231 Works

The impact of improved water supply on cholera and diarrhoeal diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a protocol for a pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation

Karin Gallandat, Aurélie Jeandron, Ian Ross, Jaime Mufitini Saidi, Baron Bashige Rumedeka, Vercus Lumami Kapepula, Simon Cousens, Elizabeth Allen, Amy MacDougall & Oliver Cumming
Abstract Introduction Diarrhoeal disease remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Cholera alone is estimated to cause 95,000 deaths per year, most of which occur in endemic settings with inadequate water access. Whilst a global strategy to eliminate cholera by 2030 calls for investment in improved drinking water services, there is limited rigorous evidence for the impact of improved water supply on endemic cholera transmission in low-income urban settings. Our protocol is designed...

The impact of improved water supply on cholera and diarrhoeal diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a protocol for a pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation

Karin Gallandat, Aurélie Jeandron, Ian Ross, Jaime Mufitini Saidi, Baron Bashige Rumedeka, Vercus Lumami Kapepula, Simon Cousens, Elizabeth Allen, Amy MacDougall & Oliver Cumming
Abstract Introduction Diarrhoeal disease remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Cholera alone is estimated to cause 95,000 deaths per year, most of which occur in endemic settings with inadequate water access. Whilst a global strategy to eliminate cholera by 2030 calls for investment in improved drinking water services, there is limited rigorous evidence for the impact of improved water supply on endemic cholera transmission in low-income urban settings. Our protocol is designed...

Supplementary material from \"Epidemiological dynamics of bacteriocin competition and antibiotic resistance\"

Sonja Lehtinen, Nicholas J. Croucher, François Blanquart & Christophe Fraser
Bacteriocins, toxic peptides involved in the competition between bacterial strains, are extremely diverse. Previous work on bacteriocin dynamics has highlighted the role of non-transitive ‘rock–paper–scissors’ competition in maintaining the coexistence of different bacteriocin profiles. The focus to date has primarily been on bacteriocin interactions at the within-host scale (i.e. within a single bacterial population). Yet in species such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, with relatively short periods of colonization and limited within-host diversity, ecological outcomes are also...

Reemergence of pathogenic, autoantibody-producing B cell clones in myasthenia gravis following B cell depletion therapy

Miriam L. Fichtner, Kenneth B. Hoehn, Easton E. Ford, Marina Mane-Damas, Sangwook Oh, Patrick Waters, Aimee S. Payne, Melissa L. Smith, Corey T. Watson, Mario Losen, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Richard J. Nowak, Steven H. Kleinstein & Kevin C. O’Connor
Abstract Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoantibody-mediated autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction. A small subset of patients (<10%) with MG, have autoantibodies targeting muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). MuSK MG patients respond well to CD20-mediated B cell depletion therapy (BCDT); most achieve complete stable remission. However, relapse often occurs. To further understand the immunomechanisms underlying relapse, we studied autoantibody-producing B cells over the course of BCDT. We developed a fluorescently labeled antigen to enrich for...

An online parenting intervention to prevent affective disorders in high-risk adolescents: the PIPA trial protocol

C. Connor, M. B. H. Yap, J. Warwick, M. Birchwood, N De Valliere, J. Madan, G. A. Melvin, E. Padfield, P. Patterson, S. Petrou, K. Raynes, S. Stewart-Brown & A. Thompson
Abstract Background Adolescent depression can place a young person at high risk of recurrence and a range of psychosocial and vocational impairments in adult life, highlighting the importance of early recognition and prevention. Parents/carers are well placed to notice changes in their child’s emotional wellbeing which may indicate risk, and there is increasing evidence that modifiable factors exist within the family system that may help reduce the risk of depression and anxiety in an adolescent....

Using beam-offset optical coherence tomography to reconstruct backscattered photon profiles in scattering media

weiming xu & Hui Wang
To image the underlying structures of a scattering medium, raster scanning imaging technologies capture least scattered photons (LSPs) and reject multiple scattered photons (MSPs) in backscattered photons. However, MSPs can still squeeze into the images, resulting in limited imaging depth, degraded contrast, and significantly reduced lateral resolution. Great efforts have been made to understand how MSPs affect imaging performance through modeling, but the techniques for visualizing the backscattered photon profile (BSPP) in scattering media during...

Genomic characteristics of two breast malignant phyllodes tumors during pregnancy and lactation identified through whole-exome sequencing

Tinge Lei, Mengjia Shen, Xu Deng, Yongqiang Shi, Yan Peng, Hui Wang & Tongbing Chen
Abstract Background The genomic landscape of breast malignant phyllodes tumors (PTs) is not well defined, especially pregnancy-related malignant PTs. To clarify this topic, whole-exome next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on tumor samples and paired normal breast tissues from two pregnancy-related malignant PTs, followed by a functional analysis of the genetic alterations. Methods DNA from malignant PT samples and matched normal breast tissues of both patients were subjected to molecular profiling. NGS of the whole-exome was...

Comprehensive transcriptional variability analysis reveals gene networks regulating seed oil content of Brassica napus

Zengdong Tan, Yan Peng, Yao Xiong, Feng Xiong, Yuting Zhang, Ning Guo, Zhuo Tu, Zhanxiang Zong, Xiaokun Wu, Jiang Ye, Chunjiao Xia, Tao Zhu, Yinmeng Liu, Hongxiang Lou, Dongxu Liu, Shaoping Lu, Xuan Yao, Kede Liu, Rod J. Snowdon, Agnieszka A. Golicz, Weibo Xie, Liang Guo & Hu Zhao
Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression plays an essential role in controlling the phenotypes of plants. Brassica napus (B. napus) is an important source for the vegetable oil in the world, and the seed oil content is an important trait of B. napus. Results We perform a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional variability in the seeds of B. napus at two developmental stages, 20 and 40 days after flowering (DAF). We detect 53,759 and 53,550...

Comprehensive transcriptional variability analysis reveals gene networks regulating seed oil content of Brassica napus

Zengdong Tan, Yan Peng, Yao Xiong, Feng Xiong, Yuting Zhang, Ning Guo, Zhuo Tu, Zhanxiang Zong, Xiaokun Wu, Jiang Ye, Chunjiao Xia, Tao Zhu, Yinmeng Liu, Hongxiang Lou, Dongxu Liu, Shaoping Lu, Xuan Yao, Kede Liu, Rod J. Snowdon, Agnieszka A. Golicz, Weibo Xie, Liang Guo & Hu Zhao
Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression plays an essential role in controlling the phenotypes of plants. Brassica napus (B. napus) is an important source for the vegetable oil in the world, and the seed oil content is an important trait of B. napus. Results We perform a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional variability in the seeds of B. napus at two developmental stages, 20 and 40 days after flowering (DAF). We detect 53,759 and 53,550...

ERF49 mediates brassinosteroid regulation of heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

Xia Chen, Huidan Xue, Liping Zhu, Huiqin Wang, Hao Long, Jun Zhao, Funing Meng, Yunfei Liu, Yuan Ye, Xiaomin Luo, Zhi Liu, Guanghui Xiao & Shengwei Zhu
Abstract Background Heat stress is a major abiotic stress affecting the growth and development of plants, including crop species. Plants have evolved various adaptive strategies to help them survive heat stress, including maintaining membrane stability, encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs) and ROS-scavenging enzymes, and inducing molecular chaperone signaling. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are phytohormones that regulate various aspects of plant development, which have been implicated also in plant responses to heat stress, and resistance to heat in...

Interactions of CDKAL1 rs7747752 polymorphism and serum levels of L-carnitine and choline are related to increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

Hui Wang, Jing Li, Jinnan Liu, Junhong Leng, Weiqin Li, Zhijie Yu, Claudia H. T. Tam, Gang Hu, Ronald C. W. Ma, Zhongze Fang, Ying Wang & Xilin Yang
Abstract Background Interactions between genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors lead to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to examine interactive effects of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein1-like 1(CDKAL1) rs7747752 polymorphism with low serum levels of L-carnitine, choline, and betaine for GDM. Methods A nested case-control study of 207 GDM women and their one-to-one, age-matched controls was organized from a prospective cohort of pregnant women in Tianjin, China. Conditional logistic regressions were used to test...

Group sequential designs in pragmatic trials: feasibility and assessment of utility using data from a number of recent surgical RCTs

Nick R. Parsons, Nigel Stallard, Helen Parsons, Aminul Haque, Martin Underwood, James Mason, Iftekhar Khan, Matthew L. Costa, Damian R. Griffin, James Griffin, David J. Beard, Jonathan A. Cook, Loretta Davies, Jemma Hudson & Andrew Metcalfe
Abstract Background Assessing the long term effects of many surgical interventions tested in pragmatic RCTs may require extended periods of participant follow-up to assess effectiveness and use patient-reported outcomes that require large sample sizes. Consequently the RCTs are often perceived as being expensive and time-consuming, particularly if the results show the test intervention is not effective. Adaptive, and particularly group sequential, designs have great potential to improve the efficiency and cost of testing new and...

Construction and yield optimization of a cinnamylamine biosynthesis route in Escherichia coli

Qi Wang, Linlin Ma, Zhiguo Wang, Quan Chen, Qian Wang & Qingsheng Qi
Abstract Background With the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds has attracted much attention. Cinnamylamine is an aromatic compound derived from l-phenylalanine, which is used in the synthesis of biologically active molecules, including drugs, and energetic materials. Cinnamylamine has been mainly synthesized by chemical methods to date, and few reports have focused on the biosynthesis of cinnamylamine. Therefore, it is desirable to establish an efficient biosynthesis method for cinnamylamine....

Is telehealth an effective and feasible option for improving falls-related outcomes in community-dwelling adults with neurological conditions? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Claire Thwaites, Rohini Nayyar, Jannette Blennerhassett, Thorlene Egerton, Jasmine Tan & Kelly Bower
ObjectiveTo determine the effectiveness of telehealth interventions in reducing community falls risk or rates compared to equivalent in-person interventions in adults with neurological conditions.Data SourcesEight electronic databases, trial registries and search engines were searched for the concepts ‘falls’, ‘neurological conditions’, and ‘telehealth’, limited to English language, from inception until August 2022.Review methodsSearch for original research where the intervention was delivered via synchronous videoconferencing with the aim of reducing falls and falls-related outcomes. Screening and risk...

AGuIX nanoparticles enhance ionizing radiation-induced ferroptosis on tumor cells by targeting the NRF2-GPX4 signaling pathway

Hao Sun, Hui Cai, Chang Xu, Hezheng Zhai, François Lux, Yi Xie, Li Feng, Liqing Du, Yang Liu, Xiaohui Sun, Qin Wang, Huijuan Song, Ningning He, Manman Zhang, Kaihua Ji, Jinhan Wang, Yeqing Gu, Géraldine Leduc, Tristan Doussineau, Yan Wang, Qiang Liu & Olivier Tillement
Abstract In the frame of radiotherapy treatment of cancer, radioresistance remains a major issue that still needs solutions to be overcome. To effectively improve the radiosensitivity of tumors and reduce the damage of radiation to neighboring normal tissues, radiosensitizers have been given increasing attention in recent years. As nanoparticles based on the metal element gadolinium, AGuIX nanoparticles have been shown to increase the radiosensitivity of cancers. Although it is a rare nanomaterial that has entered...

Mapping between headache specific and generic preference-based health-related quality of life measures

Kamran Khan, Hema Mistry, Manjit Matharu, Chloe Norman, Stavros Petrou, Kimberley Stewart, Martin Underwood & Felix Achana
Abstract Background The Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and the Chronic Headache Questionnaire (CH-QLQ) measure headache-related quality of life but are not preference-based and therefore cannot be used to generate health utilities for cost-effectiveness analyses. There are currently no established algorithms for mapping between the HIT-6 or CH-QLQ and preference-based health-related quality-of-life measures for chronic headache population. Methods We developed algorithms for generating EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D utilities from the HIT-6 and the CHQLQ using both direct...

Maintaining healthy sleep patterns and frailty transitions: a prospective Chinese study

Yunqing Zhu, Junning Fan, Jun Lv, Yu Guo, Pei Pei, Ling Yang, Yiping Chen, Huaidong Du, Feifei Li, Xiaoming Yang, Daniel Avery, Junshi Chen, Zhengming Chen, Canqing Yu & Liming Li
Abstract Background Little is known about the effects of maintaining healthy sleep patterns on frailty transitions. Methods Based on 23,847 Chinese adults aged 30–79 in a prospective cohort study, we examined the associations between sleep patterns and frailty transitions. Healthy sleep patterns included sleep duration at 7 or 8 h/d, without insomnia disorder, and no snoring. Participants who persisted with a healthy sleep pattern in both surveys were defined as maintaining a healthy sleep pattern...

Development and validation of personalised risk prediction models for early detection and diagnosis of primary liver cancer among the English primary care population using the QResearch® database: research protocol and statistical analysis plan

Weiqi Liao, Peter Jepsen, Carol Coupland, Hamish Innes, Philippa C. Matthews, Cori Campbell, Eleanor Barnes & Julia Hippisley-Cox
Abstract Background and research aim The incidence and mortality of liver cancer have been increasing in the UK in recent years. However, liver cancer is still under-studied. The Early Detection of Hepatocellular Liver Cancer (DeLIVER-QResearch) project aims to address the research gap and generate new knowledge to improve early detection and diagnosis of primary liver cancer from general practice and at the population level. There are three research objectives: (1) to understand the current epidemiology...

Supplementary material from \"Uncovering commercial activity in informal cities\"

Daniel Straulino, Juan C. Saldarriaga, Jairo A. Gómez, Juan C. Duque & Neave O’Clery
Knowledge of the spatial organization of economic activity within a city is a key to policy concerns. However, in developing cities with high levels of informality, this information is often unavailable. Recent progress in machine learning together with the availability of street imagery offers an affordable and easily automated solution. Here, we propose an algorithm that can detect what we call visible establishments using street view imagery. By using Medellín, Colombia as a case study,...

Supplementary material from \"Assessing the asymptomatic proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infection with age in China before mass vaccination\"

Zengmiao Wang, Peiyi Wu, Jingyuan Wang, José Lourenço, Bingying Li, Benjamin Rader, Marko Laine, Hui Miao, Ligui Wang, Hongbin Song, Nita Bharti, John S. Brownstein, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Christopher Dye & Huaiyu Tian
Some asymptomatic individuals carrying SARS-CoV-2 can transmit the virus and contribute to outbreaks of COVID-19. Here, we use detailed surveillance data gathered during COVID-19 resurgences in six cities of China at the beginning of 2021 to investigate the relationship between asymptomatic proportion and age. Epidemiological data obtained before mass vaccination provide valuable insights into the nature of pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. The data were collected by multiple rounds of city-wide PCR testing with contact tracing, where...

Supplementary material from \"The mutational spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 genomic and antigenomic RNA\"

Lele Zhao, Matthew Hall, Mariateresa de Cesare, George MacIntyre-Cockett, Katrina Lythgoe, Christophe Fraser, David Bonsall, Tanya Golubchik, COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) Consortium & Luca Ferretti
The raw material for viral evolution is provided by intra-host mutations occurring either during replication, transcription or post-transcription. Replication and transcription of Coronaviridae proceed through the synthesis of negative-sense ‘antigenomes’ acting as templates for positive-sense genomic and subgenomic RNA. Hence, mutations in the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses can occur during (and after) the synthesis of either negative-sense or positive-sense RNA, with potentially distinct patterns and consequences. We explored for the first time the...

Gender differences in health protective behaviours and its implications for COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan: a population-based study

Jasmine Tan, Yilin Yoshida, Kevin Sheng-Kai Ma, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis & Chien-Chang Lee
Abstract Introduction Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces more severe symptoms and a higher mortality in men than in women. The role of biological sex in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is believed to explain this sex disparity. However, the contribution of gender factors that influence health protective behaviors and therefore health outcomes, remains poorly explored. Methods We assessed the contributions of gender in attitudes towards the COVID-19 pandemic, using a hypothetical...

Correlation between molar activity, injection mass and uptake of the PARP targeting radiotracer [18F]olaparib in mouse models of glioma

Chung Ying Chan, Samantha L. Hopkins, Florian Guibbal, Anna Pacelli, Julia Baguña Torres, Michael Mosley, Doreen Lau, Patrick Isenegger, Zijun Chen, Thomas C. Wilson, Gemma Dias, Rebekka Hueting, Véronique Gouverneur & Bart Cornelissen
Abstract Purpose Radiopharmaceuticals targeting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have emerged as promising agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PARP enzymes are expressed in both cancerous and normal tissue. Hence, the injected mass, molar activity and potential pharmacological effects are important considerations for the use of radiolabelled PARP inhibitors for diagnostic and radionuclide therapeutic applications. Here, we performed a systematic evaluation by varying the molar activity of [18F]olaparib and the injected mass of [TotalF]olaparib to investigate the...

Correlation between molar activity, injection mass and uptake of the PARP targeting radiotracer [18F]olaparib in mouse models of glioma

Chung Ying Chan, Samantha L. Hopkins, Florian Guibbal, Anna Pacelli, Julia Baguña Torres, Michael Mosley, Doreen Lau, Patrick Isenegger, Zijun Chen, Thomas C. Wilson, Gemma Dias, Rebekka Hueting, Véronique Gouverneur & Bart Cornelissen
Abstract Purpose Radiopharmaceuticals targeting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have emerged as promising agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PARP enzymes are expressed in both cancerous and normal tissue. Hence, the injected mass, molar activity and potential pharmacological effects are important considerations for the use of radiolabelled PARP inhibitors for diagnostic and radionuclide therapeutic applications. Here, we performed a systematic evaluation by varying the molar activity of [18F]olaparib and the injected mass of [TotalF]olaparib to investigate the...

Temporal associations between leukocytes DNA methylation and blood lipids: a longitudinal study

Zhiyu Wu, Lu Chen, Xuanming Hong, Jiahui Si, Weihua Cao, Canqing Yu, Tao Huang, Dianjianyi Sun, Chunxiao Liao, Yuanjie Pang, Zengchang Pang, Liming Cong, Hua Wang, Xianping Wu, Yu Liu, Yu Guo, Zhengming Chen, Jun Lv, Wenjing Gao & Liming Li
Abstract Background The associations between blood lipids and DNA methylation have been investigated in epigenome-wide association studies mainly among European ancestry populations. Several studies have explored the direction of the association using cross-sectional data, while evidence of longitudinal data is still lacking. Results We tested the associations between peripheral blood leukocytes DNA methylation and four lipid measures from Illumina 450 K or EPIC arrays in 1084 participants from the Chinese National Twin Registry and replicated...

Registration Year

  • 2023
    12
  • 2022
    217
  • 2021
    2

Resource Types

  • Collection
    231

Affiliations

  • University of Oxford
    231
  • Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College
    70
  • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
    60
  • Zhejiang University
    59
  • Jiangsu Province Hospital
    51
  • University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
    51
  • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
    49
  • University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
    48
  • China Agricultural University
    47
  • Capital Medical University
    46