441 Works

Industrial Demonstration of Second Generation Bioethanol Production in Italy: The BIOLYFE Project

D. Chiaramonti, A. Giovannini, A. Frattini & L. Oriani
Market opportunities for second generation biofuels in Italy are considerable, given the 2008 diesel and gasoline consumption of 26 Mt and 11 Mt respectively, and therefore the need for biofuels (5.75 % in 2010 and 10 % in 2020) is large as well. The production of first generation biofuels in sufficient amount to meet these targets would therefore require more than 27 % of Italian agricultural land in 2020 or, in a more realistic approach,...

An Easy and Fast Method to Estimate Cynara Cardunculus Seed Yield Based on Head Weight and Number

S.V. Archontoulis, P.C. Struik, X. Yin, L. Bastiaans, J. Vos & N.G. Danalatos
This paper aims (a) to derive empirical relationships to predict cynara seed yield per head and per unit area, avoiding laborious extraction of seeds from its complex inflorescence structure; (b) to determine the head­weight distribution per unit area; and (c) to estimate the range of Cynara cardunculus seed yield. We analyzed 16 field experiments, varying in crop age and environmental conditions in Greece. Seed yield per head (SYhead) can be accurately predicted as a linear...

Determination of Bridging Properties - Experimental and Model Approach

S. Hinterreiter, H. Hartmann, P. Turowski, M. Kallio, LazdiņŠ, A., A. Zimelis, J. Rathbauer, L. Sulzbacher, K. Sønderstgaard Sørensen & M. Temmerman
A test apparatus enabling to determine the length of a fuel bridge over an opening was developed in order to describe the physical-mechanical fuel characteristic of bridging. Two such testers were applied by 6 European partners who applied a uniform test procedure on a total of 85 large biomass fuel samples of 2 m3 volume. All samples were further analysed for angle of repose, moisture content, bulk density and image analysis parameters (e.g. particle size...

Short Rotation Coppice in Northern Italy: Comprehensive Sustainability

M. Fiala, J. Bacenetti, A. Scaravonati & A. Bergonzi
Short Rotation Coppice (SRC), subdivided into SRF – plantation with a short cutting frequency (1 or 2 yrs) and in MRF – plantation with a medium cutting time (5 yrs), takes up about 7,000 hectares, mainly in Lombardy and Veneto Regions; over the years the development of specific poplar clones for biomass and the improvement of cultivation technique have made it possible to obtain remarkable increases in yield. Nevertheless, in bibliography the information concerning this...

The International Trade of Biomass: Concerns about Biofuels

A. Paiano, G. Camaggio & L. Lobefaro
At worldwide the implications associated with an increasing trade both in raw materials and biofuels show a double issue: the first is linked to the long transport distances and therefore to the reduction of environmental benefits; the second affects the exploitation of areas with high carbon stock, often located in countries with economic and social problems. In this sense, the concerns expressed by international organizations in the development of common schemes to authenticate that the...

Assessment of the Potential of Forest Residual Biomass in Talayuela (Caceres, Spain) for Solid Biofuel in Local Tobacco Barns

F. Mosquera, J. Sánchez, B. Esteban, M. Checa, L. Romero, M. Sanz, M.D. Curt & J. Fernández
The aim of this work is to assess the potential of forest residual biomass around Talayuela (‘La Vera’ county – Caceres province) as a local solid biofuel to substitute fossil fuels used in tobacco barns. The Third Spanish Forest Inventory and the Spanish Forest Map, along with mathematical equation and silvicultural operation are managed to estimate forest residual biomass. Natural protected areas (NPA’s) and slope were considered as constraints to potential biomass extraction. GIS tools...

Higher Heating Values of Different Pyrolysis Liquids

E. Cascarosa, M. Azuara, J.M. Mesa, M.B. Murillo & J. Arauzo
Meat and bone meal (MBM) and sewage sludge (SS) were the two raw materials used in this research. Every pyrolysis liquids obtained had different elemental analysis due to the raw material and the operational conditions used. Liquids obtained from meat and bone meal pyrolysis had one phase with a low water contained, whereas liquids obtained from sewage sludge had three phases, two of them were evaluated due to their properties similar a fuel. One characteristic...

Pollutants Removal in Wood Laminate Flooring by Low Temperature Pyrolysis

J. Lémonon, P. Girods, Y. Rogaume, D. Perrin & A. Zoulalian
Among the already known technologies as an alternative to the currently production ways, biomass gasification has been studied for a long time but it is not so economically profitable. A two steps process has been set up some years ago to valorize wastes from biomass. This document suggests the first step description of this process with wood laminate flooring as fuel. This step is a "depolluting phase" through a low temperature pyrolysis in order to...

Nutrient Exportations in Very-Short Rotation Coppice of Poplar

A. Berthelot, P. Maine, M. Preudhomme, J. Gauvin & J. Ranger
The production of above-ground biomass (leaves aside) was studied for six very-short rotation coppice stands (VSRC) of 1 or 2 year-old poplars planted on various sites. The number of stumps by hectare ranged from 5600 to 13330, the number of stems by stump from 1 (first rotation) to 16 (depending on rotations) and the -1 -1 production of biomass from 0,9 to 10 dt.ha.y . Wood chips coming from the harvested biomass were analysed to...

Maize and Sunflower Productivity as Affected by Crop Rotation with Pisum Sativum in Central Greece

E. Skoufogianni & N.G. Danalatos
Rotation with winter cover crops is a fundamental practice for sustainable agricultural systems. Cover crops can have significant positive effects on soil health and are an important tool for soil organic matter management. In this research a double cropping system is based on a winter (field pea-Pisum sativum L.) and two bio-energy summer crops (Helianthus annuus L. and Zea mays L.) harvested in the same year, for bio-energy production. Two field experiments were carried out...

Fluid Dynamics in Ikerlan-IK4 Pilot Plant Spouted Bed Reactor at High Temperatures

J. Makibar, A.R. Fernandez-Akarregi, I. Alava, F. Cueva & M. Olazar
This paper describes the fluid­dynamic and heat transfer performance near pyrolysis temperatures in a pilot scale conical spouted bed reactor. The spouted bed reactor is the core of a fast pyrolysis pilot plant with a continuous biomass feeding up to 25kg/h, located at Ikerlan­IK4 facilities. The aim of the project is to have a deeper understanding of the spouted bed reactor performance at pyrolysis temperatures, in order to improve heat transfer in the reactor, minimizing...

A Novel Process for Biogas Upgrading

T. Mayer, M. Url & H. Hofbauer
This paper presents a novel process for biogas upgrading by means of temperature swing adsorption. First of all, thermo gravimetric analyses were carried out in order to investigate different adsorbents with regard to their adsorption capacity for carbon dioxide and methane, and hence for their suitability for the temperature swing adsorption process. Afterwards, temperature swing adsorption experiments were performed using a laboratory test rig. As a result, breakthrough curves indicate excellent separation performance. During the...

Future Deployment of Cellulose Based Biofuels: Effect on Worldwide Trade

L. Pelkmans, D. Cuypers & D. Bradley
Future generation biofuels are expected to become commercial in the next 10 to 20 years, and an increasing demand will arise for ligno­cellulosic biomass. With increasing demand, international trade will become more important. The paper shows the results of an exploratory study performed within the framework of IEA Bioenergy Task 40, focusing on trade issues arising from the deployment of ligno­cellulose based biofuels. There are many uncertainties, not in the least in the expectations of...

The Influence of Crop Management in the Environmental Impact of Energy Crops Production

A.L. Fernando, M.P. Duarte, J. Almeida, S. Boléo, N. Di Virgilio & B. Mendes
Energy crops may have both positive and negative ecological effects. As bioenergy carriers they offer clear ecological advantages over fossil fuels, such as a positive carbon balance and low sulphur content. However, such benefits are accompanied by a series of possible ecological drawbacks. For instance there is a risk of polluting water with nitrates, phosphates and pesticides and also the danger of reducing the biodiversity when biomass is cultivated in monocultures. In the scope of...

Biogas Digestates as Organic Fertilizer in Different Crop Rotations

B. Formowitz & M. Fritz
In a nation-wide joint research project different bioenergy cropping systems are tested for their yield performance, ecological impacts and economic feasibility. Crop rotation experiments were set up in different typical agrarian regions of Germany. In one of the satellite experiments (experiment A), nutritional effects and mineral N equivalency of biogas digestates are determined. Different rates of digestates are compared with a minerally fertilized control and a treatment without any amendments. In experiment A maize is...

Technical and Economical Comparison of Distillation / Dehydration Concepts for Bioalcohol - Water Mixtures

H. Brüschke, M. Heckmann, M. Weyd & S. Jakob
In the state­of­art production of bioalcohol the distillation/dehydration step is the most energy intensive unit operation and in the respect to the cost breakdown of the overall costs the second highest after the raw materials. Therefore any attempts to reduce the production costs of ‘bioethanol’ and biobutanol have to consider the distillation/dehydration step. The state­of­art process of today is distillation of the fermentation broth to a concentration close to the azeotrope in one or several...

The Potential of Biomethane as a Transport Fuel in Ireland

D. Kenneally, N.M. Power & J.D. Murphy
The Renewables Directive 2009/28/EC sets a target of 20% of the energy across Europe to be renewable by 2020. This includes 10% of the energy utilised in the transport sector [1]. From an Irish perspective renewable energy supplies need to account for 16% of the energy sector and 10% of energy in transport sector by 2020 [2]. Ireland however, has set its own targets. It is believed that 3% of the energy utilised in the...

2nd Veg Oil Project - Demonstration of 2nd Generation Vegetable Oil Fuels in Advanced Engines

C. Guillot
When used at a local level, Pure Plant Oil (PPO), has a potential for the most comprehensive benefits of all engine biofuels. However, like any other fuels, it will soon have to comply with severe emission standards, including a drastic decrease of particles emissions. Not only do minerals in fuels cause friction inside the engine, but they also block the particulate filters. It is then necessary to reduce as much as possible the residual mineral...

A Review of Existing Methods for Carbon Accounting and Implications for the Assessment of Emissions from Bioenergy

D.N. Bird, N. Pena & G. Zanchi
The paper first reviews existing methods for carbon accounting for forest­based bioenergy development. We review: 1 the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories; and 2 the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. The IPCC Guidelines adopt a tiered approach for accounting where Tier 1 uses simple default parameters and methodologies. Tier 2 uses, in general, the same methodologies with national or regional...

Energy from Algae: Growth Optimization and Algae-to-Fuel Conversion Routes

L. Garcia Alba, J. De Weerdt, A.M. Verschoor, W.P.M. Van Swaaij & D.W.F. Brilman
Microalgae are generally considered as a high-potential renewable biomass source towards the production of energetically efficient and sustainable fuels. Optimization of the various steps in the algae-to-fuel chain is required in order to achieve this goal, and especially the algae culturing. An alternative culturing configuration, a so-called Hybrid Culture System, has been tested in order to combine the low cost advantage and easy operation of an open pond system with the high rate of control...

Process Analytics of Pyrolysis Slurries - Selected Studies and Investigations

F.-P. Girke, I. Telnova, K. Raffelt, S. Danjé, C. Audran, P. Griesheimer & R. Stahl
The performance and suitability of diverse high­frequency analysis techniques were tested on different pyrolysis condensates and slurries to develop an automated online operation analysis system for the multi­stage Karlsruhe bioliq® process that serves to produce synthetic fuels from biomass pyrolysis slurriesé[1]. Particular attention was paid to the water content as an essential factor affecting the calorific value and, hence, the stage of gasification. While the widely­used, standardized Karl Fischer titration method is well suited for...

Development of the Efficient Conversion System of Kitchen Waste to Bio-Ethanol and Biogas

N. Osaka, T. Takahashi, Y. Koike, S. Morimura, Y.-Q. Tang & K. Kida
In Japan, industry kitchen wastes with a high water content (up to 80 weight %) disposed from such commercial premises as restaurants and food stores have usually been treated by incineration. With a better treatment method in mind, we have developed an ethanol and methane fermentation system for the kitchen waste, in which starch is converted to bio-ethanol, whereas biogas (methane) is generated from the residue and other substances (proteins, fat, and like). Furthermore, we...

A Comparative Study on Lignocellulose Pretreatments for Bioethanol Production from Cotton Stalk

I. Haykir & U. Bakir
Finite fossil fuel resources, rising oil prices and environmental concerns are important issues that lead to the exploration of new fuel substitutes. Bioethanol, a renewable transportation fuel from biomass stands out as the major one that minimize the dependence on fossil fuels and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. Vehicles use bioethanol up to 10% as blends with gasoline. Today, employment of novel pretreatment techniques for lignocellulosic biomass is essential to reduce process costs and create...

The Futurol Project: 2nd Generation Bioethanol French Research and Development Project

F. Martel
Procethol 2G has announced on November 2008 the launch of the FUTUROL PROJECT which is supported by 11 leading partners from research, industry and finance. The aim of this project is the development and marketing of a complete production process for 2nd generation bioethanol from whole plants or from lignocellulosic biomass.

Ability for Regrowth in a Short Rotation Clonal Poplar Plantation

P. Ciria, L. Rovira, J. Pérez, J.L. Montoto, P. Mazón, J. Rueda & H. Sixto
The aim of this study is to evaluate both the ability for regrowth and the rate of growth during the first vegetative period after the cutting, in clonal poplar plantations established in different ecological conditions. The plantations were located in Madrid, León, Soria and Girona, the climatic and soil conditions differing from one location to another. At each site, the planting densities were in all cases 33.333 plants/ha and the clones included in the trials...

Registration Year

  • 2010
    441

Resource Types

  • Text
    441

Data Centers

  • ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
    441