20,567,280 Works

Monte Carlo Analysis of Residential Ventilation Systems: Engineering vs Code Compliance

Nathan Van Den Bossche, Arnold Janssens & Nathan Van Den Bossche
The implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2002) requires all EU Member States to develop a procedure to quantitatively determine the energy performance of buildings. That procedure can not cover all possible kinds of new technologies, so Member States have to develop assessment procedures according to the "principle of equivalence", in order to assess those systems which are not covered by the standard calculation procedure. Without these alternative calculation methods innovating...

Penetration of impurities from crawl space to indoors

Miimu Airaksinen & Miimu Airaksinen
Field and laboratory measurements about the penetration of impurities (particles and microbes) from crawl space to indoors

The dependable characterisation of the moisture buffer potential of interior claddings

Hans Janssen, Staf Roels & Hans Janssen
The influences of interior humidity on the performance of building zones, building parts and building occu¬pants are strongly multifaceted and highly interrelated. The levels of interior humidity substantially influence the energy performance of a building zone, via the latent cooling and transmission loads, the appearance and stability of a building part, via the biological activity of moulds and fungi, and the health and comfort of a building occupant. For all these reasons and more, (some)...

Influence of the growth ring structure on the vapor transport in wood

Wolfgang Zillig, Jan Carmeliet, Dominique Derome & Wolfgang Zillig
Moisture transport in wood is complex due to its anisotropic material structure, resulting from the cells anatomy, growth rings where early- and latewood alternate and the presence of vessels, rays and pits. As a result, the moisture transport properties of wooden components are highly dependent on the direction (longitudinal, radial or tangential). Moreover, due to variations in cell geometry, and growth ring structure, the moisture transport properties, such as moisture capacity and vapor diffusion coefficient...

Isotopic methods for tracing moisture and sampling

Kjartan Gudmundsson, Marcin Koniorczyk, Gudni Johannesson & Kjartan Gudmundsson
The isotopic composition of water can reveal its origin and provide information about the physical processes that water has undergone. The knowledge of the effects of the transport mechanisms and reactions on the isotopes can be used to identify the sources of moisture in buildings as shown in previous research by Gudmundsson (2001). In short water in the environment consists of various isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen including the most common of 1H and 16O...

Impact of furnishing on room airflows

Lone H. Mortensen, Carsten Rode, Ruut Peuhkuri & Lone H. Mortensen
In building simulation it is common to use idealized empty rooms for simulation, but furnishing elements may cause local microclimates. These microclimates can be critical for instance if furniture is placed close to a poorly insulated external walls, where the external temperatures in the winter season may lead to condensation or high relative humidity on the internal side of the building envelope. Therefore it was important to investigate the influence of furniture on the airflow...

Moisture transfer across the interface between brick and mortar joint

Hannelore Derluyn, Peter Moonen, Jan Carmeliet & Hannelore Derluyn
Moisture transport in masonry is an important research subject in building physics related to durability issues such as cracking due to restrained shrinkage, frost damage, staining due to salt efflorescence or algae growth, salt damage due to crystallization; and is of particular interest for the renovation and construction industry. Moisture transfer in masonry, being a multi-layered material, is not as straightforward as in homogeneous porous material. A first aspect is the dependence of moisture transport...

Integrated data and process control during BIM design - focused on integrated design of energy and indoor climate conditions

Niels Treldal & Niels Treldal
The use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) orientated work processes is gaining more and more momentum in the construction industry worldwide. At the same time, the demand for energy efficient and well climatised buildings increases. Using an integrated design process within the design team is seen as one of the best ways to achieve better performance of buildings during the design stage. The aim for this project is to define how an integrated design process...

Frost formation and condensation in stone-wool insulants

Tomas Vrana & Tomas Vrana
As the experience from building practice shows, condensation in insulating materials can result in serious reduction of thermal properties and, in consequence, systemic upset of living qualities in dwellings. Moisture in building insulants can also affect an increased dust contamination, algae or mold growth as well as damages due to the frost formation occuring in winter periods. An understanding about this is good for knowledge of processes when high thicknesses of thermal insulation are used...

The distribution of the air leakage places and thermal bridges in Finnish detached houses and apartment buildings

Targo Kalamees, Minna Korpi, Lari Eskola, Jarek Kurnitski, Juha Vinha & Targo Kalamees
Air leakage path affect infiltration and air pressure conditions in building. The main objectives of this study were to analyse the distribution of the air leakage places and thermal bridges in detached houses and apartment buildings. Field measurements have been carried out in 30 detached houses and 21 apartments during the years 2005-2007. To determine typical air leakages and thermal bridges and their distribution, an infrared image camera and a smoke detector were used during...

Wind washing - Pressure induced airflow through lightweight pitched roof constructions: Test roof element – measurements and simulation model HAM3D-VIE

Christoph Deseyve, Thomas Bednar & Christoph Deseyve
In the case of non ventilated compact roofs the wind tightness of the construction is usually warranted by a windproof underlay membrane and the flow resistance of the thermal insulation, as well as sealed eave and ridge details. Because of the current construction practice of wind tight layers in Austria there are numerous small leakages in the eaves, the ridge and the underlay area. Because of this and the low density and length of the...

Experimental Assessment of the Velocity Profile in a Rectangular Wind Tunnel

Goce Talev, Jan Vincent Thue, Arild Gustavsen & Goce Talev
A new open-loop, low-speed wind tunnel has been designed and constructed at NTNU in order to determine the convective mass transfer coefficient. It has a working section 0.45 m wide, 0.3 m high and 1 m long with a maximum wind speed of 10ms-1 under typical operating conditions. The design was specially constructed by need to provide a uniform air flow without excessive turbulence and to verify its adequate influence of the simulated external boundary...

Alkaline decomposition of alkali sensitive flooring materials - effect of concrete surface structure

Thale Sofie Wester Plesser, Peter Blom & Thale Sofie Wester Plesser
When resilient flooring is glued directly to a concrete surface there is a possibility that water based, acrylate flooring adhesives will undergo alkaline decomposition. Alkaline decomposition of alkali sensitive flooring adhesives is usually associated with high relative humidity in the concrete. There are some indications however, based on damages observed in the field, that the finishing technique used on the concrete floor and the method by which the flooring is bonded to the substrate may...

Title: ByggaF - A Method for Moisture Safety in the Building Process

Kristina Mjörnell, Jesper Arfvidsson & Kristina Mjörnell
Many buildings, both new and old ones suffer from moisture related problems, with negative consequences on health, costs for rebuilding and lost confidence in the building trade. These problems could have been avoided if moisture issues are focused on and dealt with throughout the building process. Therefore, a method for moisture safety in the building process has been developed. The purpose of the method is to help all actors to work with moisture safety activities...

The King’s House on the Schachen – Indoor Climate Analysis of a Cultural Heritage Building

Ralf Kilian, Andreas Holm & Ralf Kilian
The King’s House on the Schachen is an impressive example of late 19th century royal interior design from the times of King Ludwig II of Bavaria. The building is a wooden construction in Swiss Chalet Style with a standard interior in the lower floor and an eccentric oriental palace room on the entire upper floor. Situated in the Bavarian Alps on the Schachen Mountain opposite the Zugspitze at around 1800 m it faces a very...

Innovative and adaptable textile shaping system

Alexandra Saur, Klaus Sedlbauer & Alexandra Saur
For certain building applications textile industry offers many high-performance products which can outclass conventional systems. Examples are well known outdoor products which combine rain protection/water-repellence with high water vapour permeability by use of membranes or special fabric finishings. Innovative and adaptable textiles and functional membranes from the textile area are introduced and transformed to the building sector. New façade elements with functional multi layers and optical flexible textile outer skin are developed. This system may...

Moisture accumulation within porous bodies – simplified calculation method for indoor air humidity balance

Maciej Mijakowski & Maciej Mijakowski
The paper describes a simplified method of calculating moisture flows between indoor air and porous materials. The simplified method is based on dynamic heat transfer through the building partition – Thermal Response Factors (TRF). The paper presents examples of humidity step and impulse responses for different porous materials. Formula based on impulse responses was developed and simplified for practical calculation. Presented solution based on TRF methods is close to equation developed by A. TenWolde. Proposed...

Aspect Degradation of ETICS Due to Higrothermal Behaviour

Eva Barreira, Vasco P. De Freitas & Eva Barreira
The external thermal insulation systems for walls (expanded polystyrene insulation faced with a thin rendering) – ETICS, have been used in Portugal since the nineties. Although its thermal advantages, Portuguese buildings covered with ETICS are faced with a huge and yet unsolved problem: aspect degradation of the system as a result of microbiological growth. In the recent years, some studies have been carried out on this issue, but practical conclusions are not very satisfactory: so...

Thermal insulation solutions and heat losses analysis in the envelopes of low energy buildings

Energy price increase and climate changes force to look for new methods to reduce heat consumption in the buildings. In the cold climate countries the requirements set for the building insulation are rather strict (i.e. during the last 15 years heat transmittance through the external envelopes of the buildings constructed in Lithuania decreased 3-5 times), but still there are possibilities for heat loss reduction and energy saving by heating ventilated air. During the low energy...

Numerical Simulation Aided Design of an experimental protocol

Amandine Piot, Monika Woloszyn & Amandine Piot
A study was planned in order to improve the knowledge on heat, air and moisture transfers within light-weight buildings envelopes. In this aim, an experimental cell exposed to real climate, consisting of a small wooden frame structure and panel walls is being built. Its dimensions correspond to a common living-room (25m², 2,50 m high); the room can be heated, ventilated, and vapour can be produced. Instrumentation comprises the measurements of temperature and humidity, in the...

Lack of moisture control in the building process - Recommendations for multidisciplinary guidelines and management tools

Cecilie Flyen Øyen, Tore Kvande, Knut Noreng & Cecilie Flyen Øyen
Lack of moisture control and climate adaptation in the building process is a result of an increasing centralization and standardization in the construction sector. Climate challenges and development are not sufficiently attended in the building process. A brand new report from the SINTEF Building and Infrastructure program Climate 2000 concludes that the actors of the construction sector require and anticipate multidisciplinary guidelines to properly attend to process related moisture problems. This paper discusses the development...

The impact of design and walling material on indoor temperature distribution

Golden Makaka, Edson Meyer, Sampson Mamphweli, Michael McPherson & Golden Makaka
Wall materials play a critical role in determining the thermal performance of buildings. Most of the low cost housings in South Africa are characterized by poor thermal performance and the designs have no regard to passive solar design and building materials are of poor standards. Bricks made by small scale brick makers do not meet the requirements of the South African Building Code. There is need to add some ingredients such as fly ash to...

Energetic optimization of movie theatres

Kim Goethals, Wim Rommens, Arnold Janssens & Kim Goethals
Since the opening of the first air conditioned movie theatre, managers unremittingly improved the HVAC-installations, not only to grade up the comfort, but also to minimise the energy consumption. Generally, air handling units are used to maintain the indoor air quality and the thermal comfort. The energy use strongly depends on the ventilation concept and the control algorithms. This paper discusses possible interventions to reduce the energy consumption of movie theatres. First, the performance of...


Jurate Karbauskaite & Jurate Karbauskaite
THE ASSESSMENT OF INDOOR TEMPERATURE AT HEAT SUPPLY BREAK ACCORDING TO THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BUILDING ENVELOPE AND AIR TIGHTNESS J. Karbauskaite1, V.Stankevicius1, A. Burlingis1, R.Morkvenas2 1Kaunas Technology University, Institute of Architecture and Construction, Tunelio 60, Kaunas, LT-44405, Lithuania 2Kaunas Technology University, Faculty of Construction and Architecture Studentu 48, Kaunas, LT-51367, Lithuania SUMMARY The economical casualties could be of tremendous value with the restoration of the pipelines themselves, tenant relocation and other additional works if...

Moisture transport mechanisms analyzed by isotope method

Marcin Koniorczyk, Kjartan Gudmundsson, Gudni Johannesson & Marcin Koniorczyk
Isotopic differences of oxygen-18 and deuterium varies for several reactions and transport of moisture in building materials. It has recently been used in the fields of hydrogeology (Clark I.D. et al. 1989, Mazor E. 2004), geology (Javoy M. et al. 1986), and environmental science (Wagner R. et al. 2006). The preliminary research devoted to isotopes in Building Physics was performed by Gudmundsson (2001). Based on unique fingerprint of water sample its origin was revealed and...

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