331,473 Works

Long-Term Monitoring of Small Pellet Boiler Based Heating Systems in Domestic Applications

C. Schraube, T. Jung, J.-Y. Wilmotte, C. Mabilat & F. Castagno
Small pellet boilers (P < 70 kW) are considered as an established and widely spread technology for the heating of private dwellings and small commercial buildings. They are characterised by high thermal efficiency and are well suited for combination with solar collector systems. The performance of such dual heat source systems is however highly depending on the hydraulic scheme and the controlling strategy. For getting a better view on the parameters, which influence the performance...

Future Deployment of Cellulose Based Biofuels: Effect on Worldwide Trade

L. Pelkmans, D. Cuypers & D. Bradley
Future generation biofuels are expected to become commercial in the next 10 to 20 years, and an increasing demand will arise for ligno­cellulosic biomass. With increasing demand, international trade will become more important. The paper shows the results of an exploratory study performed within the framework of IEA Bioenergy Task 40, focusing on trade issues arising from the deployment of ligno­cellulose based biofuels. There are many uncertainties, not in the least in the expectations of...

Can the Region of Algarve, in Portugal, be Self Sustained Energetically?

A.L. Fernando, C. Bastos & B. Mendes
The aim of this study is to analyze the potentialities of bioenergy provision from biomass in the Region of Algarve, in Portugal. The Algarve energy market is based on large share of imported fossil fuels. The inland energy production represents only 2.3% of total electricity consumption and power production from bioresources amounts to only 8.5% of the total energy production. In this study, an estimation of the energy potential from bioresources is made, namely from...

Policy Options in Belgium to Support Biofuels Towards the 2020 Target of 10% Renewable Energy in Transport

L. Pelkmans, L. Gorissen, I. De Vlieger, J.-M. Jossart, L. Mertens, L. Turcksin, C. Macharis, F. Boureima, J. Van Mierlo, S. Bram & J. De Ruyck
Current Belgian legislation on biofuels is focused on the general introduction of low blends of biodiesel with diesel and bio-ethanol with gasoline through a tax reduction system for a specific producer quota. As the system was not working properly, from mid 2009 the Belgian government introduced an obligation system to blend at least 4% by volume biodiesel with diesel, and at least 4% by volume bio-ethanol with gasoline. Despite all actions it is clear though...

Soil Remediation with Energy Crops - A Renewable Energy Solution for Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils

R. Guisson, L. Van Ginneken, S. Vanslycken, E. Meers, F. Tack, A. Ruttens, N. Witters, T. Thewys, J. Vangronsveld, K. Adriaensen, S. De Schepper, E. Beeckman, J. Smis, A. Peene, J. Kegels, H. Fastenaekels & W. Dejonghe
In June 2007, a project started in Flanders (Belgium) in which phytoremediation will be applied to clean soils that are diffusely polluted with heavy metals. Uptake ranges of heavy metals by rape seed, maize and wheat will be enhanced by increasing the bioavailability of these heavy metals by the addition of biodegradable physico-chemical agents and by stimulating the heavy-metal uptake capacity of the microbial community in and around the plant. In addition, the harvested biomass...

The Ignitability (Explosion Group Classification) of Various Producer Gas Compositions

D. Mellitzer, M.B. Huber, J. Krueger, J. Scheffler & E. Brandes
Biomass gasification represents one of the most promising and effective methods to cover future energy demands. However the construction and the operation of a biomass gasification plant often involves difficulties. On the one hand the feed should have a stable and uniform composition to assure a certain quality of the producer gas. On the other hand there are explosion protection requirements because explosive gas/air mixtures may occur. Design features based on explosion protection requirements are...

The European Intelligent Energy Promotion Tour - Energy Union

M. Bißmann, R. Janssen, M. Black & B. Steirer
Within the pan­European campaign tour ‘Energy Union’, financially supported by the Intelligent Energy for Europe Programme, the subject of Intelligent Energy is being communicated to young people using highly innovative artistic techniques. The campaign tour encourages young people to become active in an unconventional and positive way, with the help of a language which people all over the world understand: the language of music and images. The pioneering band Coldcut from London has produced a...

Improvement of the Energy Flux of a Multi-Staged Gasification System by Employing Pinch Analysis

B. Plank, M.B. Huber, A.A.L. Giovannini & M.G. Schnitzlein
The multi-stage gasification systems represent one of the most promising methods to generate clean energy in future. Because of the worldwide increasing energy demand and the associated CO2 increase this system has to be improved to gain the most out of this process and to decrease its energy consumption. [1] The thermo­chemical process of the multi-stage gasification gives, on closer examination, some possibilities to accomplish energy savings. The pinch analysis is one of the most...

Acid hydrolysed Pine Sawdust as an Activated Carbon Low-Cost Substitute for Chromium(VI) Adsorption

D.K. Sidiras & D. Politi
Batch kinetics of Chromium (VI) adsorption on sulfuric acid treated pine sawdust was simulated, using untreated pine sawdust as control, in order to explore the potential use of this low-cost adsorbent for wastewater Chromium (VI) removal. A Severity Factor X was introduced to incorporate the effect of the pre-treatment time and the acid hydrolysis catalyst concentration on the pine sawdust adsorption properties. X is an explanatory variable for identifying biomass adsorption parameters as affected by...

A New Methodological Study to Allocate Energy Crops at Different Scale Levels: a Multidirectional Approach

N. Di Virgilio, S. Fazio, A.L. Fernando & A. Monti
Generally, the land allocation scenarios for biomass crops are based on crop requirements and environmental characteristics, mostly including climate and soil variables, whereas the backward crop effect on the same environment have been poorly considered or totally ignored. Nonetheless, despite the crop performance can be considerable under specific conditions, the environmental vulnerability to a crop-specific impact could lead to negative consequences. A crop could be in fact well adapted to a given environment in term...

Catalysts in the Fluidized Bed and in the Freeboard of a Biomass Gasifier

S. Rapagnà, K. Gallucci, M. Di Marcello & P.U. Foscolo
Continuous catalytic steam gasification runs have been performed using a bubbling fluidized bed gasi.er with an internal diameter of 0.10 m, in a temperature range of 800 – 830°C. The biomass feedstock consists of crushed almond shells, with an average particle Sauter diameter of 1054 .m. Gas cleaning and conditioning is performed coupling the effect of a catalytic filter candle in the freeboard, delivered by Pall Schumacher GmbH, with a catalytic bed inventory made of...

Advances Gained During ANAPUR Project for Inorganic Trace Measurements in Syngas from Steam Gasification of Woody Biomass

F. Defoort, S. Thiery, P. Castelli, A. Puech, B. Grangier, S. Ravel, J. Guillaudeau, C. Verne-Tournon, O. Guerrini & A. Louvat
The project ANAPUR (2007 -2009) aims at improving and simplifying gas sampling and quantification methods for a large range of tars and inorganic compounds regarding the detection threshold and 2nd operating limits from industrial systems in the steam gasification of biomass for SNG or generation fuel production. Some developments were necessary with model gas to adapt on-line FTIR and off-line NH3 washing bottle train to measure ppmV levels in a gas from steam gasification process....

Lignin Solvolysis: Upscaling of the Lignin-To-Liquid Conversion Process towards Technical Applicability

J.R. Gasson, M. Kleinert, T. Barth, D. Forchheim, E. Sahin, A. Kruse & I. Eide
A novel method of converting lignin and lignin-rich residues by hydro-deoxygenation in a formic acid/alcohol reaction medium has been further investigated in terms of fuel properties. Results from upscaling from 5 mL lab scale reactors to a 1 L reactor show positive results in terms of gas composition and transferability to a larger scale. Minor changes in the molecular weight distribution are found in ESI-MS spectra of the products from the two reactors, but the...

Emissions from Bioenergy: Improved Accounting Options and New Policy Needs

D.N. Bird, A. Cowie, D. Frieden, L. Gustavsson, N. Pena, K. Pingoud, S. Rueter, R. Sathre, S. Soimakallio, A. Tuerk, S. Woess-Gallasch & G. Zanchi
A recent paper by Searchinger [1] highlighted that Annex-I nations do not count CO2 emissions due to combustion of biomass in their commitments. This is because it is assumed that emissions from use of biomass are accounted for in the land use sector, where they should appear as reductions in carbon stocks. However, if the biomass comes from a non-Annex I country, these reductions are not counted within the Kyoto Protocol. Indeed, even Annex I...

Overview of the DOE Programme for Promoting Bioenergy Sector

V. Lightner
The DOE Biomass Program partners with industry, academia, and national laboratory on research and development in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies and deployment through integrated biorefineries. The Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower. The Biomass Program outlook and opportunities will be presented.

Effects of Slurry Composting and Biofiltration Liquid Fertilizer on Growth and Fruiting of Chestnut

S. Hwang, U. Lee & K.-Y. Lee
The study was conducted to investigate the availability of Slurry Composting and Biofiltration (SCB) liquid fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer for growth and fruiting of chestnut trees. SCB liquid fertilizer is made from livestock manure through Composting and filtration through sawdust and is used as fertilizer. The experiment was conducted from April 2008 to september 2009 using seven-year-old grafting trees 'Tsukuba'. We used SCB liquid fertilizer, chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer to compare the effect...

The 5B: Biomass in Bavaria: Bioresources, Bioenergy and Businesses

W. Ortinger & R. Schäfer
Potential, macro­economic effects and goals of bio­energy in Bavaria for the year 2020 are presented. These goals are embedded within the Bavarian Climate Strategy 2020. So, the role of bio­energy in Bavaria can be defined as a living and dynamic part of the EU Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, dated 23 April 2009. The question is how politics and...

Spray Combustion Characteristics and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid (Bio-Oil) in a Swirl Stabilized Burner

T. Tzanetakis, N. Farra, S. Moloodi, A. McGrath & M.J. Thomson
Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid (or bio-oil) is a cellulose based alternative fuel with the potential to displace fossil fuels in stationary heat and power applications. To better understand the combustion behaviour and emissions of bio-oil, a 10 kW spray burner was designed and constructed. The effect of swirl, ignition source energy, atomization quality, air/fuel preheat and equivalence ratio on the stability and emissions of bio-oil spray flames was investigated. Since the fuel is not fully...

Forest Biomass Supply Logistics Planning for a Commercial-Scale Biorefinery

T. Ranta, O.-J. Korpinen, E. Jäppinen & K. Karttunen
Finnish forest companies aim to produce biodiesel based on the Fischer-Tropsch process from forest residues. This study presents method to evaluate biomass availability and supply costs to the selected biorefinery site. Forest-owners’ willingness to sell, buyers’ market share, and regional competition were taken into account when biomass availability was evaluated. Supply logistics was based either on direct truck transportation deliveries from forest or on railway/waterway transportation via regional terminals. The large biomass need of a...

Combustion of Clean Biomass at High Steam Parameters of 540°C - Results from a New 120 MWth Unit

M. Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, A. Wojik, F. Gartnar, I. Tschanun & S. Kaiser
Biomass fuel exists in various forms, traditionally as wood, bark, harvesting residues sewage sludge and organic waste resulting from agricultural industry. With the actual on or near site availability of biomass fuels and the trend for independent power production the demand for reliable biomass fired power plants is increasing. To satisfy this demand, a combustion technology, which can cope with a broad fuel range as well as with low ash melting points, and is able...

Relative Profitability of Short Rotation Crop Resources for Biofuels: Impacts of Biomass Yield and Technology of Densification. Softwood Residues and Miscanthus Applications.

J. Poustis
Bioenergy using wood and non-wood cellulosic fibers as an alternative energy source is getting a huge amount of attention. The autor analyzes the economics and feasibility of harvesting, handling transporting and integrating wood and non-wood cellulosic fibers from operations in order to match the various components of the fuel supply chain. Focussed to biomass energy, a simple sensitivity analysis was carried out at the Aquitaine Region ( Southern of France) with increasing biomass yield of...

New Plastic Materials Starting from Renewable Resources - Synthesis and Properties.

L. Crépy, N. Joly, P. Martin, A. Marin & V. Miri
A series of cellulose esters (CEs) were obtained by grafting aliphatic acid chlorides (carbon chain length ranging from 8C to 18C) onto cellulose backbone, in a homogeneous lithium chloride/N,N­dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc) medium. These CEs were characterized by FT­IR and 1H­NMR spectroscopies and were converted into films by casting. Then, they were submitted to thermal, mechanical, thermomechanical and structural analysis, using Differencial Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), uniaxial tensile tests, Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) and X­Ray diffraction, respectively....

GIS and LCA Methods Combined for Lower Biowaste Transportation Emissions

E. Jäppinen & O.-J. Korpinen
This study focuses on how to improve biowaste transportation logistics through geographical allocation of operating districts for transportation companies. The question whether waste collecting transportations from households should be publicly organized or left up to the citizens to decide by themselves is a quite debated subject in Finland at the moment. The model used depends on the region, and there is no clear consensus on their benefits and drawbacks. This study evaluates the effects on...

Forest Fuel Availability, Harvesting Costs and Economy of Wood Fired CHP in Europe in the Light of Case Studies in Poland, Czech Republic, France and Western Russia (2005-2009)

M. Virkkunen, A. Leinonen, J. Raitila, M. Flyktman & V.-P. Heiskanen
The aim of the case studies was to evaluate the wood biomass availability for fuel to find cost-effective wood fuel production technology and to calculate the wood fuel supply costs in each study location. Also the most suitable combustion technology was evaluated and heat and power production costs and the associate emissions of heat and power production in CHP power plant were estimated. Four case studies were implemented between 2005 and 2009. These studies aimed...

Life Cycle Analysis of Short Rotation Coppice through the Example of Eucalyptus and Poplar for Bioenergy in France

N. Nguyen Thé, P. Maupu, B. Gabrielle & E. Vial
Numerous international and French policies are nowadays promoting renewable energy sources such as biomass. Among possible sources (waste, forest, straw, etc.), dedicated energy crops such as Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) are being studied. Grown on agricultural lands, they enable the production of a well qualified biomass under easy harvestable conditions and give the opportunity to reduce possible competition with other forest resource utilizations. Beside technical, social and economical aspects, environmental issues are now important to...

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  • 2010

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