1,410,389 Works

Water Evaporation Coefficient

Rachael Miles, Allen Haddrell & Jonathan Reid
The kinetics of water droplet evaporation have been measured using a cylindrical electrodynamic balance, recording the evolving size of droplets over time. Measurements have been made over a range of temperatures extending from 248 to 293 K. From these data, the vapour pressure of water (including under super-cooled conditions) has been inferred. A constraint has also been placed on the value of the evaporation coefficient. This work was undertaken as part of the NERC grant...

Le renouveau de la piraterie internationale

Amélie-Anne Flagel
En 2012 sévissent encore des pirates sur les mers du globe. Alors qu’on les pensait moribonds ou noyés dans la masse des terroristes, les pirates ont fait une réapparition marquée sur la scène internationale et dans les préoccupations des juristes. L’enjeu est d’adapter le droit international, consensuel et souple, aux obligations qui naissent fatalement de la répression d’une infraction internationale. La tâche est difficile car c’est la recherche d’un équilibre entre un ordre juridique contraignant...

La vision de l’espace littoral sur l’île Wallis et l’atoll Rangiroa dans le contexte du changement climatique : Une analyse anthropologique de la perception des populations locales

Elisabeth Worliczek
Ce travail de thèse analyse la perception locale des changements de l’environnement, et plus précisément, celle du changement climatique. Les deux terrains étudiés sont l’île de Wallis (Wallis et Futuna) et l’atoll de Rangiroa (Polynésie Française), qui se distinguent par leur géomorphologie et leur organisation sociale, bien que faisant partie, toutes deux, de l’ensemble francophone du Pacifique sud et de la région culturelle polynésienne. Il s’agit de comprendre la vision de la population locale sur...

Caractérisation Biochimique et Moléculaire de Mécanismes de la Germination d’Espèces Endémiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie

Matthieu Villegente
La Nouvelle-Calédonie possède une flore riche, diverse et unique au monde. Sa forte endémicité (74,7%) résulte en partie de l’origine gondwanienne de la flore et de la forte pression de sélection exercée par les sols ultramafiques, riches en éléments traces métalliques, dont le nickel. Si cet élément fait la richesse du pays par son exploitation minière, cette dernière, ainsi que l’anthropisation du territoire engendrent une détérioration des écosystèmes. Dans le cadre de la dynamique mondiale...

PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AND TRACE METALS IN SEDIMENTS CLOSE TO SCOTTISH MARINE FISH FARMS

Russell Marie
There are concerns about the environmental impact of aquaculture to the seabed close to fish farm cages, including potential effects from persistent organic pollutants and trace metals. Samples of sediments from aquaculture areas in the Western Isles (3 sea lochs), the north-west coast of Scotland (3 sea lochs) and from the Shetland Isles (3 sea lochs or voes) were collected in 2005 and 2006 and concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated...

Review of migratory routes and behaviour of Atlantic salmon, sea trout and European eel in Scotland’s coastal environment: implications for the development of marine renewables

Malcolm I A
The Scottish Government has ambitious targets for renewable energy production, to which offshore renewables could make a substantial contribution. However, the new marine energy industries must develop on a sustainable basis, ensuring that environmental impacts are assessed, and if necessary, minimised through appropriate mitigation. The likelihood of any impacts on Atlantic salmon, sea trout or European eels will depend on interactions between (1) migratory routes and behaviour (2) the distribution of offshore developments (3) the...

EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report

A key concern expressed by policy makers, regulators and environmental stakeholders about deployment of marine energy devices in open waters relates to the possibility of negative impacts they may have on marine mammals and diving birds. The potential for direct collision with such devices, or harmful effects caused by their presence, including the potential for displacement of marine wildlife from habitual waters, are issues which need to be addressed. In order to get as accurate...

in Scottish Deep Water Fish

Webster L
Halogenated persistent organic pollutants [chlorobiphenyls (CBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)], along with total lipid, were measured in the liver and muscle of two species of deep water fish (black scabbard and roundnose grenadier) collected from the Rockall Trough, to the west of Scotland, during 2007. The data was compared with that obtained from a similar survey conducted in 2006, and which has recently been published. CB concentrations (SICES7 CBs) greater than 500...

Aessessment of the \"State\" of the Demersal Fish Communities in OSPAR regions II, III, IV and V

To date, OSPAR has largely been responsible for the development of an ecosystem approach to the management of marine natural resources. Ten Ecological Quality Issues have been identified, with the intention of setting Ecological Quality Objectives (EcoQOs) for each issue. Since 2000, this scheme has been developed and piloted in the North Sea. Fish Communities is the fifth in the list of Ecological Quality Issues, and is considered to be one of three community-level issues....

Implementation and Perceptual Evaluation of a Simulation Method for Coupled Rooms in Higher Order Ambisonics

Giso Grimm, Torben Wendt, Volker Hohmann & Stephan D Ewert
A fast and perceptively plausible method for rendering acoustic scenarios with moving sources and moving listeners is presented. The method is principally suited for application in dynamic and interactive evaluation environments (e.g., for hearing aid development), psycho-physics with adaptively changing the spatial configuration, or simulation and computer games. The simulation distinguishes between the direct sound, sound reflected and diffracted by objects of limited size, diffuse sound surrounding the listener, e.g., diffuse background sounds and diffuse...

Interactive Acoustic Virtual Environments Using Distributed Room Acoustic Simulations

Frank Wefers, Jonas Stienen, Sönke Pelzer & Michael Vorländer
This publication presents how the computational resources of PC clusters can be used to realize low-latency room acoustic simulations for comprehensive virtual scenes. A benefit is not only to realize more complex scenes (including a multitude of sound sources, acoustically coupled-rooms with sound transmission), but also to minimize the system response times for prototyping applications (e.g. interactive change of materials or geometry) in simpler applications. PC clusters prove to be a suitable platform for room...

Perceptual and Room Acoustical Evaluation of a Computational Efficient Binaural Room Impulse Response Simulation Method

Torben Wendt, Steven Van De Par & Stephan D Ewert
A fast and perceptively plausible method for synthesizing binaural room impulse responses (BRIR) is presented. The method is principally suited for application in dynamic and interactive evaluation environments (e. g., for hearing aid development), psychophysics with adaptively changing room reverberation, or simulation and computer games. In order to achieve a low computational cost, the proposed method is based on a hybrid approach. Using the image source model (ISM; Allen and Berkley [J.Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol....

Exploration of a Biologically Inspired Model for Sound Source Localization In 3D Space

Symeon Mattes, Philip Nelson, Filippo Fazi & Michael Capp
Sound localization in 3D space relies on a variety of auditory cues resulting from the encoding provided by the lower and higher regions of the auditory path. During the last 50 years different theories and models have been developed to describe psychoacoustic phenomena in sound localization inspired by the processing that is undertaken in the human auditory system. In this paper, a biologically inspired model of human sound localization is described and the encoding of...

The Impact of the White Noise Gain (WNG) of a Virtual Artificial Head on the Appraisal of Binaural Sound Reproduction

Eugen Rasumow, Matthias Blau, Martin Hansen, Simon Doclo, Steven Van De Par, Volker Mellert & Dirk Püschel
As an individualized alternative to traditional artificial heads, individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) can be synthesized with a microphone array and digital filtering. This strategy is referred to as "virtual artificial head" (VAH). The VAH filter coefficients are calculated by incorporating regularization to account for small errors in the characteristics and/or the position of the microphones. A common way to increase robustness is to impose a socalled white noise gain (WNG) constraint. The higher the...

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audiomediennutzung in Deutschland - Audioemitter - Genutzte Audioemitter 2012 - Vielseitig-Audiophile

Steffen Lepa
Wo kam 2012 die Musik heraus? Mit Audioemittern sind jene technischen Objekte gemeint, die mit Audiogeräten verbunden werden, um Audioquellen hörbar zu machen. Dazu gehören Kopfhörer und Lautsprechersysteme mit verschiedenen Wiedergabeformaten (mono, stereo, surround) und in unterschiedlichen Varianten (In-Ear-Kopfhörer, großer Hifi-Kopfhörer, integrierte Lautsprecher, Dockingstation etc..). Die Vielseitig-Audiophilen, welche typischerweise zwischen 1970 und 1992 geboren und mit 10,1 % das am wenigsten verbreitete Nutzungsmuster sind, bedienen sich nicht nur aus dem breitesten Repertoire an Audiomedien zur...

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audiomediennutzung in Deutschland - Audioemitter - Genutzte Audioemitter 2012 - Vielseitige Traditionalisten

Steffen Lepa
Wo kam 2012 die Musik heraus? Mit Audioemittern sind jene technischen Objekte gemeint, die mit Audiogeräten verbunden werden, um Audioquellen hörbar zu machen. Dazu gehören Kopfhörer und Lautsprechersysteme mit verschiedenen Wiedergabeformaten (mono, stereo, surround) und in unterschiedlichen Varianten (In-Ear-Kopfhörer, großer Hifi-Kopfhörer, integrierte Lautsprecher, Dockingstation etc..). Das in Deutschland mit 25,6 % am weitesten verbreitete Audiorepertoire sind die Vielseitigen Traditionalisten. Bei seinen zumeist zwischen 1944 bis 1964 geborenen Vertretern erfreut sich das Radio der größten Beliebtheit....

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audiomediennutzung in Deutschland - Audiogeräte - Genutzte Audiogeräte 2012 - Vielseitige Traditionalisten

Steffen Lepa
Womit wurde in 2012 Musik wiedergegeben? Mit Audiogeräten sind technische Geräte gemeint, die den Zugriff auf und die Wiedergabe von Audioquellen ermöglichen. Dazu gehören CD-Player, Plattenspieler, Kassettenrecorder, MP3-Player und Smartphones, aber auch der Computer und unterschiedliche multimediale Entertainmentgeräte, welche auch zur Musikrezeption genutzt werden können. Das in Deutschland mit 25,6 % am weitesten verbreitete Audiorepertoire sind die Vielseitigen Traditionalisten. Bei seinen zumeist zwischen 1944 bis 1964 geborenen Vertretern erfreut sich das Radio der größten Beliebtheit....

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audiomediennutzung in Deutschland - Audioquellen - Genutzte Audioquellen 2012 - Vielseitige Traditionalisten

Steffen Lepa
Wo kam die Musik 2012 im Alltag her? Mit Audioquellen sind Distributionswege gemeint, über die Musik erworben, archiviert und verfügbar gemacht werden kann. Dazu gehören physische Tonträger (CD, LP, MC etc.), elektronische Dienste für den Download oder das Streaming von digitalen Musikinhalten (iTunes, last.fm, Spotify etc.), aber auch der rundfunkbasierte Radioempfang und schließlich Musikangebote auf Webseiten oder digitalen Datenträgern. Das in Deutschland mit 25,6 % am weitesten verbreitete Audiorepertoire sind die Vielseitigen Traditionalisten. Bei seinen...

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audio Media Usage in Germany - Audio Emitters - Audio Emitters used in 2012 - Digital Mobilists

Steffen Lepa
Where did the sound emanate from in 2012? Audio Emitters comprise those technical objects that are connected to Audio Devices in order to make Audio Sources audible. This category includes headphones and loudspeakers with both diverse sound formats (mono, stereo, surround) as well as various device types (Headphones: small, standard, HiFi; Loudspeakers: integrated models, single components and docking stations). Typically born between 1979 and 1998, the Digital Mobilists constitute the youngest user type and comprise...

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audiomediennutzung in Deutschland - Klassenzugehörigkeit nach Geburtsjahrgang

Steffen Lepa
Audiorepertoires sind weit verbreitete Muster des Gebrauchs von Audiotechnologien zum Musikhören im Alltag, die sich auch als “Nutzertypen” interpretieren lassen. Sie wurden im Survey Musik und Medien 2012 auf Basis der deutschlandweit erhobenen repräsentativen Audiomediennutzungsdaten gebildet. Menschen hören ihre Musik heute mit ganz unterschiedlichen Geräten, Infrastrukturen und Technologien und kombinieren die unterschiedlichen Möglichkeiten im Alltag oft auch miteinander. Daher ist es sinnvoll, die alltägliche Audiomediennutzung als komplexe Verknüpfung unterschiedlicher Medientechnologien auszuwerten und zu interpretieren –...

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audio Media Usage in Germany - Audio Repertoires by birth cohorts

Steffen Lepa
Audio Repertoires are widespread patterns regarding the use of audiotechnologies in everyday life which may also be interpreted as “user types”. They were identified in Survey Musik und Medien 2012 based on the nationwide collected representative Audio Usage Data. Nowadays, people listen to music by means of various different devices, infrastructures and technologies. Furthermore, people often tend to combine those options within their daily routines. Therefore, it is reasonable to analyze and interpret everyday Audio...

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audio Media Usage in Germany - Audio Devices - Audio Devices used in 2012

Steffen Lepa
By what means was music played back in 2012? Audio Devices comprise technical devices that permit access to and enable playback of Audio Sources. This includes CD players, record players, cassette recorders, MP3 player and smartphones but also computers and various multimedia entertainment devices that allow music use.

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audio Media Usage in Germany - Audio Devices - Audio Devices used in 2012 - Selective Traditionalists

Steffen Lepa
By what means was music played back in 2012? Audio Devices comprise technical devices that permit access to and enable playback of Audio Sources. This includes CD players, record players, cassette recorders, MP3 player and smartphones but also computers and various multimedia entertainment devices that allow music use. 11,6 % of our participants may be described as Selective Traditionalists who are typically born between 1955 and 1975. The radio is the dominant audio source used...

Survey Musik und Medien 2012: Audio Media Usage in Germany - Audio Emitters - Audio Emitters used in 2012 - Radio Traditionalists

Steffen Lepa
Where did the sound emanate from in 2012? Audio Emitters comprise those technical objects that are connected to Audio Devices in order to make Audio Sources audible. This category includes headphones and loudspeakers with both diverse sound formats (mono, stereo, surround) as well as various device types (Headphones: small, standard, HiFi; Loudspeakers: integrated models, single components and docking stations). Radio Traditionalists are represented in various age groups, and may be born in 1920 as well...

Wind-up system for a Lever Operated Pivoting Float-Buoy

A. A. Frederiksen, A. G. Andersen, K. J. Juul, M. L. Bernitt, P. R. Nielsen & R. Katkjær
INTRODUCTION The project that this abstract revolves around is being prepared in connection with the course Project Work (41801) and focuses on the construction of a wind-up system for a Lever Operated Pivoting Float-buoy (LOPF) in cooperation with Resen Waves. The purpose of the buoy is to transform energy from waves in the ocean to electrical energy. The system is put in place to allow for the buoy to move with the waves in the...

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