10,517 Works

AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS-VECTORED VACCINES AGAINST INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS AND HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

Edris Shirvani
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and Newcastle disease (ND) are highly contagious and economically important diseases in poultry. Vaccination is the major strategy which is implemented to combat highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), worldwide. However, among these viruses, some NDV strains are naturally avirulent and have been used as highly safe vaccines for more than 60 years. Live attenuated IBV vaccines that...

The "Europa-Gedanke" and the Transformation of German Conservatism, 1930-1955

Joshua Derren Klein
The following dissertation is a political-intellectual history of German conservatism and national identity from the 1930s to the 1950s. It explores the published and private documents of prominent conservative intellectuals, propagandists, journalists, and military elites who before, during, and after the Second World War developed a new concept of European nationalism which they called the “Europa-Gedanke,” or “Europe-concept.” This dissertation traces the evolution of this political ideology by assessing what Europe meant for these thinkers,...

Strategies to enhance the stability and potency of extracellular vesicle therapeutics

Anjana Jeyaram
As key mediators of intercellular communication, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a new therapeutic modality, specifically via a microRNA (miRNA) transfer mechanism. Unlike synthetic carriers and liposomes, EVs can evade endosomal degradation, show low immunogenicity, and are able to cross biological barriers. Despite the advantages of using EVs as therapeutic carriers, there remain several obstacles to clinical translation. Intrinsic RNA levels in EVs are low and current exogenous loading methods are inefficient and may...

To Drink a Cup of Fire: Morality Tales and Moral Emotions in Egyptian, Algerian, and French Anti-Colonial Activism, 1945-1960

Christiane Marie Abu Sarah
In the 1940s and 1950s, newspapers in Egypt, Algeria, and France debated the behavior of activists who sacrificed themselves for a cause, calling them “hysterics,” “radicals,” “fanatics,” and “terrorists.” Underlying these debates was a core question: what “rational” person would choose to sacrifice himself for a cause? To learn how activists answered their critics, and to explore transnational patterns of activist exchange, this study explores two revolutionary moments: the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and the...

An Experimental Investigation of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Transition on Sharp and Blunt Slender Cones

Richard Edward Kennedy
Understanding the instabilities leading to the laminar-to-turbulent transition of a hypersonic boundary layer is a key challenge remaining for the design of efficient hypersonic vehicles. In the present study, experiments are performed in three different facilities at freestream Mach numbers between 6 and 14 to characterize instability mechanisms leading to transition on a 7-degree half-angle slender cone. Second-mode instability waves are visualized using a high-speed schlieren setup with the camera frame rate and spatial resolution...

Active Spanwise Lift Control: A Distributed Parameter Approach

Joaquim Dias
Structural load alleviation has been a very active research topic since the 1950s for many reasons. By mitigating the effect of gusts on the wing, the maximum loads can be effectively reduced. This capability would lead to substantial benefits, such as reduced structural weight, better fuel burn performance, and improved passenger ride comfort. Instead of controlling the structural response, however, it can be argued that the aerodynamic behavior of the wing should be primarily controlled....

Augmented Deep Representations for Unconstrained Still/Video-based Face Recognition

Jingxiao Zheng
Face recognition is one of the active areas of research in computer vision and biometrics. Many approaches have been proposed in the literature that demonstrate impressive performance, especially those based on deep learning. However, unconstrained face recognition with large pose, illumination, occlusion and other variations is still an unsolved problem. Unconstrained video-based face recognition is even more challenging due to the large volume of data to be processed, lack of labeled training data and significant...

Unraveling Metarhizium interactions with insects, plants and microbes

Brian Lovett
Metarhizium fungi have dual lifestyles as insect pathogens and as rhizospheric plant symbionts. Since these fungi can vary widely in their virulence and host-specificity, they provide a powerful model for host-pathogen interactions. Today, it is clear the greatest potential of these fungi lies in their application as transgenic biotechnologies. Biotechnologies are rightly subjected to increased scrutiny, and this dissertation seeks to assess the risks and benefits of applying transgenic Metarhizium fungi using bioinformatics. After sequencing...

Computer Graphics Based Optical Tracking for Hypersonic Free-Flight Experiments

William Starshak
Aerodynamic measurement in hypersonic short-duration facilities – facilities with test times shorter than 10 milliseconds – is a topic of ongoing research. Standard force-balance approaches cannot handle the short test-time or the flow-initiating shock wave. Experimentalists have developed alternative techniques; but these techniques deliver merely adequate results at the cost of significant operational and – especially – calibration complexity. Recently, Laurence, et al. proposed using high-speed shadowgraph imaging and edge fitting (matching the visualized edge...

PROTEIN FOLD SWITCHING: INVESTIGATING THE MECHANISM OF αβ-PLAIT TO 3α FOLD INTERCONVERSION

Tsega Lily Solomon
Naturally occurring metamorphic proteins have the ability to interconvert from one folded state to another through either a limited set of mutations or by way of a change in the local environment. However, the design of these types of proteins has remained challenging. This dissertation shows that it is possible to switch reversibly between two different but common folds employing only temperature changes. The study demonstrates that a latent 3α state can be unmasked from...

Integrating genetic information with macroscale models of species' distributions and phenology: a case study with balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.)

Andrew Vincent Gougherty
To keep pace with future climate change, forest tree species are often predicted to need to shift their geographic ranges and phenology to minimize exposure to climates they have not experienced in the recent past. While many approaches have been developed to predict range shifts and shifting phenology, most large-scale, spatial techniques do not explicitly account for intraspecific genetic variation. This can be problematic when populations are locally adapted to climate, a common characteristic of...

Self, Space, Society, and Saint in the Well-Protected Domains: A History of Ottoman Saints and Sainthood, 1500-1780

Jonathan Parkes Allen
Through an exploration of the historical trajectory of Islamic saints and sainthood across the early modern Ottoman world by means of a wide selection of case studies this dissertation argues for the importance of sainthood in all its facets as both a subject of Ottoman history and as a lens for illuminating many other aspects of social and cultural history. Beginning with the newly expanded empire under Selīm I (r. 1512-1520) and stretching all the...

DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION, AND EVALUATION OF A MINDFULNESS FOCUSED NUTRITION PROMOTION PROGRAM TO BALANCE USDA SCHOOL NUTRITION GOALS WITH FOOD WASTE REDUCTION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

Amy Elizabeth Schachtner-Appel
Healthy school meals offer numerous benefits for elementary school students, but low produce intake and high rates of waste prevent students from experiencing these benefits. This research aimed to create a mindful and sustainable eating intervention to encourage reduced waste and increased produce intake during lunch. The study was conducted using a mixed-methods triangulation approach for formative research, creation of a behavioral model to design a theory based intervention, and pilot test of the resulting...

Quality and Inequity in Digital Security Education

Elissa M Redmiles
Few users have a formal, authoritative introduction to digital security. Rather, digital security skills are often learned haphazardly, as users filter through an overwhelming quantity of security education from a multitude of sources, hoping they're implementing the right set of behaviors that will keep them safe. In this thesis, I use computational, interview, and survey methods to investigate how users learn digital security behaviors, how security education impacts security outcomes, and how inequity in security...

Epistemic "Might": A Non-Epistemic Analysis

Quinn Harr
A speaker of (1) implies that she is uncertain whether (2), making this use of might “epistemic.” On the received view, the implication is semantic, but in this dissertation I argue that this implication is no more semantic than is the implication that a speaker of (2) believes John to be contagious. (1) John might be contagious. (2) John is contagious. This follows from a new observation: unlike claims with explicitly epistemic locutions, those made...

MAKING IT THROUGH: PERSISTENCE AND ATTRITION ALONG MUSIC, EDUCATION, AND MUSIC EDUCATION PATHWAYS

Adam Twain Grisé
In this secondary analysis of data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, I examine predictive factors related to uptake, persistence, and attrition on professional and educational pathways leading individuals to careers in music, education, and music education. I investigate seven years of longitudinal data comparing persistence and attrition factors between pathways, utilizing a multiple perspectives approach to conceptualize the equity of each point along the path. Using recently updated restricted use data from...

Some Epistemological and Practical Challenges to Moral Realism: Evolutionary Debunking, Overgeneralization, and Afterward

Jimmy Alfonso Licon
In this dissertation, I examine epistemological and practical challenges to robust moral realism – the view that moral facts are independent of actual or idealized minds, and causally inert (hereafter moral realism). Following an introductory chapter, in the next two chapters, I examine an epistemic challenge to moral knowledge (given moral realism) emanating from the so-called 'evolutionary debunking arguments' (EDAs). In the second chapter, I argue that capacity approaches are more plausible than content approaches...

A CASE STUDY OF PRESERVICE WORLD LANGUAGE TEACHERS’ IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE AND IMPACT OF MENTOR TEACHERS

Margaret Ditter
This case study examines the identity development of two preservice world language teachers during student teaching, and the role that mentor teachers play in their identity formation. Using situated learning theory and symbolic interactionism as complementary theoretical lenses, this study adds to the limited work on world language teacher identity development and the ways in which mentor teachers impact this development. Data sources include interviews with preservice and mentor teachers, classroom observations, and observations of...

SPATIAL EFFECTS OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONS ON ILLEGAL DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Yoanna Kraus Elsin
Deforestation worldwide is a major concern. In developing countries, it is a merciless and devastating reality. My thesis addresses how local governance institutions' strength influences this phenomenon, focusing on the Colombian Andes. The theoretical analysis examines spatial patterns of illegal deforestation when enforcement is costly, and costs rise with distance from governmental centers. Those spatial patterns depend on the interaction between transportation costs incurred by farmers growing crops on deforested land and enforcement costs incurred...

Managing my Racial Identity at Work: The When, Why, and How of Racial Identity-based Impression Management in Organizations

Jasmine Wheeler
In the past 10 years, burgeoning research has merged social identity theory and impression management theory to examine how individuals manage their distinct social identities such as race (Roberts, 2005; Roberts, Settles, Jellison, 2008; Robert sand Cha, 2014). This extension of impression management theory is especially relevant for Black employees who are often stigmatized because of their racial group membership and must determine the extent to which they either express or suppress their racial identity...

Zero-Sum Game: GamerGate and the Networked Discourse of Hate

Joseph Bernard Meyer
Zero-Sum Game utilizes GamerGate – a 2014 harassment campaign against prominent women in the video game industry – to develop a close reading of networked publics in order to understand how power manifests and is enacted online. I combine Actor Network Theory and Critical Technocultural Discourse Analysis to first map and archive GamerGate’s participants, targets, platforms, and media followed by platform-specific feminist readings of discourse occurring across the map. Each chapter focuses on how hate...

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR GASTROINTESTINAL-TARGETED BIOSENSING

George Efstratios Banis
Non-invasive microsystems are emerging as a means to address diagnostics challenges in healthcare due to the potential to retrieve information at the source and in a personalized approach. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a hub of information that alters in composition during both homeostatic and pathological conditions, and often manifests as varying biochemical concentrations in cell and tissue-sourced secretions. Thus, innovative strategies to sample molecular information from these secretions would be of significant benefit to...

Trans Space As Cultural Landscape--Transgender Women of Color in Washington, D.C.

A S Anthony
Transgender civil rights and public displays of trans visibility have come to the fore of the American imagination. To date, however, little work has thoroughly examined Black and Latinx trans women’s central role as experts in LGBT community-caregiving practices. As a result, scholarship and popular culture concerned with “the transgender tipping point” (Time May 29, 2014) generally endorse a narrative that characterizes transgender women of color primarily as celebrities, victims of transphobic violence, or historic...

IMPROVING U.S. EXTREME PRECIPITATION PREDICTION AND PROCESS UNDERSTANDING USING A MESOSCALE CLIMATE MODEL MULTI-PHYSICS ENSEMBLE APPROACH

Chao Sun
Despite many recent improvements, climate models continue to poorly simulate extreme precipitation. I attempted to improve prediction of extreme precipitation, focusing on daily 95th percentile (P95) events, and to better understand the source of model biases in three ways: 1) determine which physics processes P95 is most sensitive to and which parameterization schemes best represent these processes; 2) understand the underlying mechanisms through which these processes impact P95; and 3) maximize advantages from the ensemble...

MAXIMIZING THE FINANCIAL RETURNS OF USING LIDAR SYSTEMS IN WIND FARMS FOR YAW ERROR CORRECTION APPLICATIONS

Roozbeh Bakhshi
Wind energy is an important source of renewable energy with significant untapped potential around the world. However, the cost of wind energy production is high and efforts to lower the cost of energy generation will help enable more widespread use of wind energy. Ideally, wind turbines have to be aligned with wind flow at all times. However, this is not the case and there exists and angle between a wind turbine nacelle’s central axis and...

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