441 Works

A New Methodological Study to Allocate Energy Crops at Different Scale Levels: a Multidirectional Approach

N. Di Virgilio, S. Fazio, A.L. Fernando & A. Monti
Generally, the land allocation scenarios for biomass crops are based on crop requirements and environmental characteristics, mostly including climate and soil variables, whereas the backward crop effect on the same environment have been poorly considered or totally ignored. Nonetheless, despite the crop performance can be considerable under specific conditions, the environmental vulnerability to a crop-specific impact could lead to negative consequences. A crop could be in fact well adapted to a given environment in term...

Liquid Biofuels for Stationary Energy Generation - The Bioliquids-CHP EU-Russia Project

D. Chiaramonti, A.M. Rizzo, M. Prussi, G. Riccio, P. Massoli & R. Calabria
A survey on available MGT suitable for the Bioliquids-CHP project purpose has been carried out, comparing technical characteristics towards needed modifications. The MGT architecture was carefully examined, as the possibility to implement minor modifications largely depends on the type of MGT: issues such as combustion – chamber type, injector characteristics, fuel line, and control system, were the driving factor for comparing the various options. The criteria which drove the selection of the MGT for the...

Empirical Correlations for Biomass Pyrolysis Predictions

D. Neves, H. Thunman, A. Matos, L. Tarelho & A. Gómez-Barea
This work provides literature data on the characteristics of biomass pyrolysis. It is analyzed the behavior of product yields and properties on pyrolysis peak temperature dependence (within 200-1000ºC). Empirical relationships are derived from the collected data, which can be used to approximate the elemental composition and heating value of chars, tars and total permanent gas as well as yields of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and light hydrocarbons. Some of these relationships seem valid for almost any...

Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physical Properties of Bio-Oil from Agricultural Residues and Woody Biomass

S. Adhikari, S. Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, H. Ravindran, O. Fasina & S. Taylor
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on bio­oil’s physical properties. Bio­oil was produced in a bench scale auger reactor from locally available biomass feedstocks. Agricultural wastes (poultry litter and peanut hulls), pine wood (abundant in the southern United States), and an energy crop (switchgrass) were selected as feedstocks for bio­oil production. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 450 oC to 600 oC, in increments of 50 oC. The...

Catalytic Cracking of Biomass Tars: a Model-Study of Naphtalene Cracking with Mineral Based Catalysts

C. Parsland & M. Strand
In the production of syngas from biomass gasification the resulting raw gas needs to be low in both tar and particulates but also optimized in its composition. Different bed materials have been studied in the purpose of catalytically reducing tars. The set-up has been in lab-scale and naphtalene has been used as a model substance. One problem that can occur when using porous and active bed materials is abrasion of the solids which causes formation...

Research on the Heating Value of Shrub Biomass from Mixed Pine and Eucalyptus Forest and Effect of Field Seasoning

J. Figueiredo Da Silva, D.F.R. Silva, A.S. Marques & A.P. Gomes
The effect of seasoning shrub biomass was studied in the conditions typical of north-west Portugal. Biomass of gorse, heath, pine, acacia, bramble and rockrose was stored in piles, exposed to local weather conditions from November 2008 to April 2009. Piles with whole plants and with shredded plants were compared. The biomass was sampled initially, after 2 and 5 months by collecting whole plants and shredded biomass. The moisture increased over time, under the effect of...

Biomass Productivity of Different Energy Crops under French Conditions. Results of the ''Regix'' Experimental Network

S. Cadoux, S. Briand, B. Chabbert, A. Besnard, I. Félix, M.L. Savouré, S. Marsac, M. Preudhomme, F. Labalette & H. Boizard
The climatic, energetic and political context promotes the development of bioenergies. However we have a lack of knowledge to find out the best energy crops, depending on the soil, the climate and the end­use. This work aimed at studying the adaptation and the biomass and biofuel yield, of several energy crops grown in France in different soil and climate conditions. The biomass yields were very variable between the different experimental sites and no differences were...

Investigation of Tar Properties for Tar Removal by Scrubbing

D. Fuentes, G. Claro, S. Nilsson, A. Gómez-Barea & P. Ollero
A new concept to remove tar by scrubbing from biomass gasification gas is investigated. The concept is based on a system capable to remove the tars in two sequential stages: heavy tars are removed in a first hot absorber and the light tars (and water) are removed in a second, colder, absorber. The liquid stream contain light tars is recirculated to the first absorber to be used as primary solvent. Key data (viscosity and the...

Estimation of Biogas Production Potential from Municipal Solid Waste in the Region of Biobio, Chile

A. Bezama, F. Vidal, A. Gordon & C. Bidart
The Biobio Region in Chile is characterized by a population of ca. 1,861,500 inhabitants, and the tradition of being the most industrialized region of the country. It is also characterized by its developed sanitary landfill network, which nowadays concentrates the disposal destination of 88% of the waste generated in the region. Nonetheless, there are still six dumping places operating in the region, and there are over 15 old disposal sites where closure programs are being...

Improvement of Wet Base Biomass Characteristics Via the Hydrothermal Carbonisation Process

S.S. Jamari & J.R. Howse
Wet base biomass can be converted through a hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) process to acquire better characteristics and a more profitable product. Two type of biomass will be use in this research; wood chips (WC) and palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB). A purpose built pressure vessel was used in the presence of excess water throughout the process. The process was carried out at low temperature (180 – 220oC) and saturated water pressure. The chemical and...

Maize and Sunflower Productivity as Affected by Crop Rotation with Pisum Sativum in Central Greece

E. Skoufogianni & N.G. Danalatos
Rotation with winter cover crops is a fundamental practice for sustainable agricultural systems. Cover crops can have significant positive effects on soil health and are an important tool for soil organic matter management. In this research a double cropping system is based on a winter (field pea-Pisum sativum L.) and two bio-energy summer crops (Helianthus annuus L. and Zea mays L.) harvested in the same year, for bio-energy production. Two field experiments were carried out...

RTD Cooperation on Biofuels between Europe and Latin America

D. Rutz, R. Janssen, J. Rogat, K. Borch, M. Mittelbach, S. Schober, J. Vos, A. Thébaud, M. Ballesteros, P. Manzanares, C. St James, S.T. Coelho, P. Guardabassi, G. Aroca, L. Soler, E. Riegelhaupt, T. Arias, O. Masera, M. Prehn Junquera, G. Nadal & G. Bravo
The transport sector today mainly depends on fossil fuels, and (liquid) biofuels provide opportunities to substitute a significant share of these. Thus, the European Union (EU) has implemented several policies, such as the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD), to support the use of biofuels, relying on both domestically produced and imported biofuels. Due to the high potential for biofuel production in Latin America (LA), Europe seeks to enhance research cooperation...

Evaluation of Brassica Napus and Brassica Carinata Losses during Harvesting: Three Years of Experience

L. Pari, A. Assirelli & A. Suardi
Mechanical harvesting losses are often considered the main responsible for low yielding in the Brassica cultivation. Thus, the needs to provide reliable values of the real harvesting losses, through on-field tests were pointed out. CRA-ING conducted experimental evaluation of product losses on Brassica carinata and Brassica napus, during three years, in north, centre and south of Italy, using different combine and head losses solutions. As results, it was pointed out that: 1) the crop losses...

The Feasibility of Small to Medium Scale CHP Anaerobic Digestion from Grass Silage in Ireland

D.J. Goulding, N.M. Power & J.D. Murphy
The Renewables Directive (2009/28/EC) proposes a 20% share of energy produced from renewable sources in final energy consumption of each EU Member State by 2020. In 2008, renewable energy production accounted for approximately 3.6% of Ireland’s final energy consumption. The CHP Directive (2004/8/EC) highlights the importance of sustainable cogeneration infrastructure. The utilisation of biogas to CHP from energy crops such as grass silage can help meet the objectives of these directives and considerably increase Ireland’s...

Thermal Conversion of Biomass by Microwave Energy - First Results with Wood

G. Schrammel, C. Paisler, H. Krug, R. Rauch & H. Hofbauer
By using a microwave generator as energy source wood gets converted into three products: (1) condensate (“product oil”), (2) product gas and (3) charcoal (“material residue”). In this microwave-based specific kind of pyrolysis process wood is used as standard input material in order to have the possibility to compare the three generated products either with products of already established conventional pyrolysis processes [1] or other processes like gasification within thermo-chemical conversion [2]. Therefore, a discontinuous...

LCA of Biorefinery Systems: Environmental Impacts, Biogenic C Flows, Allocation Issues and Biodiversity Implications of a Norwegian Wood-Based Concept

F. Cherubini, O. Michelsen & A.H. Strømman
Our strong dependence on fossil fuels results from the intensive use and consumption of fossil energy which, combined with diminishing fossil resources, causes environmental and political concerns. There is clear scientific evidence that emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), arising from fossil fuel combustion and land-use change as a result of human activities, are perturbing the Earth’s climate. Alternative solutions based on renewable energy and...

Penicillium's Consortium: Potential Modifier of Polyphenols for Management and Industrial Use.

M.I. Lopretti Correa, C. Ottati, F. Capdevielle, A. Damboriarena & M. Sibaja
We isolated and characterized three strains of Penicillium; P. citrinum, P. chrysogenum and P. variabile from acidic mediums with kraft liquor as carbon’s source. We analyze their capacity to modify polyphenols. Preliminary assays confirmed the capabilities of these microorganisms to modify and degrade polyphenolic compounds like lignin. We demonstrate that they can grow in mediums with phenolic models and metoxilated compounds such as 3,4,5-trimetoxy benzaldehyde, syringic acid, resorcialdehyde, guaiacol and coniferyl alcohol, so they have...

Biodiesel from Avocado Seeds Oil as Engine Fuel

J.N. Ntihuga & C. Bitwayiki
In this paper, attention was focussed towards biodiesel from avocado (Persea Americana) seeds oil. The optimum temperature for avocado oil extraction was 52 °c, while a ratio of 1:5 of methanol and oil gave the best results. The chemical properties of biodiesel and blends showed that a 20% blend matched the properties of diesel best. The blends selected for testing were 5, 10 and 20% biodiesel or oil in diesel. Pure oil and diesel were...

Combustion of Sunflower Shells in Conventional and Swirling Fluidized Beds: A Comparative Study between Two Combustion Techniques

P. Arromdee & V.I. Kuprianov
This work reports the experimental results from a comparative study of burning sunflower shells in two fluidized-bed combustors (FBCs) with different hydrodynamics of a gas–solid bed. In the bubbling FBC, a bubble-cap air distributor was used to fluidize the bed, whereas in the swirling FBC an annular spiral air distributor generated the swirling fluidized bed. During the experiments on the swirling FBC, primary air was introduced into the bed through the air distributor, while secondary...

Economic Efficiency of Energy Crops

K. Havlíčková, J. Knapek & J. Weger
Biomass plays dominant role in the development of renewable energy sources utilization in the Czech Republic. The methodology of economic effectiveness evaluation is based on calculation of so called minimum price of production in EUR/GJ of heat in biomass. Minimum price reflects limit price that assure positive economic effect of the project from investors point of view. Minimum price is calculated with help of economic model that include all processes related to biomass planting. Reed...

Validation of a High through put Analysis of Microalgae Carbohydrates for Bio-ethanol Production

I. Funcia, I. Alegria, F.J. Iruretagoyena, M. Munarriz, M. Piera, F.M. Reyes-Sosa & I. Echeverría
The focus of this study was to validate a methodology for evaluating the potential of using microalgae for bio-ethanol production. For this work, samples of Red algae were fully characterized: carbohydrates, soluble sugars, lipids, ashes, moisture and protein content. Then, microalgae were subject to a two-step high-throughput micro-plate enzymatic hydrolysis process (1 ml working volume). Likewise, the assay was carried out with a higher working volume (up to 100ml) in erlenmeyer flasks for validating the...

Potentialities of the Use of Miscanthus Biomasses for the Production in Fluidized Bed Gasification Units

P.S.D. Brito, A.S. Oliveira & L.F. Rodrigues
In this work the result of a study on the potential use of Miscanthus biomasses as a source for syngas production by gasification is presented. The study was performed in a pilot gasification plant based on the fluidized bed technology and with a capacity of 50 kg/h, and installed at Portalegre’s Industrial Park, in Portugal. The gasification tests were performed continuously for 5 days, with different proportions of Miscanthus pellets mixed with wood pellets in...

Transforming Polysaccharide Biomass into Thermoplastic Materials for Value-Added Applications

J.H. Wang & B. Shi
This paper describes the research on converting a low-cost polysaccharide biomass into thermoplastic materials intended for high-value, water-dispersible thin film applications. Thermoplastic starch made from native starch is water sensitive but not water dispersible. This research focused on the converting modified starches such as starch esters, pregelatinized Tapioca dextrin, and hydroxyalkylated starch into thermoplastic bioplastics. The rheology of TPMS was found to depend on the type of modified starch, the type of plasticizers, and the...

Production of Producer Gas with Low Tar and a High Heating Value from Construction Woody Waste by Air Gasification in a Two-stage Gasifier Using Activated Carbon

T.-Y. Mun, J.-O. Kim, J.-W. Kim & J.-S. Kim
Construction woody waste is one of precious energy resources. In this paper, we reports the experimental results of air gasification conducted using a two-stage gasifier that consisted of a fluidized bed zone (bottom-reactor) and a tar cracking zone (upper-reactor) filled with activated carbon. In the experiments, the effects of the experimental variables such as the equivalence ratio, upper-reactor temperatures and fluidization velocity were investigated. In addition, the results of the experiments with virgin, without and...

Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana Glauca R. Grah.) Stems as a Bioethanol Feedstock

F. Sánchez, M.D. Curt, M. Barreiro, J. Fernández, J.M. Agüera, M. Uceda & G. Zaragoza
The aim of the work is to assess the potential of tree tobacco stems as a bioethanol feedstock. In order to reach this objective a carbohydrate characterization of whole and fractionated stems was done. Different fermentation trials based on first generation bioethanol production were also carried out in order to determine the best procedure for a maximum ethanol concentration in the fermenting media. Higher heating values of different fractions and fermentation bagasses were determined in...

Registration Year

  • 2010
    441

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    441