11,328 Works

LEARNING FROM MULTIPLE VIEWS OF DATA

Abhishek Sharma
This dissertation takes inspiration from the abilities of our brain to extract information and learn from multiple sources of data and try to mimic this ability for some practical problems. It explores the hypothesis that the human brain can extract and store information from raw data in a form, termed a common representation, suitable for cross-modal content matching. A human-level performance for the aforementioned task requires - a) the ability to extract sufficient information from...

HIERARCHICAL NEURAL COMPUTATION IN THE MAMMALIAN VISUAL SYSTEM

Yuwei Cui
Our visual system can efficiently extract behaviorally relevant information from ambiguous and noisy luminance patterns. Although we know much about the anatomy and physiology of the visual system, it remains obscure how the computation performed by individual visual neurons is constructed from the neural circuits. In this thesis, I designed novel statistical modeling approaches to study hierarchical neural computation, using electrophysiological recordings from several stages of the mammalian visual system. In Chapter 2, I describe...

Atom-trapping and photon-counting experiments with optical nanofibers

Jeffrey Aaron Grover
New effects can arise in quantum physics when there is strong coupling, either between atoms and light or between different quantum systems. This thesis examines an optical nanofiber atom trap as a mediator of atom-light interactions and a potential element of a hybrid quantum system. The evanescent field around the sub-wavelength waist of an optical nanofiber possesses a small mode area that increases the cooperativity between atoms and the mode, in a manner analogous to...

Broadband Photodetection in Graphene

Xinghan Cai
Graphene, a single-atom-thick plane of carbon, has unique optoelectronic properties that result in a variety of potential photonic applications, such as optical modulators, plasmonic devices and THz emitters. In this thesis, the light-matter interaction in monolayer graphene and the subsequent photoexcited charge carrier transport are studied, and it is found that graphene has unique advantages for hot-electron photothermoelectric detection. Particularly promising is detection of terahertz (THz) radiation, in which graphene devices may offer significant advantages...

THE EARLY, MIDDLE, AND LATE STYLES OF WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART AND LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN IN THEIR SONATAS FOR PIANO AND VIOLIN

Elizabeth E. Kim
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's (1756-1791) and Ludwig van Beethoven's (1770-1827) personal backgrounds influenced their compositional styles in different stages of their lives. Their sonatas for piano and violin show the evolution of their styles in early, middle, and late periods. Mozart's early period (1761-1773) keyboard sonatas with violin accompaniment, such as K. 9, show experimentations of a child prodigy and little equality between the piano and violin. In contrast to these early sonatas, his middle period...

Image Estimation and Uncertainty Quantification

Viktoria Taroudaki
Recorded images are usually contaminated by blur and noise. The restoration of such altered images is an ill-posed problem. Even if the blur is known, the unknown noise leads to uncertainty in the restored image. The naive restoration approach fails since it contains a lot of noise at high frequencies that destroys the computed restored image. To remedy this problem, this work focuses on the computation of the restored image by using spectral filters that...

The Relative Lie Algebra Cohomology of the Weil Representation

Jacob Ralston
We study the relative Lie algebra cohomology of $\mathfrak{so}(p,q)$ with values in the Weil representation $\varpi$ of the dual pair $\mathrm{Sp}(2k, \R) \times \OO(p,q)$. Using the Fock model defined in Chapter \ref{Introchapter}, we filter this complex and construct the associated spectral sequence. We then prove that the resulting spectral sequence converges to the relative Lie algebra cohomology and has $E_0$ term, the associated graded complex, isomorphic to a Koszul complex, see Section \ref{defofkoszulsection}. It is...

Reordering the Landscape: Science, Nature, and Spirituality at Wye House

Elizabeth Pruitt
This dissertation draws on literature and theoretical frameworks of gardening and social ordering that examine early Euro-American and African-American material culture as they came together on the plantation landscape at Wye House. Located on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, the plantation was home to the Welsh Lloyd family and hundreds of enslaved Africans and African-Americans. Using archaeological and archeobotanical remains of garden related buildings and slave dwellings, this project acknowledges the different possible interactions and...

Prolonged Illness Among Subsistence Agricultural Households in Rural Mozambique: Coping Strategies and Policy Levers

Zan Michael Dodson
Subsistence agriculturalists are highly economically vulnerable, and generally lack access to resources that may help strengthen their livelihoods. Health is a well-established form of human capital that is also one of the biggest assets for subsistence agricultural households. Therefore, any instance in which this form of capital is threatened has potential consequences for livelihood sustainability. This dissertation examined prolonged illness among subsistence agricultural households in rural Mozambique. Prolonged illness can diminish household labor supply, a...

Faucets and Fertilizers: Interpreting Technological Change in Rural Oaxaca, Mexico, 1946-1988

Joshua Charles Walker
Faucets and Fertilizers: Interpreting Technological Change in Rural Oaxaca, Mexico, 1946-1988 argues that peasant farmers in Oaxaca were key actors who helped to oversee the technological modernization of their villages in the twentieth century. From the 1940s to the 1980s, federal and state development programs sought to introduce new tools like chemical fertilizers, water faucets, roads, and mechanical corn grinders to villages in the countryside. These programs were often unevenly distributed and poorly designed, forcing...

Exploring Influences of Folk and Popular Music in Selected Violin Repertoire: from Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) to Paul Schoenfield (b. 1947).

Jennifer J. Lee
ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: EXPLORING INFLUENCES OF FOLK AND POPULAR MUSIC IN SELECTED VIOLIN REPORTOIRE: FROM EDVARD GRIEG (1843-1907) TO PAUL SCHOENFIELD (B. 1947) Jennifer J. Lee, Doctor of Musical Arts, 2015. Dissertation directed by: Professor David Salness School of Music Both `folk' and `popular' music genres definitively play a role in the compositional makeup of the following notable composers: Edvard Grieg (1843-1907), Eugene Ysa├┐e (1858-1931), Nikolai Medtner (1880-1951), George Enescu (1881-1955), Francis Poulenc (1899-1963),...

What Matters: An Analysis of Victim Satisfaction in a Procedural Justice Framework

Cortney Fisher
The discipline of criminology and criminal justice tends to focus on the offender. However, the victim's cooperation with authorities, which often begins with a willingness to report the crime, is central to a successful investigation and prosecution. Yet, the crime victim exists today on the outskirts of the criminal justice system, limited in their role by the same authorities that need them to help. Despite increasingly retributive policies toward offenders, victims remain as unsatisfied with...

The Impact of Returning Technical Parole Violators to Prison: A Deterrent, Null, or Criminogenic Effect

Kristofer Bret Bucklen
As a result of the significant U.S. prison population build-up over the past several decades, a large number of inmates are now being released from prison and returned to the community. One mechanism for facilitating this transition to the community is for inmates to be conditionally released under parole supervision. Once on parole, a parolee is subject to certain rules and conditions that, if violated, can result in a return to prison, even if not...

INTEGRATED DYNAMIC DEMAND MANAGEMENT AND MARKET DESIGN IN SMART GRID

Mona Asudegi
Smart Grid is a system that accommodates different energy sources, including solar, wind, tidal, electric vehicles, and also facilitates communication between users and suppliers. This study tries to picture the interaction among all new sources of energy and market, besides managing supplies and demands in the system while meeting network's limitations. First, an appropriate energy system mechanism is proposed to motivate use of green and renewable energies while addressing current system's deficiencies. Then concepts and...

ONE-AND-TWO-LEVEL NATURAL GAS EQUILIBRIUM MODELS AND ALGORITHMS

Seksun Moryadee
This dissertation consists of three parts; Part 1 provides two applied studies for the current issue of the global natural gas market, Part 2 presents the World Gas Model (WGM) 2014 version-a significant extension of WGM 2012, and Part 3 develops a novel Benders decomposition procedure with SOS1 reformulation to solve mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints (MPECs) and then is applied to several applications in natural gas and additional test problems. Part 1 presents two...

EXTENSIVE GREEN ROOF SUBSTRATE COMPOSITION: EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ON MATRIC POTENTIAL, HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY, PLANT GROWTH, AND STORMWATER RETENTION IN THE MID-ATLANTIC.

Whitney Griffin
While green roof (GR) systems have gained popularity as storm water management tools, more emphasis has been applied to studying performance aspects, including stormwater retention. Of particular importance is the substrate layer in which the vegetation grows, which contributes the majority of stormwater retention capabilities. This research investigated many aspects of GR substrate performance, including component durability and component effects on hydraulic conductivity, matric potential, and plant growth. Several commercial substrate blends were tested for...

The Distribution of Gender Differences in the Temperament and Social Competence of Preschoolers

Laura Elizabeth Schussler
The literature has shown gender differences on many temperament and social competence (SC) measures, though there are gaps in understanding where differences lie and whether it varies by informant. This study investigated how temperament relates to SC and whether gender is a moderator. Rater source and the use of standardized versus raw scores and how they influence gender as a moderator was a main focus. Temperament was measured by the CBQ (Putnam & Rothbart, 2006)...

A STUDY OF THE PERCEIVED TEACHING SELF-EFFICACY AND LEADERSHIP OF NATIONAL BOARD CERTIFIED TEACHERS

April A. Zentmeyer
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived levels of teacher self-efficacy and leadership of National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs). One of the goals of Race to the Top is to provide highly qualified, efficacious teachers in every classroom, prepared to lead in the 21st century. Given that National Board Certification is one avenue to highly qualified status, this study sought to discover whether NBCTs perceived high levels of teacher self-efficacy and assumed...

ANALYSIS OF CONSENSUS GENOME-WIDE EXPRESSION-QTLS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO HUMAN COMPLEX TRAIT DISEASES

CHEN-HSIN YU
Genome-wide association studies of human complex disease have identified a large number of disease associated genetic loci. However, most of these risk loci do not provide direct information on the biological basis of a disease or on the underlying mechanisms. Recent genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) association studies have provided information on genetic factors, especially SNPs, associated with gene expression variation. These eQTLs might contribute to phenotype diversity and disease susceptibility, but interpretation is...

Radio Resource Management in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

Doohyun Sung
Heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets) have been considered as one of enabling technologies not only to increase the cell coverage and capacity, but to improve the user experience. In this dissertation, we address two research challenges in HetNets: one is the cross-tier interference problem where cell range expansion (CRE) is applied for user offloading in cell association so that pico mobile stations located in expanded range (ER-PMSs), which are connected to macrocells unless CRE is enabled,...

Topological Edge States in Silicon Photonics

Sunil Mittal
Under the influence of a magnetic field, at low temperatures, charged particles confined in two-dimensional systems exhibit a remarkable range of macroscopic quantum phenomena such as the quantum Hall effects. A hallmark of these phenomena is the presence of unidirectional, topologically robust edge states - states which are confined to the edge of the system. It is, in principle, possible to engineer a synthetic magnetic field for photons and hence achieve photonic analogs of the...

Failure Mechanics of Functional Nanostructures in Advanced Technologies

Zheng Jia
The past decade has seen a surge of interest in developing novel functional nanostructures to enable advanced technologies, such as flexible electronics and high performance lithium-ion batteries. Examples of such functional nanostructures include organic/inorganic multi-layer thin films in flexible electronics and nano-sized silicon/tin-based anodes in lithium/sodium ion batteries. Widespread implementation of these advanced technologies with novel functional nanostructures in the future will broadly impact human's daily life. However, grand challenges for developing robust novel functional...

ACTIVE RELOCATION AND DISPATCHING OF HETEROGENEOUS EMERGENCY VEHICLES

Elham Sharifi
An emergency is a situation that causes an immediate risk to the property, health, or lives of civilians and can assume a variety of forms such as traffic accidents, fires, personal medical emergencies, terrorist attacks, robberies, natural disasters, etc. Emergency response services (ERSs) such as police, fire, and medical services play crucial roles in all communities and can minimize the adverse effects of emergency incidents by decreasing the response time. Response time is not only...

Determination of Network Connectivity: Algorithms and Applications in Organ Systems

Aimaschana Niruntasukrat
In this dissertation, we develop methods to determine the existence and types of connections between network nodes when the available data are only states (or signals) of such nodes. The proposed method determines the types of connections by examining the nodes' interaction. Determination inaccuracy caused by different reactive time scales between nodes is addressed by using wavelet analysis. After the network signals are decomposed into signals at different scales, the most prominent scale of each...

The effects of oxygen transition on community metabolism and nutrient cycling in a seasonally stratified anoxic estuary

Dong-Yoon Lee
Gradients of dissolved oxygen concentrations in seasonally stratified estuarine water columns directly influence microbial composition and metabolic pathways, resulting in annually recurring spatiotemporal chemical gradients of redox-active species. Understanding such microbial responses to variable geochemical conditions and elucidating the diversity of microbial processes are needed to comprehensively identify ecosystem functions. At first this study describes an investigation of the relationships between microbial processes and geochemical conditions. To assess the contribution of different biological redox processes...

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