21,434,709 Works

SPIRIT: Towards an interactive tool for predictive asset management of sewer systems

A.S. Beenen, H. Vis, P. J. Van Gestel & A. Rabenort
SPIRIT is an interactive tool for predictive asset management. SPIRIT is a software plug-in for sewer management packages that uploads the actual state and environmental factors to a central databaseon the Internet. SPRIT downloads the prediction of the sewer condition in 5 respectively 10 years from the uploaded actual state. This interactivity improves the model by a self learning proces and results in a typical win-win situation. The RIONED Foundation is the national not-for-profit knowledge...

New Goals and Strategies for CSOs Control from Legal Aspect

T. Sakakibara, T. Masuta, M. Matsubara & S. Kato
This paper describes the new goals and strategies for Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) control in Japan, shows the amendment of Enforcement Order of Sewerage Law which support the CSOs control in legal aspect. Under the \342\200\234CSO control studying Committee\342\200\235, established by Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport in 2001, new goals for CSOs were proposed: i) to reduce the overflow\342\200\231s pollutants loads under the level of Separate Sewer System. ii) to halve the overflow events...

Filtration for metals removal from stormwater

S. Clark, P. Johnson, R. Pitt, S. Gill & M. Pratap
Filtration as a method of stormwater treatment was investigated in a 3-year study. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of metals\342\200\231 capture were performed initially on twelve media. The three best performing media: peat-sand mix, compost, and zeolite were then selected for in-depth study. Upflow filters did not clog as easily as downflow, and longer-term performance was better in the upflow column. Metals were retained on the filters during anaerobiosis. Metal retention by the filters was not...

Urban water management as a change process

E.A.E.M. Van Beurden & G.D. Geldof
Interactive implementation is a method for the transition from an end-of-pipe approach to a source control approach (in this paper by means of an urban water plan process) for the existing urban areas. But the success of interactive implementation cannot be guaranteed. Based upon experiences in the water plans of Nijmegen and Nieuwegein, six conditions for a successful process based upon interactive implementation, are formulated. Those conditions are usually not met at the start of...

The CSO problem in the Besos Basin. A general approach for a mediterranean basin

M. Gomez, J. Navarro, P. Serra, F. Castillo & S. Men\303\251ndez
In this paper, the process developed in the Besos River basin to reduce the CSO problems is presented. Although these problems are well known and have been addressed in many countries, in Spain a few projects about this topic have been developed. The problem of CSO is more acute in basins with rivers showing low discharges, and crossing urban areas that decide to restore the fluvial system close to the city. The selected basin has...

The evaluation of cost and benefits of structural stormwater best management practices

A. Wossink & B. Hunt

Integrated modeling and multi-objective evolution strategy as a method for water quality oriented optimization of urban drainage systems

D. Muschalla, M. Ostrowski, K. Schr\303\266ter & S. W\303\266rsching
This paper deals with the development of a new multi-objective evolution strategy in combination with an integrated pollution-load and water-quality model. The optimization algorithm combines the advantages of the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm and Self-Adaptive Evolution Strategies. The identification of a good spread of solutions on the pareto-optimum front and the optimization of a large number of decision variables equally demands numerous simulation runs. In addition, statements with regard to the frequency of critical concentrations...

From pumping station monitoring to integrated system control - 30 years of practical experience with R.T.C. Of wastewater systems, with implications

B. Nielsen & M. K. Nielsen
Best Management Practices (BMP's) are developed on the basis of the best available techniques and their cost set against their quality, maintenance and installation costs. Therefore, plans and practices are in constant development, keeping the balance between safe and simple documented techniques and new, potentially more cost efficient, techniques. BMP is about keeping close to, but at a safe distance from the bleeding edge of new technologies. Aalborg Municipality has experienced this over a long...

Research of oil ball countermeasures through high-speed filtration

Y. Nakayama & N. Nakamura
ABSTRACT Combined sewer systems entail a problem of direct discharge of some wastewater into public water areas. In Yokohama, too, combined systems serve about 25 percent (10,000 hectares) of the city area, and reduction of the pollutant load discharged into Tokyo Bay in wet weather is an important priority. The central districts have many restaurants, and wastewater from them contains a lot of oil and fat, and forms oil balls inside sewers. In heavy rainfalls,...

Research of oil ball countermeasures through high-speed filtration

Y. Nakayama & N. Nakamura
ABSTRACT Combined sewer systems entail a problem of direct discharge of some wastewater into public water areas. In Yokohama, too, combined systems serve about 25 percent (10,000 hectares) of the city area, and reduction of the pollutant load discharged into Tokyo Bay in wet weather is an important priority. The central districts have many restaurants, and wastewater from them contains a lot of oil and fat, and forms oil balls inside sewers. In heavy rainfalls,...

Pore-scale simulation of water alternate gas injection

Vural Suicmez, Mohammad Piri, Martin Blunt & Vural Suicmez
We use a three-dimensional mixed-wet random network model representing Berea sandstone to compute displacement paths and relative permeabilities for water alternating gas (WAG) flooding. First we reproduce cycles of water and gas injection observed in previously published experimental studies. We predict the measured oil, water and gas relative permeabilities accurately. We discuss the hysteresis trends in the water and gas relative permeabilities and compare the behavior of water-wet and oil-wet media. We interpret the results...

Numerical Strategies to Model Surface and Groundwater Interactions for the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project Alternatives

Hwai-Ping Cheng, Jing-Ru Cheng, David Richards, Gour-Tsyh Yeh, Hwai-Ping Cheng & David Richards
WASH123D is a first-principle, physics-based numerical model that computes flow and transport in a watershed system that is conceptualized as a combination of 1-D channel network, 2-D overland regimes, and 3-D subsurface media. It has been selected as the tool to help evaluate the proposed alternatives of the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands project that is one of the 40 projects included in the Florida Comprehensive Everglade Restoration Plan. In order to best rehydrate wetlands and...

Cross-gradients joint inversion of disparate geophysical data for improved subsurface characterization: multiple-physics field examples

Luis Gallardo & Luis Gallardo
The characterization and monitoring of hydrogeological and other complex subsurface processes requires a detailed knowledge of several properties of the composing rocks and fluids. Whilst some of these properties can be measured directly, other properties have to be estimated by indirect measurements such as geophysical data. However, it is not uncommon that the geophysical data yield models of limited accuracy that may not contribute significantly to our understanding of the subsurface processes. Interestingly, the distribution...

COSTA a Problem Solving Environment for data assimilation

Nils Van Velzen & Nils Van Velzen
Nils van Velzen Delft University of Technology Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Dept. of Appl. Mathematical Analysis Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft The Netherlands c.vanvelzen@ewi.tudelft.nl affiliated with VORtech Computing P.O. Box 260 2600 AG Delft www.vortech.nl Data assimilation techniques are widely used in various modeling areas like meteorology, oceanography and chemistry. Most implementations of these data assimilation methods however are custom implementations specially designed for a particular model. These custom implementations are...

An Efficient Stochastic Decomposition Approach for Large-Scale Subsurface Flow Problems

Dongxiao Zhang, Zhiming Lu, Gaisheng Liu & Dongxiao Zhang
Subsurface formations are of large scales and are inherently heterogeneous at a multiplicity of scales. Significant spatial heterogeneity and a limited number of measurements lead to uncertainty in characterization of formation properties and thus, to uncertainty in predicting flow in the formations. Such uncertainties add another dimension in probability space to the already large-scale subsurface problems. In this work, we develop an accurate yet efficient approach for solving flow problems in large-scale heterogeneous formations. We...

Role of pore–scale heterogeneity on reactive flows in porous materials: validity of the continuum representation of reactive transport

Qinjun Kang, Peter Lichtner & Peter Lichtner
Understanding multi-component reactive transport in porous media is critical to a wide range of fields. It poses great challenges to theoretical, experimental, as well as numerical studies, because it usually involves multiple processes (advection, diffusion, reaction) and multiple scales (molecular, pore, laboratory, field). Current modeling approaches commonly employ a continuum description and rely on volume averages. Because in porous media, averages are taken over length scales much larger than typical grain sizes, spatial heterogeneity at...

Role of pore–scale heterogeneity on reactive flows in porous materials: validity of the continuum representation of reactive transport

Qinjun Kang, Peter Lichtner & Peter Lichtner
Understanding multi-component reactive transport in porous media is critical to a wide range of fields. It poses great challenges to theoretical, experimental, as well as numerical studies, because it usually involves multiple processes (advection, diffusion, reaction) and multiple scales (molecular, pore, laboratory, field). Current modeling approaches commonly employ a continuum description and rely on volume averages. Because in porous media, averages are taken over length scales much larger than typical grain sizes, spatial heterogeneity at...

ANOMOLOUS TWO-PHASE FLOW BEHAVIOR IN FRACTURED SANDSTONE EXPLAINED USING X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

Freddy Alvarado, Phillip Halleck, Abraham Grader & Freddy Alvarado
Understanding fracture morphology in terms of a porous media is necessary for accurate simulation of multiphase transport in fractured rocks. Although ambient- stress methods for obtaining fracture morphology exist, previous research lacks the ability to map fracture closure as a function of stress or the distribution of immiscible phases in the fracture. A twenty-five-millimeter cylindrical sandstone sample was artificially fractured in tension and placed under confining stress in an x-ray transparent vessel. The fracture morphology...

ANOMOLOUS TWO-PHASE FLOW BEHAVIOR IN FRACTURED SANDSTONE EXPLAINED USING X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

Freddy Alvarado, Phillip Halleck, Abraham Grader & Freddy Alvarado
Understanding fracture morphology in terms of a porous media is necessary for accurate simulation of multiphase transport in fractured rocks. Although ambient- stress methods for obtaining fracture morphology exist, previous research lacks the ability to map fracture closure as a function of stress or the distribution of immiscible phases in the fracture. A twenty-five-millimeter cylindrical sandstone sample was artificially fractured in tension and placed under confining stress in an x-ray transparent vessel. The fracture morphology...

Simulating Non-Darcy Flow through Porous Media using Sundance

Jill Reese, Kevin Long, Tim Kelley, Casey Miller, William Gray & Jill Reese
A non-Darcy partial differential equation (PDE) model for flow through porous media is presented. The focus is on the numerical implementation of the model using Sandia National Laboratories PDE simulation framework, Sundance. In particular, the discussion will include the finite element discretization and how parallelism is accomplished.

Dynamic Effects in Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Inclusion of 3D and Microscale Heterogeneity Effects

Mahsanam Mirzaei, Diganta Bhusan Das & Mahsanam Mirzaei
To quantify nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) transport in the subsurface, one requires a correct description of multiphase flow behaviour. This involves the determination of various fluid and porous media parameters and, the constitutive relationships among capillary pressure (Pc), fluid phase saturation (S) and relative permeability (Kr). The determination of Pc-S-Kr relationships is particularly difficult because of two effects: (i) presence of heterogeneities in the flow domain and (ii) dynamic effects in Pc-S-Kr relationships (see below...

DIRECT AND INVERSE COUPLED THERMAL-HYDRO-BIO-GEOCHEMICAL MODELS FOR POROUS AND FRACTURED MEDIA

Changbing Yang, Jorge Molinero, Mercedes Bonilla-Fernandez, Ignasi Puigdomenech, Javier Samper & Changbing Yang
It is well known that microbials play a major role controlling many redox-sensitive geochemical processes. In the context of radioactive waste disposal it has been recognized recently the need to evaluate the relevance of microbial processes in the performance of a HLW repository. A large amount of data on the structure, diversity and activity of native microbial populations has been collected in underground laboratories such as those in deep Swedish granites. Laboratory and field experiments...

DIRECT AND INVERSE COUPLED THERMAL-HYDRO-BIO-GEOCHEMICAL MODELS FOR POROUS AND FRACTURED MEDIA

Changbing Yang, Jorge Molinero, Mercedes Bonilla-Fernandez, Ignasi Puigdomenech, Javier Samper & Changbing Yang
It is well known that microbials play a major role controlling many redox-sensitive geochemical processes. In the context of radioactive waste disposal it has been recognized recently the need to evaluate the relevance of microbial processes in the performance of a HLW repository. A large amount of data on the structure, diversity and activity of native microbial populations has been collected in underground laboratories such as those in deep Swedish granites. Laboratory and field experiments...

Can Global Climate Models be Used for Water Resource Planning?

David Ahlfeld & David Ahlfeld
Water resources planning is needed to adapt to a changing climate. As precipitation, wind and temperature patterns shift, water availability and demand by humans and other ecosystems will change. These shifts have the potential to impact water supply, agriculture, forestry and all non-human natural systems. Many large scale water resource projects, such as reservoirs, distribution systems, groundwater recharge facilities and desalinization systems can take many years to plan and construct. Shifting the location of agricultural...

Mapping the saline/fresh groundwater interface beneath the Judean Desert using deep TDEM

Haim Gvirtzman, Mark Goldman, Eldad Levi & Haim Gvirtzman
A deep TDEM (Time Domain Electro-Magnetic) survey was carried out at the Judean Desert to delineate the geometry of the interface between fresh, brackish and saline groundwater bodies up to the depth of approximately 1.5 km. The survey was conducted at 20 locations on the desert plateau, between Nebi Musa in the north and Nahal Hever in the south. At this area, fresh groundwater flows from the replenishment area at the eastern slopes of the...

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