609 Works

Talking Faces - Technologies and Applications

Jörn Ostermann, Axel Weissenfeld & Kang Liu
Facial animation has been combined with text-to-speech synthesis to create innovative multimodal interfaces. In this lecture, we present the technology and architecture in order to use this multimodal interface in an web-based environment to support education, entertainment and e-commerce applications. Modern text to speech synthesizers using concatenative speech synthesis are able to generate high quality speech. Face animation uses the phoneme and timing information provided by such a speech synthesizer in order to animate the...

Automatic Non-Photorealistic Rendering through Soft-Shading Removal: A Colour-Vision Approach

A. Olmos & F. A. A. Kingdom
This paper presents a non-photorealistic rendering algorithm that produces "stylised-style" images by removing the soft shading from the image and by giving objects extra definition through black outlines. The method of shading removal is based on a model of the architecture of the human colour vision system. Some image results are provided and the possible extension of the algorithm using a back-propagation neural network is discussed.

A Model-Based Approach to Image Relighting with a Potential for Real-Time Implementation

Claus B. Madsen & Rune Laursen
Image relighting is a very unique special visual effect which promises to have many important practical applications. Image relighting is essentially the process of, given one or more images of some scene, computing what that scene would look like under some other (arbitrary) lighting conditions, e.g., changing positions and colors of light sources. Image relighting can for example be used for interior light design. This paper describes an approach to image relighting which can be...

Table of Contents and Preface

Mike Chantler

Realistic Real-Time Hair Simulation and Rendering

Yvonne Jung, Alexander Rettig, Oliver Klar & Timo Lehr
We present a method for realistic rendering and simulation of human hair in real-time, which is suitable for the use in complex virtual reality applications. Neighbouring hairs are combined into wisps and animated with our cantilever beam based simulation system, which runs numerically stable and with interactive update rates. The rendering algorithm utilizes latest graphics hardware features and can even handle light coloured hair by including anisotropic reflection and internal transmission.

Balancing 3D Models with Movable Masses

Romain Prévost, Moritz Bächer, Wojciech Jarosz & Olga Sorkine-Hornung
We present an algorithm to balance 3D printed models using movable embedded masses. As input, the user provides a 3D model together with the desired suspension, standing, and immersion objectives. Our technique then determines the placement and suitable sizing of a set of hollow capsules with embedded metallic spheres, leveraging the resulting multiple centers of mass to simultaneously satisfy the combination of these objectives. To navigate the non-convex design space in a scalable manner, we...

Interactive NPAR: What Type of Tools Should We Create?

Tobias Isenberg
I argue that we need to increase our consideration of the interaction that is possible and/or needed for the NPAR algorithms we develop. Depending on the application domain of a given algorithmic contribution, different degrees of interaction are required to make it practically useful and, thus, relevant. The spectrum of interactivity ranges from (almost) fully automatic processing to levels of control that are similar to those of traditional tools-some of the approaches even needing to...

Painted Stained Glass

Lars Doyle & David Mould
We propose a new region-based method for stained glass rendering of an input photograph. We achieve more regular region sizes than previous methods by using simple linear iterative clustering, or SLIC, to obtain tile boundaries. The SLIC regions respect image edges but provide an oversegmentation suitable for stained glass. We distinguish between important boundaries that match image edges, and unimportant boundaries that do not; we then resegment regions with unimportant boundaries to create more regular...

Manifold Visualization via Short Walks

Yang Zhao, Sotirios Tasoulis & Teemu Roos
Visualizing low-dimensional non-linear manifolds underlying high-dimensional data is a challenging data analysis problem. Different manifold visualization methods can be characterized by the associated definitions of proximity between highdimensional data points and score functions that lead to different low-dimensional embeddings, preserving different features in the data. The geodesic distance is a popular and well-justified metric. However, it is very hard to approximate reliably from finite samples especially between far apart points. In this paper, we propose...

Using Icicle Trees to Encode the Hierarchical Structure of Source Code

Ivan Bacher, Brian Mac Namee & John D. Kelleher
This paper presents a study which evaluates the use of a tree visualisation (icicle tree) to encode the hierarchical structure of source code. The tree visualisation was combined with a source code editor in order to function as a compact overview to facilitate the process of comprehending the global structure of a source code document. Results from our study show that providing an overview visualisation led to an increase in accuracy and a decrease in...

When Individual Data Points Matter: Interactively Analysing Classification Landscapes

Bruno Schneider, Sebastian Mittelstädt & Daniel A. Keim
The selection of classification models among several options with similar accuracy cannot be done through purely automated methods, and especially in scenarios in which the cost of misclassified instances is crucial, such as criminal intelligence analysis. To tackle this problem and illustrate our ideas, we developed a prototype for the visualization and comparison of classification landscapes. In our system, the same data is given to different classification models. Classification landscapes are shown in the scatter...

Tracking and Visualizing Dynamic Structures in Multichannel EEG Coherence Networks

Chengtao Ji, J. J. Van De Gronde, N. M. Maurits & Jos B. T. M. Roerdink
An electroencephalography (EEG) coherence network represents functional brain connectivity, and is constructed by calculating the coherence between pairs of electrode signals as a function of frequency. Visualization of coherence networks can provide insight into unexpected patterns of cognitive processing and help neuroscientists understand brain mechanisms. However, most studies have been limited to static EEG coherence networks or were focused on individual network nodes. In this poster, we consider groups of nodes for visualizing the evolution...

Interactive Exploration of Student Generated Content presented in Blogs

Ilir Jusufi, Marcelo Milrad & Xurxo Legaspi
Nowadays blogs are regarded as tools for communication as well as an important source for spreading information in almost every subject. In recent years, school teachers have started to take advantage of this technology in order to support their educational practices. In this paper we focus on the data generated by a project involving more than 50 Swedish schools where teachers and pupils are posting content related to their astronomy class activities in their blogs...

Tracking Space-Filling Features by Two-Step Optimization

Andrea Schnorr, Sebastian Freitag, Torsten W. Kuhlen & Bernd Hentschel
We present a novel approach for tracking space-filling features, i.e., a set of features covering the entire domain. The assignment between successive time steps is determined by a two-step, global optimization scheme. First, a maximum-weight, maximal matching on a bi-partite graph is computed to provide one-to-one assignments between features of successive time steps. Second, events are detected in a subsequent step; here the matching step serves to restrict the exponentially large set of potential solutions....

TaCo: Comparative Visualization of Large Tabular Data

Reem Hourieh, Holger Stitz, Nils Gehlenborg & Marc Streit
Tabular data plays a vital role in many different domains. In the course of a project, changes to the structure and content of tables can result in multiple instances of a table. A challenging task when working with such derived tables is to understand what exactly has changed from one version to another. Traditional comparison tools assist users in inspecting differences between multiple table instances, however, the resulting visualizations are often hard to interpret or...

Spiral Theme Plot

Shenghui Jiang, Shiaofen Fang & Shaun Grannis
We introduce a new visualization method for temporal data, Spiral Theme Plot, by combining ThemeRiver method, spiral patterns, and scatter plot technique. Similar to ThemeRiver, data in different categories (themes) are visualized in different bands, but also in a spiral pattern. Themes are stacked along a spiral curve, which represent the time axis. Individual data points are plotted within the regions of the themes, with various visual features. In addition to showing the overall theme...

CompaRing: Reducing Costs of Visual Comparison

Christian Tominski
Comparison is a frequent task when analyzing data. In visualization, comparison tasks are naturally carried out based on a visual representation of the data. Visual comparison allows us to gain insight where plain computations of numerical differences alone cannot grasp the complex interdependencies in the data. Yet, visual comparison also comes at a cost. There are costs when interpreting the visual representation and costs when interactively carrying out the comparison.We present techniques to reduce some...

Error Estimates for Lagrangian Flow Field Representations

Mathias Hummel, Roxana Bujack, Kenneth I. Joy & Christoph Garth
Computing power outpaces I/O bandwidth in modern high performance computers, which leads to temporal sparsity in flow simulation data. Experiments show that Lagrangian flow representations (where pathlines are retrieved from short-time flow maps using interpolation and concatenation) outperform their Eulerian counterparts in advection tasks under these circumstances. Inspired by these results, we present the theoretical estimate of the Lagrangian error for individual pathlines, depending on the choice of temporal as well as spatial resolution. In-situ,...

Fast 3D Thinning of Medical Image Data based on Local Neighborhood Lookups

Tobias Post, Christina Gillmann, Thomas Wischgoll & Hans Hagen
Three-dimensional thinning is an important task in medical image processing when performing quantitative analysis on structures, such as bones and vessels. For researchers of this domain a fast, robust and easy to access implementation is required. The Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) is often used in medical image processing and visualization as it offers a wide range of ready to use algorithms. Unfortunately, its thinning implementation is computationally expensive and can introduce errors in...

Local Shading Coherence Extraction for SIMD-Efficient Path Tracing on CPUs

Attila T. Áfra, Carsten Benthin, Ingo Wald & Jacob Munkberg
Accelerating ray traversal on data-parallel hardware architectures has received widespread attention over the last few years, but much less research has focused on efficient shading for ray tracing. This is unfortunate since shading for many applications is the single most time consuming operation. To maximize rendering performance, it is therefore crucial to effectively use the processor's wide vector units not only for the ray traversal step itself, but also during shading. This is non-trivial as...

Comparison of Projection Methods for Rendering Virtual Reality

Robert Toth, Jim Nilsson & Tomas Akenine-Möller
Virtual reality is rapidly gaining popularity, and may soon become a common way of viewing 3D environments. While stereo rendering has been performed on consumer grade graphics processors for a while now, the new wave of virtual reality display devices have two properties that typical applications have not needed to consider before. Pixels no longer appear on regular grids and the displays subtend a wide field-of-view. In this paper, we evaluate several techniques designed to...

Exploring and Expanding the Continuum of OIT Algorithms

Chris Wyman
Order independent transparency (OIT) proves challenging for modern rasterization-based renderers. Rendering without transparency can limit the quality of visual effects, so researchers have proposed various algorithms enabling and approximating OIT. Unfortunately, this work generally has restrictions limiting its applicability. To identify directions for improvement, we performed an in-depth categorization of existing transparency techniques and placed them on a multi-dimensional continuum. This categorization shows how prior published techniques relate to each other and highlights unexposed parts...

SVGPU: Real Time 3D Rendering to Vector Graphics Formats

Apollo I. Ellis, Warren Hunt & John C. Hart
We focus on the real-time realistic rendering of a 3-D scene to a 2-D vector image. There are several application domains which could benefit substantially from the compact and resolution independent intermediate format that vector graphics provides. In particular, cloud streaming services, which transmit large amounts of video data and notoriously suffer from low resolution and/or high latency. In addition, display resolutions are growing rapidly, exacerbating the issue. Raster images for large displays prove a...

DIRT: Deferred Image-based Ray Tracing

Konstantinos Vardis, Andreas-Alexandros Vasilakis & Georgios Papaioannou
We introduce a novel approach to image-space ray tracing ideally suited for the photorealistic synthesis of fully dynamic environments at interactive frame rates. Our method, designed entirely on the rasterization pipeline, alters the acceleration data structure construction from a per-fragment to a per-primitive basis in order to simultaneously support three important, generally conflicting in prior art, objectives: fast construction times, analytic intersection tests and reduced memory requirements. In every frame, our algorithm operates in two...

Local Shape Editing at the Compositing Stage

Carlos Jorge Zubiaga, Gael Guennebaud, Romain Vergne & Pascal Barla
Modern compositing software permit to linearly recombine different 3D rendered outputs (e.g., diffuse and reflection shading) in post-process, providing for simple but interactive appearance manipulations. Renderers also routinely provide auxiliary buffers (e.g., normals, positions) that may be used to add local light sources or depth-of-field effects at the compositing stage. These methods are attractive both in product design and movie production, as they allow designers and technical directors to test different ideas without having to...

Registration Year

  • 2016