22,394 Works

A Chemical Approach to Optimizing Bioactive Glass Dental Composites

S. Aponso, J.G. Ummadi, H. Davis, J. Ferracane & D. Koley
The chemical microenvironment surrounding dental composites plays a crucial role in controlling the bacteria grown on these specialized surfaces. In this study, we report a scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM)–based analytic technique to design and optimize metal ion-releasing bioactive glass (BAG) composites, which showed a significant reduction in biofilm growth. SECM allows positioning of the probe without touching the substrate while mapping the chemical parameters in 3-dimensional space above the substrate. Using SECM and a solid-state...

Testing for Approximate Measurement Invariance of Human Values in the European Social Survey

Jan Cieciuch, Eldad Davidov, René Algesheimer & Peter Schmidt
Measurement invariance is a necessary precondition for meaningful cross-country comparisons, and three levels have been differentiated: configural, metric, and scalar. Unfortunately, establishing the most stringent form, that is, scalar measurement invariance, across groups is difficult. Recently, Muthén and Asparouhov proposed testing for approximate rather than exact measurement invariance, as this may be sufficient for meaningful comparisons. Following their strategy, the results of cross-country approximate measurement invariance tests of the 21-item Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-21) scale...

Who Learns in Information Rich Contexts? The Informative Effects of the 2015 Spanish Electoral Campaign

Monica Ferrín, Marta Fraile & Gema M. García-Albacete
This article analyzes the informative effects of an election campaign in a scenario where new political information entered the competition, given the emergence of two new parties. Using an exhaustive measure of political learning, and thanks to the use of panel data, it shows that at least some of the otherwise “inattentive citizens” were able to learn about politics during the Spanish general election campaign in December 2015. This group predominantly comprised women, the poorly...

Rehabilitation with a stabilizing exercise program in triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions with distal radioulnar joint instability: A pilot intervention study

EDJ Bonhof-Jansen, GJ Kroon, SM Brink & JH Van Uchelen
IntroductionIt is unclear whether rehabilitation with the use of an exercise program can be an alternative to surgery in distal radioulnar joint instability resulting from injuries of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. The purpose of this study was to gain insights into the feasibility and effects in reducing pain and functional limitations by using distal radioulnar stability training.MethodsA prospective pilot cohort intervention study was used including patients with a triangular fibrocartilage complex Palmer 1B lesion and...

Improved Fluorescence Methods for High-Throughput Protein Formulation Screening

Yangjie Wei, Nicholas R. Larson, Siva K. Angalakurthi & C. Russell Middaugh
The goal of protein formulation development is to identify optimal conditions for long-term storage. Certain commercial conditions (e.g., high protein concentration or turbid adjuvanted samples) impart additional challenges to biophysical characterization. Formulation screening studies for such conditions are usually performed using a simplified format in which the target protein is studied at a low concentration in a clear solution. The failure of study conditions to model the actual formulation environment may cause a loss of...

Perceptions and experiences of wrist surgeons on the management of triangular fibrocartilage complex tears: a qualitative study

Vanessa I. Robba, Alexia Karantana, Andrew P. G. Fowler & Claire Diver
There is lack of consensus on the management of triangular fibrocartilage injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate wrist surgeons’ experiences and perceptions regarding treatment of triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries and to explore the rationale behind clinical decision-making. A purposive sample of consultant wrist surgeons (n = 10) was recruited through ‘snow-balling’ until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently analysed data using an iterative/thematic approach....

Knockdown of the ADHD Candidate Gene Diras2 in Murine Hippocampal Primary Cells

Lena Grünewald, Andreas G. Chiocchetti, Heike Weber, Claus-Jürgen Scholz, Christoph Schartner, Florian Freudenberg & Andreas Reif
Objective: The DIRAS2 gene is associated with ADHD, but its function is largely unknown. Thus, we aimed to explore the genes and molecular pathways affected by DIRAS2. Method: Using short hairpin RNAs, we downregulated Diras2 in murine hippocampal primary cells. Gene expression was analyzed by microarray and affected pathways were identified. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to confirm expression changes and analyzed enrichment of differentially expressed genes in an ADHD GWAS (genome-wide...

Relationship between physiological and parent-observed auditory over-responsiveness in children with typical development and those with autism spectrum disorders

Hidetoshi Takahashi, Takayuki Nakahachi, Andrew Stickley, Makoto Ishitobi & Yoko Kamio
The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between caregiver-reported sensory processing abnormalities, and the physiological index of auditory over-responsiveness evaluated using acoustic startle response measures, in children with autism spectrum disorders and typical development. Mean acoustic startle response magnitudes in response to 65–105 dB stimuli, in increments of 10 dB, were analyzed in children with autism spectrum disorders and with typical development. Average peak startle latency was also examined. We examined the relationship of these...

Flipped Classroom Teaching and Learning Pedagogy in the Program Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Graduate Course: Students’ Experiences

Bojana Berić-Stojšić, Naiya Patel, Janice Blake & Daryl Johnson
This article provides support to flipped classroom pedagogy in the preparation of graduate-level public health practitioners. We describe the participatory, interactive, collaborative, and liberating process of teaching and learning in the Program Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation course, and we provide the results of a cross-sectional study into students’ perceptions of this process. Our investigation found a significant positive correlation between students’ participation in class discussion and classroom learning experiences (Pearson r[49] = .40, p =...

Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound After Autologous Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Transplantation for Bone-Tendon Healing in a Rabbit Model

Can Chen, Tao Zhang, Fei Liu, Jin Qu, Yang Chen, Silong Fan, Huabin Chen, Lunquan Sun, Chunfeng Zhao, Jianzhong Hu & Hongbin Lu
Background:Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), as a safe biophysiotherapy, can enhance bone-tendon (B-T) healing in vivo and induce osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. This study aimed to determine whether LIPUS can improve the efficacy of transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells on B-T healing.Hypothesis:LIPUS can induce lineage-specific differentiation of transplanted adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) at the B-T healing site, thus resulting in superior healing quality when compared with LIPUS or ASCs alone.Study Design:Controlled...

War, Rebellion, and Intervention under Hierarchy: Vietnam–China Relations, 1365 to 1841

David C. Kang, Dat X. Nguyen, Ronan Tse-Min Fu & Meredith Shaw
What does international hierarchy look like? The emerging literatures on hierarchy and international orders remain overwhelmingly focused on the contemporary era and on the great powers that comprise the top of the hierarchy. This article addresses that gap by examining diplomacy, war, and domestic politics in the premodern Vietnam–China relationship under the hierarchic tributary system. Specifically, we construct a unique data set of over 1,200 entries, which measures wars and other violence in the region...

Identification of Tools and Techniques to Enhance Interdisciplinary Collaboration During Design and Construction Projects

Yolanda Keys, Susan R. Silverman & Jennie Evans
The purpose of this study was to collect the perceptions of design professionals and clinicians regarding design process success strategies and elements of interprofessional engagement and communication during healthcare design and construction projects. Additional objectives were to gather best practices to maximize clinician engagement and provide tools and techniques to improve interdisciplinary collaboration for future projects. Strategies are needed to enhance the design and construction process and create interactions that benefit not only the project...

Measuring Automatic Cognition: Advancing Dual-Process Research in Sociology

Andrew Miles, Raphaël Charron-Chénier & Cyrus Schleifer
Dual-process models are increasingly popular in sociology as a framework for theorizing the role of automatic cognition in shaping social behavior. However, empirical studies using dual-process models often rely on ad hoc measures such as forced-choice surveys, observation, and interviews whose relationships to underlying cognitive processes are not fully established. In this article, we advance dual-process research in sociology by (1) proposing criteria for measuring automatic cognition, and (2) assessing the empirical performance of two...

Fundamental clinical skills of adult cardiopulmonary bypass: results of the 2017 national survey

Bruce Searles, Edward Darling, Jeffrey Riley & Jason R. Wiles
Introduction:Training students to become entry-level perfusionists requires evaluation and assessment of their clinical skills. While our professional organizations have compiled resources which identify the profession’s knowledge base and categorical skills applied to clinical practice, these resources are lacking the necessary detail to develop validated clinical assessment rubrics. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to identify, through expert opinion, the detailed fundamental skills necessary to perform adult cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods:We define a fundamental skill based...

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing GATA-4 improve cardiac function following myocardial infarction

Ji-Gang He, Hong-Rong Li, Bei-Bei Li, Qiao-Li Xie, Dan Yan & Xue-Juan Wang
Introduction:The present study aimed to examine whether GATA-4 overexpressing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can improve cardiac function in a murine myocardial infarction model compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells alone.Methods:A lentiviral-based transgenic system was used to generate bone mesenchymal stem cells which stably expressed GATA-4 (GATA-4-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells). Apoptosis and the myogenic phenotype of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were measured using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays co-cultured with cardiomyocytes....

Factors Associated With Social Isolation Among the Older People in India

Devaki B. Kotian, Maria Mathews, Shradha S. Parsekar, Suma Nair, V. S. Binu & Sonu Hangma Subba
Objective:To explore the factors associated with social isolation among older people using the data from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India (BKPAI) survey.Methods:Multiple logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis were used to identify the factors associated with social isolation using data from BKPAI survey. An individual was regarded as socially isolated if the response was “never” to all 4 activities in the last 12 months: (1) attending public meeting, (2)...

Is jellyfish more of a fish in English than in Dutch? The effect of informative labels

Farah M Djalal, Wouter Voorspoels, Gert Storms & Tom Heyman
Some words are lexically suggestive about the taxonomic position of their referent (e.g., jellyfish in English), and this information can vary across languages (e.g., in Dutch the equivalent of jellyfish holds no taxonomic information: kwal). To evaluate the role of such lexical suggestions, we conducted a cross-linguistic study in which similarity judgements from two language groups (Dutch and English speakers) were compared. We paired asymmetrically informative items with items that are considered to be typical...

What helps jazz musicians name tunes from harmony? The relationship between work with harmony and the ability to identify well-known jazz standards from chord progressions

Ivan Jimenez & Tuire Kuusi
Research has shown that musical training is associated with a greater ability to aurally connect chord progressions to specific pieces of music. However, it is unclear what specific aspects of musical training contribute to that ability. The present study investigated the effects of various aspects of professional and amateur jazz musicians’ formal training and work with harmony on their ability to identify well-known jazz standards from chord progressions. For participants who were able to identify...

Time course of chemotaxis and chemokinesis of neutrophils following stimulation with IL-8 or FMLP

Matthias Hattenkofer, Michael Gruber, Sophia Metz, Sophie-Marie Pfaehler, Karla Lehle & Benedikt Trabold
Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) attend to inflammatory sites by chemotactic movement, caused by chemoattractants (CAs) like n-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (FMLP) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). However, distinct but applicable assays for investigations of PMNs’ migration limit in vitro examination. We integrated CD15-bead-based isolation of PMNs with analysing their chemotaxis in a novel 3D-µ-Slide migration chamber. The PMNs were exposed to different concentrations of FMLP and IL-8 (1, 10 and 100 nM) and observed for 180 min in cell-physiological environment conditions. Moving PMNs’...

Extended Mortality and Chronic Kidney Disease After Septic Acute Kidney Injury

Horng-Ruey Chua, Weng-Kin Wong, Venetia Huiling Ong, Dipika Agrawal, Anantharaman Vathsala, Hui-Ming Tay & Amartya Mukhopadhyay
Purpose:To evaluate 1-year mortality in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and to determine association between initial AKI recovery patterns (reversal within 5 days, beyond 5 days but recovery, or nonrecovery) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression.Methods:Prospective observational study, with retrospective evaluation of initial nonconsenters, of critically ill patients with septic AKI.Results:We studied 207 patients (age, mean [SD]: 64 [16] years, 39% males), of which 56 (27%), 18 (9%), and 9 (4%) died in...

Meta-analysis of non-statistically significant unreported effects

Anton Albajes-Eizagirre, Aleix Solanes & Joaquim Radua
Published studies in Medicine (and virtually any other discipline) sometimes report that a difference or correlation did not reach statistical significance but do not report its effect size or any statistic from which the latter may be derived. Unfortunately, meta-analysts should not exclude these studies because their exclusion would bias the meta-analytic outcome, but also they cannot be included as null effect sizes because this strategy is also associated to bias. To overcome this problem,...

Pushing the City Limits: Policy Responsiveness in Municipal Government

Katherine Levine Einstein & Vladimir Kogan
Are city governments capable of responding to the preferences of their constituents? Is the menu of policy options determined by forces beyond their direct control? We answer these questions using a comprehensive cross-sectional database linking voter preferences to local policy outcomes in more than 2,000 midsize cities and a new panel covering cities in two states. Overall, our analysis paints an encouraging picture of democracy in the city: we document substantial variation in local fiscal...

Pushing the City Limits: Policy Responsiveness in Municipal Government

Katherine Levine Einstein & Vladimir Kogan
Are city governments capable of responding to the preferences of their constituents? Is the menu of policy options determined by forces beyond their direct control? We answer these questions using a comprehensive cross-sectional database linking voter preferences to local policy outcomes in more than 2,000 midsize cities and a new panel covering cities in two states. Overall, our analysis paints an encouraging picture of democracy in the city: we document substantial variation in local fiscal...

Multidimensional scale of self-esteem (EMES-16): Psychometric evaluation of a domain-specific measure of self-esteem for French-speaking adolescents

Baptiste Barbot, Claire Safont-Mottay & Nathalie Oubrayrie-Roussel
The EMES-16 is a very short multidimensional measure of domain-specific Self-Esteem designed for French-speaking adolescents. This study presents a psychometric evaluation of this measure among 2603 adolescents with a focus on its factor structure tested in CFA for alternative, theoretically grounded models. Results revealed the superiority of a domain-specific, and partly hierarchical structure, over unidimensional or fully hierarchical structures. This structure supports the derivation of five domain-specific scores (Emotional, Social, Physical, Academic and Creative Self-Esteem)...

Optimizing the Analytical Performance of Substrate-Integrated Hollow Waveguides: Experiment and Simulation

L. Tamina Hagemann, Sonja Ehrle & Boris Mizaikoff
The goal of this technical note was to compare experimentally and via simulation of eight substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) designs, and to predict promising future iHWG structures in lieu of experiments. The iHWGs differed in their geometry (i.e., inlet funnel cross-section and inner channel cross-section), as well as in their material properties (i.e., type of metal, polish of inner channel). Experimentally, calibration functions of isobutane as a model analyte were determined, and the analytical figures...

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