441 Works

Study of Tolerance of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spp. to Phenols of Lignin and High Level of Sugars

S. Vázquez & M.I. Lopretti Correa
Lignocellulosic materials are one of the most important renewable sources for the energy production. Several transformations are crucial for the use of this type of materials. There are several processes that can be use to turn cellulose into sugar, like aerobic conversion by fungi, such as Trichoderma reesei, acid and basic hydrolysis and radiation. By means of these processes a mixture of glucose and xilose is obtained at a concentration of about 10 g/l, which...

Life Cycle Analysis of Short Rotation Coppice through the Example of Eucalyptus and Poplar for Bioenergy in France

N. Nguyen Thé, P. Maupu, B. Gabrielle & E. Vial
Numerous international and French policies are nowadays promoting renewable energy sources such as biomass. Among possible sources (waste, forest, straw, etc.), dedicated energy crops such as Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) are being studied. Grown on agricultural lands, they enable the production of a well qualified biomass under easy harvestable conditions and give the opportunity to reduce possible competition with other forest resource utilizations. Beside technical, social and economical aspects, environmental issues are now important to...

Techno-Economical Analysis for a 3 MWth Gasification Plant Revamping: Use of Enriched Air and Steam as Gasifying Agent

M. Campoy, A. Gómez-Barea, D. Fuentes-Cano, S. Nilsson, G. Claro & P. Ollero
An assessment of the revamping of a 3 MWth atmospheric­pressure bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasifier was made in order to study the techno­economical viability of changing the gasifying agent from air to a mixture of enriched air based on membrane technology (up to 40% in volume oxygen) and low­pressure saturated steam. The expected changes in the gasification yields were obtained from extrapolating the yields of the non­condensable main gases (H2, CO, CO2 and CH4) measured...

Combustion Evaluation of Torrefied Wood Pellets on a 50 KWth Boiler

J.-B. Michel, C. Mahmed, J. Ropp, J. Richard, M.A. Sattler & M. Schmid
Torrefied wood pellets are produced from torrefied chips by thermo-chemical pre-treatment of biomass at 200-320°C in the absence of oxygen during about 15-30 minutes. Overall, the torrefaction process efficiency has been reported to be 90-95% % as compared to 84% for pelletisation. Torrefaction improves the biomass: 30% higher calorific value and 50% higher energy density resulting in much lower handling and transport costs. The fuel becomes hydrophobic making long term outdoor storage possible. The purpose...

The Effect of Sewage Sludge Blending on the Properties of Precipitator Ash Generated in a Coal or Biomass Fired Boiler

P. Tóth, K. Szemmelveisz & Á.B. Palotás
In Hungary, roughly 1,5 million tons of sewage sludge is produced each year. This yearly quantity shows a steady increase since year 2000, which is not expected to change in the near future. Due to stricter and stricter environmental regulations, trends in the European Union (EU) show that the share of sewage sludge combustion among other disposal methods, such as dumping or agricultural use is increasing each year, therefore, as an alternative of utilization, co­combustion...

Improvement of the Energy Flux of a Multi-Staged Gasification System by Employing Pinch Analysis

B. Plank, M.B. Huber, A.A.L. Giovannini & M.G. Schnitzlein
The multi-stage gasification systems represent one of the most promising methods to generate clean energy in future. Because of the worldwide increasing energy demand and the associated CO2 increase this system has to be improved to gain the most out of this process and to decrease its energy consumption. [1] The thermo­chemical process of the multi-stage gasification gives, on closer examination, some possibilities to accomplish energy savings. The pinch analysis is one of the most...

A Comprehensive Wood Combustion Model for Domestic Stoves

V. Fichet, F. Tabet, P. Plion, A.E. Khalfi, F. Chopin & F. Castagno
Wood has always been recognized as a major source for domestic heating in Europe. However, wood heating systems often imply high emissions. This paper presents the efforts toward a reliable baseline computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for a domestic wood log stove (10 KW) which can be used for diagnosis and optimization as well as the design of new efficient wood log stoves. The model accounts for the different phases of wood combustion (pyrolysis, gasification,...

Increasing the Dry Matter And Energy Yield Potential of Poplar Biomass in Flanders

D. Vansteenkiste, W. Prins & J. Van Acker
Merely 2% of the gross energy consumption in Flanders (Belgium) is covered by biomass. Key questions to be addressed are (1) how the future regional biomass supply for renewable energy production will be ensured, and (2) how this feedstock can be converted most intelligently into energy. We propose selecting and deploying highly productive poplars -in terms of both yield and quality -in short-rotation cultures (SRC) on marginal arable land. These poplars should provide readily accessible...

Determination of Kinetic Data for Torrefaction of Pine Bark and Maize Cane

C. Casajus, F. Marias & J.M. Legros-Adrian
Torrefaction is a mild pyrolysis process with an operating temperature included in the range 220°C­280°C. This technology, applied to ligno-cellulosic biomass, modifies its thermal properties and makes it stable, grindable and hydrophobic. It is then an interesting feedstock for high efficiency combustion and gasification. Because torrefaction mainly affects the hemicelluloses part of the incoming biomass, the associated reaction scheme and kinetics have been developed using this information (single step models, Di-Blasi and Lanzetta model and...

Recovering Potential and Procurement Cost of Harvestable Forest Biomass in Biobio Valley, Chile

C. Bidart, M. Flores, R. González & A. Moraga
The aim of this research is to provide an estimation of the potential amount of harvestable forest biomass within Biobio valley, Chile. This catchment area is a crucial case-study due to its rich forestry resources and high industrial activity. In addition, there are ongoing feasibility studies in this region for Combined Heat and Power projects to enter in operation in the short term; other prefeasibility studies on biomass gasification and substituted natural gas production through...

Development of Process Routes for Synthetic Biofuels from Biomass (BTL)

G. Weber, A. Potetz, R. Rauch & H. Hofbauer
In Güssing a nearly nitrogen free product gas can be provided by the Fast Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed (FICFB) – gasification system. The main components of the product gas are hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). A Fischer – Tropsch (FT­) trial plant uses the product gas components H2 and CO in an exothermic, catalytic reaction to produce hydrocarbon chains. Catalysts based on iron and cobalt are used for the...

The Cultivation of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L) Moench) Biomass for Energy as a Second Crop in Mediterranean Environment

A.A. Saita, S.L. Cosentino & S. Scandurra
A research was carried out in a plain area of South Italy (Sicily), with the aim of evaluating the crop productivity of sweet and fiber Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in terms of biomass, when cultivated as second crop in the Mediterranean environment. Twenty genotypes in all were sown on the 13th of July, 2009, and among fiber and sweet types in three different levels of Evapotraspiration (ETc) restoration: 100, 50 or 0% (I100 =...

Utilization of Olive Pomace for Energy Purposes in Tuscany: a Spatially Explicit Approach Applied to Estimating Potentials of Local Bioenergy Chains

R. Villani, G. Ragaglini, D. Poli & E. Bonari
In Tuscany, approximately 83,000 t/year of crude olive cake are produced as a by-product of the olive oil industry. Part of this by-product is currently conveyed from 450 olive mills to two olive-pomace oil extraction plants where crude pomace oil is produced and dried pomace is used as biomass fuel. In the present work, the energy potential of the crude olive cake produced in Tuscany is assessed and made geographically explicit. Due to differences in...

Aactor !GT©: Power from Lean Landfill Gas and Industrial Waste Heat or Off-Gases

M. Schmid, M. Voegeli & M.A. Sattler
For the power generation from the flaring of lean gases or hot gases, being emitted from land fill sites, bio-refineries and from heat of other industrial processes or concentrated solar radiation, a small micro turbine is being developed. Compared to existing micro-turbines, Aactor !GT can directly burn the gases at atmospheric pressure, and does not need any fuel pre-treatment, such as drying, de-sulfurisation, nor compression. After successful testing in the labs in 2009, a first...

Ammonia Content of Bottom Phase Liquid from Pyrolyisis of Sewage Sludge in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

M. Azuara, J. Abrego, I. Fonts, G. Gea & M.B. Murillo
A distinctive feature of sewage sludge pyrolysis liquids is the existence of three different phases (namely top, middle and bottom phase). Unlike the others, the bottom phase, has high water content and is not suitable for fuel purposes. Instead, it could be used as fertiliser due to its high content in nitrogen compounds. In this work two different sewage sludge samples have been pyrolyzed and the changes on the relative distribution of each phase have...

Who Wins the Race for Market Implementation of Renewable Transportation Fuels - Biofuels, Renewable Hydrogen or Renewable Electricity?

G. Jungmeier, M. Beermann, J. Pucker, K. Könighofer, L. Canella & A. Wenzel
This work analysis the different renewable transport fuels regarding technology, necessary infrastructure, local and global environmental aspects, costs, raw material potentials, market implementation and consumer habits and behaviors as well as future R&D demand. The key advantages and disadvantages were analyzed and assessed in the Austrian context including possible bottlenecks for the market implementation until 2020. Sustainability is a key issue for all types of renewable transportation fuels, e.g. certified biofuels with no competition with...

Estimation of Biogas Production Potential from Municipal Solid Waste in the Region of Biobio, Chile

A. Bezama, F. Vidal, A. Gordon & C. Bidart
The Biobio Region in Chile is characterized by a population of ca. 1,861,500 inhabitants, and the tradition of being the most industrialized region of the country. It is also characterized by its developed sanitary landfill network, which nowadays concentrates the disposal destination of 88% of the waste generated in the region. Nonetheless, there are still six dumping places operating in the region, and there are over 15 old disposal sites where closure programs are being...

The Development of Production and Use of Reed Canary Grass in Finland

T. Paappanen, T. Lindh, J. Kärki, R. Impola, S. Rinne, T. Lötjönen, A.-M. Kirkkari, R. Taipale & T. Leino
The purpose of the work was to develop the whole production and use chain of reed canary grass (RCG), in order to find out the most efficient and economical production – use chains for different working conditions. Development work was based on combining the present knowledge, experimental studies and calculatory studies. The targets for development were harvesting losses, long­distance transport, crushing of RCG bales, making of fuel mixtures, power plant experiences from the RCG use,...

Future Deployment of Cellulose Based Biofuels: Effect on Worldwide Trade

L. Pelkmans, D. Cuypers & D. Bradley
Future generation biofuels are expected to become commercial in the next 10 to 20 years, and an increasing demand will arise for ligno­cellulosic biomass. With increasing demand, international trade will become more important. The paper shows the results of an exploratory study performed within the framework of IEA Bioenergy Task 40, focusing on trade issues arising from the deployment of ligno­cellulose based biofuels. There are many uncertainties, not in the least in the expectations of...

The Possibility of Substitution of Fossil Fuel with Wood Biomass in the National Parks Kopaonik and Tara

M. Furtula, M. Mandić, G. Danon & V. Bajić
Most of the tourist centers in Serbia are using fossil fuels or electricity for heating, while wood biomass from local forests is only partly used. Using wood biomass from forest as fuel in tourist mountain facilities has ecological and economical benefits. Our aim in this study is to show how wood biomass can replace fossil fuel in the public and tourists facilities in National Parks, which are under state protection. This could motivate other national...

Pyrolysis of Organic Compounds for Energy Production, Materials Recovery and Environmental Safeguards

A. Moriconi
Tecnofin Group Spa (I) developed an innovative combination of technologies, based on slow pyrolysis process on rotating drum, integrated with a combined cycle (gas turbine and steam turbine) at industrial level. Purpose of the work is to demonstrate the reliability of the industrial application of the pyrolysis process to a wide range of organic materials, with the aim of energy production, materials recovery and environmental safeguards. The proven technology has been applied for more than...

Outlook for Sustainable Production of Future Generation Biofuels in Developing Countries

A. Perimenis, J. Giersdorf, T. Breuer & F. Müller-Langer
Following a worldwide trend towards alternative fuels, many developing countries are actively involved in the development of a biofuel sector. Next generation biofuels are expected to minimize the risks associated with current biofuels regarding sustainability of production. Their development, however, is still in pilot and demonstration phase and many questions concerning their implementation are still open. In this study, opportunities and risks for the development of future generation biofuels in selected developing countries, namely Thailand,...

Using Biomass-Based Fuels Including Pyrolysis Liquids for Power and CHP Production

B. Van De Beld, J. Vos, J. Florijn, A. Kronberg, M. Glouchenkov, M. Sprenkeler, D. Chiaramonti, A.M. Rizzo, V. Kirillov, N. Khripach, L. Lezhnev, B. Papkin, A.V. Bridgwater, E. Wylde, A. Alcala & S. Silin
The use of biomass-derived liquids (in short: bioliquids) instead of solid biomass can help overcome some of the barriers hindering a wider use of biomass in smaller-scale CHP systems. Relevant bioliquids included biodiesel, vegetable oils as well straight and upgraded pyrolysis oil. In this joint EU-Russian research project Bioliquids-CHP prime movers (engines and turbines) will be developed and modified so that these can run efficiently on bioliquids. At the same time, bioliquids will be upgraded...

Current Propagation Options to Establish Arundo Donax L. in Mediterranean Environment

V. Copani, S.L. Cosentino, G. Testa, D. Scordia & A.D. Cosentino
The influence of transplanting time of Arundo donax L. in relation to vegetative clone plant propagation systems was studied in 2009 at the Experimental farm of Catania University (Italy). A factorial experiment was carried out combining three times of transplanting (November 5th 2008, March 17th 2009, April 30th 2009), three clone propagation methods (rhizome cuttings, horizontal stem cuttings and vertical stem cuttings ) at two soil water availability (irrigation only at the planting dates and...

Control of Various Sulphur Compounds Emissions During Pyrolysis of Mixtures of Forest and Agricultural Wastes. Effect of Sulphur Concentration on Dioxins Formation

S. Román, T. Miranda, S. Rojas Rodríguez, J.F. González, I. Montero, J.I. Arranz Barriga & S. Nogales
This work aims to study the thermal behaviour of olive pomace (OP), pyrenean oak (PK) and their blends under pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). By coupling mass spectrometric analysis (MS) it was possible to monitorize the emissions released during the process. The OP/PK blends were prepared at five different ratios and experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions in the temperature range 25-750 ºC using Ar as inert gas. Thus, the following species were analysed:...

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  • 2010
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  • ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
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