92 Works

Prevalence of Prejudice-Denoting Words in News Media Discourse: A Chronological Analysis

David Rozado, Musa Al-Gharbi & Jamin Halberstadt
This work analyzes the prevalence of words denoting prejudice in 27 million news and opinion articles written between 1970 and 2019 and published in 47 of the most popular news media outlets in the United States. Our results show that the frequency of words that denote specific prejudice types related to ethnicity, gender, sexual, and religious orientation has markedly increased within the 2010–2019 decade across most news media outlets. This phenomenon starts prior to, but...

Outcome of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after PSMA PET/CT-directed radiotherapy or surgery without systemic therapy

Sara Harsini, Don Wilson, Heather Saprunoff, Hayley Allan, Martin Gleave, Larry Goldenberg, Kim N. Chi, Charmaine Kim-Sing, Scott Tyldesley & François Bénard
Abstract Background Radiotherapy (RT) and surgery are potential treatment options in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following primary prostate cancer treatment. This study examines the value of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-informed surgery and RT in patients with BCR treated without systemic therapy. Methods This is a post-hoc subgroup analysis of a prospective clinical trial. Inclusion criteria were: histologically proven prostate cancer at initial curative-intent treatment, BCR after primary treatment with...

The relationship between sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor in migration and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma

Adjabhak Wongviriya, Richard M. Shelton, Paul R. Cooper, Michael R. Milward & Gabriel Landini
Abstract Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator and its binding to the S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) is reported to regulate cytoskeletal organization. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to induce migration and invasion in tumour cells. Since binding of S1P to S1PR2 and EGF to the EGF receptors exhibit some overlapping functionality, this study aimed to determine whether S1PR2 was involved in EGF-induced migration and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lines and...

DNA methylation patterns at birth predict health outcomes in young adults born very low birthweight

Vicky A. Cameron, Gregory T. Jones, L. John Horwood, Anna P. Pilbrow, Julia Martin, Chris Frampton, Wendy T. Ip, Richard W. Troughton, Charlotte Greer, Jun Yang, Michael J. Epton, Sarah L. Harris & Brian A. Darlow
Abstract Background Individuals born very low birthweight (VLBW) are at increased risk of impaired cardiovascular and respiratory function in adulthood. To identify markers to predict future risk for VLBW individuals, we analyzed DNA methylation at birth and at 28 years in the New Zealand (NZ) VLBW cohort (all infants born < 1500 g in NZ in 1986) compared with age-matched, normal birthweight controls. Associations between neonatal methylation and cardiac structure and function (echocardiography), vascular function...

Impact of removing prescription co-payments on the use of costly health services: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

Pauline Norris, Kim Cousins, Simon Horsburgh, Shirley Keown, Marianna Churchward, Ariyapala Samaranayaka, Alesha Smith & Carlo Marra
Abstract Objectives To determine whether exempting people (with high health needs and living in areas of high deprivation) from a $5 prescription charge reduces hospital use. Design Two-group parallel prospective randomised controlled trial. Setting People living in the community in various regions of New Zealand. Participants One thousand sixty one people who lived in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation, and either took medicines for diabetes, took antipsychotic medicines, or had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

What do health care professionals want to know about assisted dying? Setting the research agenda in New Zealand

Jessica Young, Jeanne Snelling, Sophie Beaumont, Kate Diesfeld, Ben White, Lindy Willmott, Jacqualine Robinson, Annabel Ahuriri-Driscoll, Gary Cheung, Aida Dehkhoda, Richard Egan, James Jap, Te Hurinui Karaka-Clarke, Leanne Manson, Cam McLaren & Janine Winters
Abstract Background New Zealand recently introduced law permitting terminally ill people to request and receive assisted dying (AD) in specified circumstances. Given the nature and complexity of this new health service, research is vital to determine how AD is operating in practice. Objective To identify research priorities regarding the implementation and delivery of AD in New Zealand. Methods Using an adapted research prioritisation methodology, the researchers identified 15 potential AD research topics. A mixed-methods survey...

Patient participation in defining best-practice rheumatology service provision in Aotearoa New Zealand: a qualitative study with service consumers

Rachel Ngan Kee, Valerie Milne, Nicola Dalbeth & Rebecca Grainger
Abstract Background Aotearoa New Zealand (AoNZ) has no agreed models for rheumatology service provision in government-funded health care. We aimed to describe what people with inflammatory rheumatic diseases who have used rheumatology services view as being important in those services, and map these views to previously collated statements describing best practice components of rheumatology services from international recommendations. If these statements did not capture all service aspects that people with inflammatory rheumatic diseases considered important,...

Still in the shadows: a national study of acute mental health unit location across New Zealand hospitals

Anne Lian, Gawen Carr, Debbie Peterson, Gabrielle Jenkin, Helen Lockett, Susanna Every-Palmer & Ruth Cunningham
Abstract Background This study aimed to explore the location of acute mental health inpatient units in general hospitals by mapping their location relative to hospital facilities and community facilities and to compare their proximity to hospital facilities with that of general medical acute units. Methods We obtained Google maps and hospital site maps for all New Zealand public hospitals. Geographic data were analysed and mental health units’ locations in relation to hospital facilities and public...

Short and medium-term effects of the COVID-19 lockdowns on child and parent accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time: a natural experiment

Russell Jago, Ruth Salway, Danielle House, Robert Walker, Lydia Emm-Collison, Kate Sansum, Katie Breheny, Tom Reid, Sarah Churchward, Joanna G. Williams, Charlie Foster, William Hollingworth & Frank de Vocht
Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in marked impacts on children’s physical activity, with large reductions in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) reported during lockdowns. Previous evidence showed children’s activity levels were lower and sedentary time higher immediately post-COVID lockdown, while there was little change in parental physical activity. We need to know if these patterns persist. Methods Active-6 is a natural experiment using repeated cross-sectional data conducted in two waves. Accelerometer data were collected...

Evaluating an emotion coaching programme for parents of young adolescents attending Child Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in New Zealand: protocol for a multi-site feasibility trial including co-design with service users

Zara Mansoor, James Stanley, Sarah Fortune, Sophie Havighurst & Elliot Bell
Abstract Background Early adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability for the development of common mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression (internalising outcomes). Current treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy and antidepressant medication are focused on the individual and have small effect sizes, particularly in real-world clinical settings such as the public Child Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). Parents are an important and under-utilised resource in treating these conditions in young adolescents. Teaching parents...

Distribution and diversity of organisms in tomb soil excavated in the laboratory: a case study of tomb M88 from Sujialong Cultural Property, China

Lei Zhu, Qin Fang & Tianxiao Li
Abstract Microbial communities in tomb soil change during archaeological excavation, and these changes can accelerate the deterioration of buried heritage. In this study, a high-throughput sequencing method was used to analyze the soil microbial diversity of tomb M88 from the Sujialong Cultural Property after careful excavation in the laboratory. The phylum of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Ascomycota predominated in the tomb soil, and the dominant genera, Pseudarthrobacter, Penicillium, and Cladosporium, showed the potential to degrade residual...

High density linkage maps, genetic architecture, and genomic prediction of growth and wood properties in Pinus radiata

Jules S. Freeman, Gancho T. Slavov, Jakob B. Butler, Tancred Frickey, Natalie J. Graham, Jaroslav Klápště, John Lee, Emily J. Telfer, Phillip Wilcox & Heidi S. Dungey
Abstract Background The growing availability of genomic resources in radiata pine paves the way for significant advances in fundamental and applied genomic research. We constructed robust high-density linkage maps based on exome-capture genotyping in two F1 populations, and used these populations to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) scans, genomic prediction and quantitative analyses of genetic architecture for key traits targeted by tree improvement programmes. Results Our mapping approach used probabilistic error correction of the marker...

Effects of a targeted resistance intervention compared to a sham intervention on gluteal muscle hypertrophy, fatty infiltration and strength in people with hip osteoarthritis: analysis of secondary outcomes from a randomised clinical trial

Zachary P. J. Rostron, Anita Zacharias, Adam I. Semciw, Michael Kingsley, Tania Pizzari, Stephanie J. Woodley & Rodney Green
Abstract Background People with hip osteoarthritis are typically offered a combination of education and exercise to address muscle atrophy and weakness. Limited evidence exists to assess the efficacy of exercise programs on muscle structure or function in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of targeted resistance exercise on gluteal muscle hypertrophy and strength in people with mild-to-moderate hip osteoarthritis. Methods Twenty-seven participants with radiologically confirmed hip osteoarthritis recruited from...

The strike-slip influenced stratigraphic and structural development of the Foula Sandstone Group, Shetland: implications for offshore Devonian basin development in the northern UKCS

T. A. G. Utley, R. E. Holdsworth, G. A. Blackbourn, E. Dempsey, R. A. Strachan, K. J. W. McCaffrey, A. C. Morton, A. F. Bird, R. R. Jones, A. Saßnowski & R. J. Walker
Abstract: The island of Foula located 25 km SW of Shetland preserves a gently folded, 1.6 km thick sequence of Middle Devonian sandstones spectacularly exposed in kilometre-long cliff sections over 350 m high. These rocks unconformably overlie likely Precambrian-age amphibolite facies basement rocks, intruded by sheeted granites. The onshore succession is similar in age to the nearby Lower Clair Group offshore to the west. New mapping which incorporates use of drone imagery in inaccessible cliff...

Genomic trajectories of a near-extinction event in the Chatham Island black robin

Johanna von Seth, Tom van der Valk, Edana Lord, Hanna Sigeman, Remi-André Olsen, Michael Knapp, Olga Kardailsky, Fiona Robertson, Marie Hale, Dave Houston, Euan Kennedy, Love Dalén, Karin Norén, Melanie Massaro, Bruce C. Robertson & Nicolas Dussex
Abstract Background Understanding the micro-­evolutionary response of populations to demographic declines is a major goal in evolutionary and conservation biology. In small populations, genetic drift can lead to an accumulation of deleterious mutations, which will increase the risk of extinction. However, demographic recovery can still occur after extreme declines, suggesting that natural selection may purge deleterious mutations, even in extremely small populations. The Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi) is arguably the most inbred bird...

DNA methylome in pancreatic cancer identified novel promoter hyper-methylation in NPY and FAIM2 genes associated with poor prognosis in Indian patient cohort

Ankita Chatterjee, Akash Bararia, Debopriyo Ganguly, Pronoy Kanti Mondal, Paromita Roy, Sudeep Banerjee, Shibajyoti Ghosh, Sumit Gulati, Supriyo Ghatak, Bitan Kumar Chattopadhay, Priyadarshi Basu, Aniruddha Chatterjee & Nilabja Sikdar
Abstract Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading cancers worldwide and has a poor survival, with a 5-year survival rate of only 8.5%. In this study we investigated altered DNA methylation associated with PDAC severity and prognosis. Methods Methylome data, generated using 450 K bead array, was compared between paired PDAC and normal samples in the TCGA cohort (n = 9) and our Indian cohort (n = 7). The total Indian Cohort...

New tools for the investigation of muscle fiber-type spatial distributions across histological sections

Anna K. Redmond, Tilman M. Davies, Matthew R. Schofield & Philip W. Sheard
Abstract Background The functional and metabolic properties of skeletal muscles are partly a function of the spatial arrangement of fibers across the muscle belly. Many muscles feature a non-uniform spatial pattern of fiber types, and alterations to the arrangement can reflect age or disease and correlate with changes in muscle mass and strength. Despite the significance of this event, descriptions of spatial fiber-type distributions across a muscle section are mainly provided qualitatively, by eye. Whilst...

Engagement over telehealth: comparing attendance between dialectical behaviour therapy delivered face-to-face and via telehealth for programs in Australia and New Zealand during the Covid-19 pandemic

Carla J. Walton, Sharleen Gonzalez, Emily B. Cooney, Lucy Leigh & Stuart Szwec
Abstract Background While the COVID-19 crisis has had numerous global negative impacts, it has also presented an imperative for mental health care systems to make digital mental health interventions a part of routine care. Accordingly, through necessity, many Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) programs transitioned to telehealth, despite little information on clinical outcomes compared with face-to-face treatment delivery. This study examined differences in client engagement (i.e. attendance) of DBT: delivered face-to-face prior to the first COVID-19...

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Ghana

Shamsudeen Mohammed, Ibrahim Yakubu, Abdul-Ganiyu Fuseini, Abdul-Malik Abdulai & Yakubu H. Yakubu
Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding is a public health priority in sub-Saharan Africa. However, systematic reviews on its determinants in Ghana remain scarce. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in children 0–6 months in Ghana. Methods We conducted systematic searches in Embase, Medline, and Africa-Wide Information from the databases’ inception until February 2021 for studies that assessed the prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in children 0–6 months in Ghana. Random-effects...

Incorporating a gender lens into nutrition and health-related policies in Fiji: analysis of policies and stakeholder perspectives

Briar L. McKenzie, Gade Waqa, Sarah Mounsey, Claire Johnson, Mark Woodward, Kent Buse, Anne Marie Thow, Rachael McLean & Jacqui Webster
Abstract Background Gender equality, zero hunger and healthy lives and well-being for all, are three of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that underpin Fiji’s National Development Plan. Work towards each of these goals contributes to the reduction of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). There are gender differences in NCD burden in Fiji. It is, however, unclear whether a gender lens could be more effectively included in nutrition and health-related policies. Methods This study consisted of three components:...

Interventions to address potentially inappropriate prescriptions and over-the-counter medication use among adults 65 years and older in primary care settings: protocol for a systematic review

Andrew Beck, Navindra Persaud, Laure A. Tessier, Roland Grad, Michael R. Kidd, Scott Klarenbach, Christina Korownyk, Ainsley Moore, Brett D. Thombs, Dee Mangin, Rita K. McCracken, Emily G. McDonald, Caroline Sirois, Salmaan Kanji, Frank Molnar, Stuart G. Nicholls, Kednapa Thavorn, Alexandria Bennett, Nicole Shaver, Becky Skidmore, Bradley R. Mitchelmore, Marc Avey, Elizabeth Rolland-Harris, Julian Little & David Moher
Abstract Purpose To inform recommendations by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care on potentially inappropriate prescribing and over-the-counter (OTC) medication use among adults aged 65 years and older in primary care settings. This protocol outlines the planned scope and methods for a systematic review of the benefits and harms and acceptability of interventions to reduce potentially inappropriate prescriptions and OTC medication use. Methods De novo systematic reviews will be conducted to synthesize the...

Extracts from Argentinian native plants reverse fluconazole resistance in Candida species by inhibiting the efflux transporters Mdr1 and Cdr1

Florimar Gil, Jerónimo Laiolo, Brayan Bayona-Pacheco, Richard D. Cannon, Antonio Ferreira-Pereira & María Cecilia Carpinella
Abstract Background The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with the overexpression of the efflux transporters Mdr1 and Cdr1 in Candida species impedes antifungal therapies. The urgent need for novel agents able to inhibit the function of both pumps, led us to evaluate this property in 137 extracts obtained from Argentinian plants. Methods The ability of the extracts to reverse efflux pump-mediated MDR was determined with an agar chemosensitization assay using fluconazole (FCZ) resistant Mdr1-...

Healthier Lives Implementation Research Network for Māori and Pacific community health providers in Aotearoa New Zealand: a study protocol with an observational mixed methods design

John Oetzel, Dianne Sika-Paotonu, Darrio Penetito-Hemara & Akarere Henry
Abstract Background Despite incremental gains in the Aotearoa New Zealand health sector, Māori and Pacific peoples still experience poorer health outcomes than non-Māori and non-Pacific. Access to the latest research and innovation is critical to improving and addressing health outcomes and health inequities in particular. However, there are numerous challenges to translating research into practice including that there is currently no known a specific infrastructure in Aotearoa New Zealand to facilitate this process. The aim...

Infraslow closed-loop brain training for anxiety and depression (ISAD): a protocol for a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot trial in adult females with internalizing disorders

Tyson M. Perez, Paul Glue, Divya B. Adhia, Muhammad S. Navid, Jiaxu Zeng, Peter Dillingham, Mark Smith, Imran K. Niazi, Calvin K. Young & Dirk De Ridder
Abstract Background The core intrinsic connectivity networks (core-ICNs), encompassing the default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and central executive network (CEN), have been shown to be dysfunctional in individuals with internalizing disorders (IDs, e.g. major depressive disorder, MDD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; social anxiety disorder, SOC). As such, source-localized, closed-loop brain training of electrophysiological signals, also known as standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) neurofeedback (NFB), targeting key cortical nodes within these networks has the potential...

Evaluating remote facilitation intensity for multi-national translation of nurse-initiated stroke protocols (QASC Australasia): a protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

O. Fasugba, S. Dale, E. McInnes, D. A. Cadilhac, M. Noetel, K. Coughlan, B. McElduff, J. Kim, T. Langley, N. W. Cheung, K. Hill, V. Pollnow, K. Page, E. Sanjuan Menendez, E. Neal, S. Griffith, L. J. Christie, J. Slark, A. Ranta, C. Levi, J. M. Grimshaw & S. Middleton
Abstract Background Facilitated implementation of nurse-initiated protocols to manage fever, hyperglycaemia (sugar) and swallowing difficulties (FeSS Protocols) in 19 Australian stroke units resulted in reduced death and dependency for stroke patients. However, a significant gap remains in translating this evidence-based care bundle protocol into standard practice in Australia and New Zealand. Facilitation is a key component for increasing implementation. However, its contribution to evidence translation initiatives requires further investigation. We aim to evaluate two levels...

Registration Year

  • 2023
  • 2022
  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Collection


  • University of Otago
  • University of Auckland
  • University of Ottawa
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Edinburgh
  • The University of Sydney
  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Melbourne
  • McMaster University
  • Sun Yat-sen University