70,390 Works

Neurovascular coupling and cerebral autoregulation in atrial fibrillation

Rehan T Junejo, Igor D Braz, Samuel JE Lucas, Johannes J Van Lieshout, Aaron A Phillips, Gregory YH Lip & James P Fisher
The risk of cognitive decline and stroke is increased by atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to determine whether neurovascular coupling and cerebral autoregulation are blunted in people with AF in comparison with age-matched, patients with hypertension and healthy controls. Neurovascular coupling was assessed using five cycles of visual stimulation for 30 s followed by 30 s with both eyes-closed. Cerebral autoregulation was examined using a sit–stand test, and a repeated squat-to-stand (0.1 Hz) manoeuvre with...

Neurovascular coupling and cerebral autoregulation in atrial fibrillation

Rehan T Junejo, Igor D Braz, Samuel JE Lucas, Johannes J Van Lieshout, Aaron A Phillips, Gregory YH Lip & James P Fisher
The risk of cognitive decline and stroke is increased by atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to determine whether neurovascular coupling and cerebral autoregulation are blunted in people with AF in comparison with age-matched, patients with hypertension and healthy controls. Neurovascular coupling was assessed using five cycles of visual stimulation for 30 s followed by 30 s with both eyes-closed. Cerebral autoregulation was examined using a sit–stand test, and a repeated squat-to-stand (0.1 Hz) manoeuvre with...

Dynamics of the cerebral blood flow response to brief neural activity in human visual cortex

Jung Hwan Kim, Amanda J Taylor, Danny JJ Wang, Xiaowei Zou & David Ress
The blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal depends on an interplay of cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen metabolism, and cerebral blood volume. Despite wide usage of BOLD fMRI, it is not clear how these physiological components create the BOLD signal. Here, baseline CBF and its dynamics evoked by a brief stimulus (2 s) in human visual cortex were measured at 3T. We found a stereotypical CBF response: immediate increase, rising to...

Dynamics of the cerebral blood flow response to brief neural activity in human visual cortex

Jung Hwan Kim, Amanda J Taylor, Danny JJ Wang, Xiaowei Zou & David Ress
The blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal depends on an interplay of cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen metabolism, and cerebral blood volume. Despite wide usage of BOLD fMRI, it is not clear how these physiological components create the BOLD signal. Here, baseline CBF and its dynamics evoked by a brief stimulus (2 s) in human visual cortex were measured at 3T. We found a stereotypical CBF response: immediate increase, rising to...

A monotone data augmentation algorithm for longitudinal data analysis via multivariate skew-t, skew-normal or t distributions

Yongqiang Tang
The mixed effects model for repeated measures has been widely used for the analysis of longitudinal clinical data collected at a number of fixed time points. We propose a robust extension of the mixed effects model for repeated measures for skewed and heavy-tailed data on basis of the multivariate skew-t distribution, and it includes the multivariate normal, t, and skew-normal distributions as special cases. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed using the...

A monotone data augmentation algorithm for longitudinal data analysis via multivariate skew-t, skew-normal or t distributions

Yongqiang Tang
The mixed effects model for repeated measures has been widely used for the analysis of longitudinal clinical data collected at a number of fixed time points. We propose a robust extension of the mixed effects model for repeated measures for skewed and heavy-tailed data on basis of the multivariate skew-t distribution, and it includes the multivariate normal, t, and skew-normal distributions as special cases. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed using the...

A monotone data augmentation algorithm for longitudinal data analysis via multivariate skew-t, skew-normal or t distributions

Yongqiang Tang
The mixed effects model for repeated measures has been widely used for the analysis of longitudinal clinical data collected at a number of fixed time points. We propose a robust extension of the mixed effects model for repeated measures for skewed and heavy-tailed data on basis of the multivariate skew-t distribution, and it includes the multivariate normal, t, and skew-normal distributions as special cases. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed using the...

Exploring how therapeutic horse riding improves health outcomes using a realist framework

Rachelle A Martin, Fiona P Graham, William MM Levack, William J Taylor & Lois J Surgenor
IntroductionEvaluating how therapeutic horse riding improves health for children experiencing disability is made complex by a lack of clarity around mechanisms of treatment effect. This research develops an explanatory theory outlining how health outcomes may be optimised, by exploring what works for which riders, under what conditions and how.MethodWithin a realist research framework, we undertook three phases of study using a mix of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis approaches. Findings were then integrated...

Exploring how therapeutic horse riding improves health outcomes using a realist framework

Rachelle A Martin, Fiona P Graham, William MM Levack, William J Taylor & Lois J Surgenor
IntroductionEvaluating how therapeutic horse riding improves health for children experiencing disability is made complex by a lack of clarity around mechanisms of treatment effect. This research develops an explanatory theory outlining how health outcomes may be optimised, by exploring what works for which riders, under what conditions and how.MethodWithin a realist research framework, we undertook three phases of study using a mix of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis approaches. Findings were then integrated...

Evolution of the Norwegian plateau icefield Hardangerjøkulen since the ‘Little Ice Age’

Paul Weber, Clare M Boston, Harold Lovell & Liss M Andreassen
The maximum ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) glacier extent provides a significant baseline to assess long-term glacier change and to place currently observed rates of glacier recession in a broader temporal context. To that end, we examine the evolution of the plateau icefield Hardangerjøkulen since the LIA. First, we reconstruct Hardangerjøkulen’s maximum LIA extent (~AD 1750) and subsequent recession based on the glacial landform record and aided by historical map interpretation. Ice-marginal moraines, glacial drift limits,...

Evolution of the Norwegian plateau icefield Hardangerjøkulen since the ‘Little Ice Age’

Paul Weber, Clare M Boston, Harold Lovell & Liss M Andreassen
The maximum ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) glacier extent provides a significant baseline to assess long-term glacier change and to place currently observed rates of glacier recession in a broader temporal context. To that end, we examine the evolution of the plateau icefield Hardangerjøkulen since the LIA. First, we reconstruct Hardangerjøkulen’s maximum LIA extent (~AD 1750) and subsequent recession based on the glacial landform record and aided by historical map interpretation. Ice-marginal moraines, glacial drift limits,...

Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use

John M Corkery, Peter Streete, Hugh Claridge, Christine Goodair, Duccio Papanti, Laura Orsolini, Fabrizio Schifano, Kanav Sikka, Sophie Körber & Amy Hendricks
Background:Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth) use has increased in Western countries, with a rising number of associated deaths. There is growing debate about the involvement of kratom in these events.Aims:This study details the characteristics of such fatalities and provides a ‘state-of-the-art’ review.Methods:UK cases were identified from mortality registers by searching with the terms ‘kratom’, ‘mitragynine’, etc. Databases and online media were searched using these terms and ‘death’, ‘fatal*’, ‘overdose’, ‘poisoning’, etc. to identify additional cases; details...

Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use

John M Corkery, Peter Streete, Hugh Claridge, Christine Goodair, Duccio Papanti, Laura Orsolini, Fabrizio Schifano, Kanav Sikka, Sophie Körber & Amy Hendricks
Background:Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth) use has increased in Western countries, with a rising number of associated deaths. There is growing debate about the involvement of kratom in these events.Aims:This study details the characteristics of such fatalities and provides a ‘state-of-the-art’ review.Methods:UK cases were identified from mortality registers by searching with the terms ‘kratom’, ‘mitragynine’, etc. Databases and online media were searched using these terms and ‘death’, ‘fatal*’, ‘overdose’, ‘poisoning’, etc. to identify additional cases; details...

Agglomeration and innovation: Selection or true effect?

Li Fang
This paper separates two mechanisms through which agglomeration increases average firm innovation: selection (less innovative firms being forced out of agglomerations) and true agglomeration (firms become more innovative). I apply a quantile regression to estimate the distribution of firm innovation and separate these two mechanisms. Linking a unique establishment-level dataset with the patent dataset in the state of Maryland for the period 2004–2013, I find that a 1-mile radius area with above-median employment concentration significantly...

Agglomeration and innovation: Selection or true effect?

Li Fang
This paper separates two mechanisms through which agglomeration increases average firm innovation: selection (less innovative firms being forced out of agglomerations) and true agglomeration (firms become more innovative). I apply a quantile regression to estimate the distribution of firm innovation and separate these two mechanisms. Linking a unique establishment-level dataset with the patent dataset in the state of Maryland for the period 2004–2013, I find that a 1-mile radius area with above-median employment concentration significantly...

Patient Feedback on a Warfarin Action Plan Used in a Local Australian Physician Practice Setting

Angela W.P. Yiu, Beata V. Bajorek, Vincent W. Lee & Kingsley K. Ng
Background:Warfarin is a high-risk medicine, and older persons (those aged 65 years and older)1,2 who take this therapy need medicines information about it that is at a level which is both understandable and comprehensive to improve their knowledge about the risks and benefits of warfarin therapy.3,4 Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to report patient feedback on a Warfarin Action Plan (WAP) (leaflet) and identify patients’ preferences regarding its content and format. The...

Patient Feedback on a Warfarin Action Plan Used in a Local Australian Physician Practice Setting

Angela W.P. Yiu, Beata V. Bajorek, Vincent W. Lee & Kingsley K. Ng
Background:Warfarin is a high-risk medicine, and older persons (those aged 65 years and older)1,2 who take this therapy need medicines information about it that is at a level which is both understandable and comprehensive to improve their knowledge about the risks and benefits of warfarin therapy.3,4 Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to report patient feedback on a Warfarin Action Plan (WAP) (leaflet) and identify patients’ preferences regarding its content and format. The...

Associations between social control, motivation, and exercise: How romantic partners influence exercise during young adulthood

Tiffany L Berzins, Judith Gere, Scout M Kelly & John A Updegraff
This study investigated whether positive and negative romantic partner social control attempts (persuasion and pressure, respectively) were related to approach-avoidance motives and exercise among young adults (N = 98), using daily reports. Daily persuasion was linked to higher daily approach motives. At the person level, persuasion was associated with higher approach and avoidance motives in addition to more frequent, longer exercise. Pressure was associated with higher daily relationship stress, which was associated with higher daily...

Associations between social control, motivation, and exercise: How romantic partners influence exercise during young adulthood

Tiffany L Berzins, Judith Gere, Scout M Kelly & John A Updegraff
This study investigated whether positive and negative romantic partner social control attempts (persuasion and pressure, respectively) were related to approach-avoidance motives and exercise among young adults (N = 98), using daily reports. Daily persuasion was linked to higher daily approach motives. At the person level, persuasion was associated with higher approach and avoidance motives in addition to more frequent, longer exercise. Pressure was associated with higher daily relationship stress, which was associated with higher daily...

Commitment to Rebellion: Evidence from Syria

Vera Mironova, Loubna Mrie & Sam Whitt
What sustains commitment to rebel fighting during civil war? Using original survey data from the ongoing conflict in Syria, we examine whether self-ascribed rebel fighters, former fighters, civilians, and refugees can be clearly differentiated based on commitment to rebellion. We ask whether such groups are better characterized as a broadly holistic fighting community or a heterogeneous mix of actors with different levels of support for violence. Using a well-balanced sample of over 300 active and...

Commitment to Rebellion: Evidence from Syria

Vera Mironova, Loubna Mrie & Sam Whitt
What sustains commitment to rebel fighting during civil war? Using original survey data from the ongoing conflict in Syria, we examine whether self-ascribed rebel fighters, former fighters, civilians, and refugees can be clearly differentiated based on commitment to rebellion. We ask whether such groups are better characterized as a broadly holistic fighting community or a heterogeneous mix of actors with different levels of support for violence. Using a well-balanced sample of over 300 active and...

EPM 20/20: A Review, Framework, and Research Agenda for Electronic Performance Monitoring

Daniel M. Ravid, David L. Tomczak, Jerod C. White & Tara S. Behrend
Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) refers to the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to job performance. The last comprehensive review of the EPM literature was published in 2000. Since 2000, dramatic advances in information technologies have created an environment in which organizations are able to monitor employees to a greater extent and with greater intensity than was previously possible. Moreover, since that time, considerable research has...

EPM 20/20: A Review, Framework, and Research Agenda for Electronic Performance Monitoring

Daniel M. Ravid, David L. Tomczak, Jerod C. White & Tara S. Behrend
Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) refers to the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to job performance. The last comprehensive review of the EPM literature was published in 2000. Since 2000, dramatic advances in information technologies have created an environment in which organizations are able to monitor employees to a greater extent and with greater intensity than was previously possible. Moreover, since that time, considerable research has...

Sonogashira coupling reactions: Synthesis of 4-substituted-6-methyl-2-(methylthio)pyrimidines catalyzed by Pd–Cu

Fatemeh Rezaeimanesh, Mohammad Bakherad & Hossein Nasr-Isfahani
An efficient method is developed for the synthesis of 4-(3-arylprop-2-ynyloxy)-6-methyl-2-(methylthio)pyrimidines via palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira reactions of 4-methyl-2-(methylthio)-6-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)pyrimidine with electron-poor aryl iodides in acetonitrile at room temperature. Excellent yields of the products were obtained in reaction times of 9–11 h.

Sonogashira coupling reactions: Synthesis of 4-substituted-6-methyl-2-(methylthio)pyrimidines catalyzed by Pd–Cu

Fatemeh Rezaeimanesh, Mohammad Bakherad & Hossein Nasr-Isfahani
An efficient method is developed for the synthesis of 4-(3-arylprop-2-ynyloxy)-6-methyl-2-(methylthio)pyrimidines via palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira reactions of 4-methyl-2-(methylthio)-6-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)pyrimidine with electron-poor aryl iodides in acetonitrile at room temperature. Excellent yields of the products were obtained in reaction times of 9–11 h.

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  • 2019
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