the use of this crop is mainly related to biogas production where the fresh plant is harvested using standards equipment already available on the market. In order...

Comparison and Adequacy of Agricultural and Forest Resources with the Needs of Thermochemical Processes

F. Labalette, S. Briand, C. Laboubee, D. Da Silva Perez & J.-P. Leygue
This study presents the comparison between agricultural and forest resources related to the needs of thermochemical processes. 234 samples (133 agricultural and 101 forestry) from two years (2007 and 2008-) were selected and analysed with standard methods and common methodologies. For thermochemical processes, the levels of criteria elemental composition (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) do not pose any problem. For nitrogen, two groups are clearly formed with a first group composed of grasses and summer annuals...

Long-Term Monitoring of Small Pellet Boiler Based Heating Systems in Domestic Applications

C. Schraube, T. Jung, J.-Y. Wilmotte, C. Mabilat & F. Castagno
Small pellet boilers (P < 70 kW) are considered as an established and widely spread technology for the heating of private dwellings and small commercial buildings. They are characterised by high thermal efficiency and are well suited for combination with solar collector systems. The performance of such dual heat source systems is however highly depending on the hydraulic scheme and the controlling strategy. For getting a better view on the parameters, which influence the performance...

Formation Mechanisms and Physical Properties of Particles from Wood Combustion for Design and Operation of Electrostatic Precipitators

T. Nussbaumer & A. Lauber
The particles from biomass combustion are collected in a laboratory electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Three different combustion regimes are maintained by a modified pellet boiler, i.e., high temperature and sufficient oxygen, high temperature and local lack of oxygen, and low temperature. The resulting particles are classified as salts, soot, and condensable organic compounds (COC) based on the particle type expected from the theory of particle formation. The chemical and electrical properties are analysed and confirm the...

Future Use of Renewable Energy Sources in EU - Lessons learned from Implementing the RES-E Directive

A. Arasto, L. Kujanpää, T. Mäkinen, S. Helynen, R.W.R. Zwart, J.H.A. Kiel & J. Vehlow
The promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources in EU is currently guided by three different directives. Europe is on the way to fulfill targets for renewable electricity use set in 2001, followed by targets for biofuels use in road transportation sector in 2003. In 2009 sectoral targets were combined under the RES directive, giving targets for the gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources in 2020. In this paper, the implementation of directives...

Simulation and Optimisation of Wheat Straw Autohydrolysis to Fermentable Sugars for Bio-ethanol Production

D.K. Sidiras
In this work, the autohydrolysis of wheat straw undertaken in a batch reactor system is presented. This kind of hydrolysis is auto-catalyzed by acids produced from the wheat straw itself during the process. The experimental data and reaction kinetic analysis indicate that this is a potential mechanism for cellulose and hemicelluloses hydrolysis, due to a rapid hydrolysis intermediate reaction without using any acid in the case that the reaction ending temperature is adequately high. It...

Conception of a New System for Pollution Abatement for Small Scale Wood Appliance

G. Hector, C. Courson, Y. Rogaume, A. Kienneman, C. Rogaume, J. Mendiboure & M.L. Rabot Querci
Increase the part of renewable energy in the primary energy consumption is an interesting resolution to lower CO2 emissions of human activities. Utilization of wood for combustion represents an important contribution for this objective: in France the potential of 9,5MTep for energy is growing with the expansion of forest on the territory. To improve the environmental impact of wood combustion, some advance need to be achieved in term of undesirable emissions of carbon monoxide (CO),...

Improvement of Wet Base Biomass Characteristics Via the Hydrothermal Carbonisation Process

S.S. Jamari & J.R. Howse
Wet base biomass can be converted through a hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) process to acquire better characteristics and a more profitable product. Two type of biomass will be use in this research; wood chips (WC) and palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB). A purpose built pressure vessel was used in the presence of excess water throughout the process. The process was carried out at low temperature (180 – 220oC) and saturated water pressure. The chemical and...

Biomass Productivity of Different Energy Crops under French Conditions. Results of the ''Regix'' Experimental Network

S. Cadoux, S. Briand, B. Chabbert, A. Besnard, I. Félix, M.L. Savouré, S. Marsac, M. Preudhomme, F. Labalette & H. Boizard
The climatic, energetic and political context promotes the development of bioenergies. However we have a lack of knowledge to find out the best energy crops, depending on the soil, the climate and the end­use. This work aimed at studying the adaptation and the biomass and biofuel yield, of several energy crops grown in France in different soil and climate conditions. The biomass yields were very variable between the different experimental sites and no differences were...

Application of the Geostatistics and GIS to the Management of Biomass Residues

M.T. García-Cuevas, M.L. León, F.J.I. Mora, J.I. Arranz Barriga, I.M. Puertas & C.V.R. Moreno
Geostatistics combined with geographic information systems have numerous applications in the location, quantification and characterization of all kind of elements distributed in a given area. At present, it has become particularly important to study alternative sources of energy in order to achieve a sustainable development. Among them, electricity production from biomass combustion is one of the most promising technologies. With the intention of using biomass for electricity purposes, in a profitable way, it is necessary...

Rooting Characteristics and Aboveground Biomass Development of Sweet Sorghum and Ethanol Maize under Water Deficit

W. Zegada-Lizarazu, A. Zatta, D. Matteucci, L. Barbanti & A. Monti
Although the mechanisms of sorghum and maize adaptation to drought are generally well understood, little is known about the response of newly developed sweet sorghum genotypes to water deficits, especially at the root level. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the rooting and canopy characteristics of a sweet sorghum hybrid, Sucro 506, compared to ethanol maize at two levels of water restoration. Root growth was correlated to the above ground biomass and...

CFD Simulation of a Burner for Syngas Characterization: Preliminary Results and Experimental Validation

M. D'Amico, U. Desideri & F. Fantozzi
Biomass and Waste are distributed and renewable energy sources that may contribute effectively to sustainability if used on a small and micro scale. This requires the transformation through efficient technologies (gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion) into a suitable gaseous fuel to use in small internal combustion engines and gas turbines. The characterization of biomass derived syngases during combustion is therefore a key issue to improve the performance of small scale integrated plants because synthesis gas...

Utilization of Olive Pomace for Energy Purposes in Tuscany: a Spatially Explicit Approach Applied to Estimating Potentials of Local Bioenergy Chains

R. Villani, G. Ragaglini, D. Poli & E. Bonari
In Tuscany, approximately 83,000 t/year of crude olive cake are produced as a by-product of the olive oil industry. Part of this by-product is currently conveyed from 450 olive mills to two olive-pomace oil extraction plants where crude pomace oil is produced and dried pomace is used as biomass fuel. In the present work, the energy potential of the crude olive cake produced in Tuscany is assessed and made geographically explicit. Due to differences in...

Comparison of Poplar Chips Quality Harvested with Different Methodologies: Direct Harvesting-Chipping versus Cutting-Whole Trees and Subsequent Drying-Chipping

L. Pari, V. Civitarese & A. Del Giudice
An innovative SRF harvesting system based on two steps operation, was developed by CRA­ING 1) the tree felling and inter­row windrowing performed by a feller­windrower equipment; 2) subsequent chipping performed by an harvester equipped with pick­up device. At the harvesting time, the windrowed trees showed a low moisture content affecting their physical qualities and mechanical strength throughout the chipping operation. This work aims to analyze the moisture losses of windrowed trees, in relation to the...

Database Application to characterize the Spanish Agrarian Counties with respect to their Productivity Potential of Lignocellulosic Biomass from dedicated Energy Crops

J. Sánchez, B. Esteban, M. Checa, L. Romero, F. Mosquera, M.D. Curt & J. Fernández
The aim of this work is to develop a database application led to present part of the Spanish Strategic Project ‘PSE­On cultivos’ results. This application consists of a NUTs4 database that, by means of an excel datasheet, works as an Agrarian County identifying tool. It provides the user with useful information about any Spanish NUTs4 (municipality) regarding geographic, climatic, soil and agricultural data as well as the agro­energy potential for the production of lignocellulosic biomass...

Bioethanol Production from Jerusalem Artichoke Stalks

I. Ballesteros, P. Manzanares, M.J. Negro, J.M. Oliva, F. Sáez & M. Ballesteros
In this work ethanol production from soluble and structural carbohydrates present in the stalks of Jerusalem artichoke was tested. The soluble sugars were extracted with water in a column system at 60ºC, solid­liquid ratio (1/3) and residence time of 20 minutes. In these conditions an extraction efficiency of 74% was obtained, corresponding to 91,7 g/L sugars concentration. Direct fermentation of liquid using Kluyveromyces marxianus CECT 10875, yielded 34.5 g/L ethanol concentration (0.38 ethanol yield) in...

Sintering Behaviour of Wheat Straw Ash with Addition of Additive under Elevated Temperature

L. Wang, J.E. Hustad, M. Grønli & Ø. Skreiberg
In this work, the use of one non­commercial additive to reduce the wheat straw ash sintering tendency was investigated at elevated temperatures. Sewage sludge was blended with wheat straw in different mass ratios. Laboratory sintering tests were performed on the wheat straw and mixtures in the temperature range from 550°C to 1000°C. The ash from the wheat straw and mixtures with sewage sludge addition were producted under different ashing temperatures and characterized with XRF, XRD...

Pretreatment of Birch Wood for Bioethanol Production

N. Vedernikovs, M. Puke, V. Kampars & I. Kruma
In the near future, deciduous wood may be a real alternative to oil as a raw material for production of chemicals and motor fuel. Now bioethanol is produced mainly by fermenting starch­containing (wheat, corn) and sugar­containing (sugar beat, sugar cane) materials. However, in the very immediate future, the circumstances of these raw materials and the new situation in the oil market will put up the use of biomass for the production of bioethanol and different...

Towards a Global System for Certified Sustainably Produced Biomass for Energy Applications

J.E.J. Dakhorst, H.J.M.B. Pauwels, O.C. Costenoble & M. Roks
Biomass will play an important role in the energy transition and offers great opportunities. The use of biomass for energy applications also raises questions concerning the sustainability of the biomass production. Certification is mostly considered to be the instrument to demonstrate compliance with sustainability requirements. Dutch stakeholders have developed a certification system based on the NTA 8080, the standard describing the sustainability requirements, and the NTA 8081, the certification scheme describing the rules for certification....

Differences on the Quality of the Biomass Obtained from Different Species of Winter Cereals

R. Barro, M.J. Fernández, J. Losada, L. Rovira, A. Salvadó, J. Serra & J.E. Carrasco
The quality of the biomass obtained from different small grain cereal species (oat, lopside oat, triticale, and rye) that can be used as solid biofuels was evaluated by means of a statistical study. In this context, 13 varieties were evaluated at two different Spanish locations. Yield and parameters influencing the quality of the biomass, namely calorific value, carbon, nitrogen, chlorine, sulphur, and ash contents, as well as major elements contained in the ashes and the...

Characterisation and Potential Applications of Soot Particles Produced in a Commercial Biomass Gasification Plant

G. San Miguel, M. Hernández & J. Sánchez-Caba
Soot particles generated in a commercial scale biomass gasification plant have been investigated to determine their physical and chemical characteristics and evaluate their potential application as fuels or adsorbents. The as received particles were characterised for their: elemental composition; proximate composition (moisture, ash and volatile matter content); particulate size distribution; heating value; surface area and porosity characteristics; morphological characteristics by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); thermal behaviour under inert (N2) and oxidising (air) atmospheric conditions. Aqueous...

LCA of the Renescience Concept: an Alternative to Incineration for the Treatment of the Residual Municipal Solid Waste

D. Tonini & T. Astrup
The “REnescience” system consists on a pretreatment of the waste based on heat and enzymes which liquefy the biogenic fraction of the waste (paper and organics). The outputs of the process are then liquid slurry and a remaining solid fraction from which metals, plastic and glass can eventually be separated for recycling. In this study the environmental assessment of a number of scenarios for the “REnescience” concept is presented. The scenarios assessed are co-combustion of...

Study of Tolerance of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spp. to Phenols of Lignin and High Level of Sugars

S. Vázquez & M.I. Lopretti Correa
Lignocellulosic materials are one of the most important renewable sources for the energy production. Several transformations are crucial for the use of this type of materials. There are several processes that can be use to turn cellulose into sugar, like aerobic conversion by fungi, such as Trichoderma reesei, acid and basic hydrolysis and radiation. By means of these processes a mixture of glucose and xilose is obtained at a concentration of about 10 g/l, which...

A New Saccharification Process of Lignocellulosics

O.-K. Lee, S.H. Choi, S.-M. Lee, B.-J. Ahn & S.-T. Cho
A single step saccharification of lignocellulosics using a new thermochemical process has studied to develop a simple and rapid saccharification method. Wood powder of Liriodendron tulipifera and Populus alba x glandulosa were used as lignocellulosic materials. They underwent a thermochemical treatment using a flow-type reactor at 350, 380, 400, and 425 °C under the pressure of 23 MPa. Wood powder (10 g) was suspended in 1 L distilled water mixed with 0.05 % HNO3 prior...

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  • 2010
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  • Text
    441

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  • ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
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