321,299 Works

Supplementary material from "Biased movement drives local cryptic coloration on distinct urban pavements"

Pim Edelaar, Adrian Baños-Villalba, David P. Quevedo, Graciela Escudero, Daniel I. Bolnick & Aída Jordán-Andrade
Explanations of how organisms might adapt to urban environments have mostly focused on divergent natural selection and adaptive plasticity. However, differential habitat choice has been suggested as an alternative. Here, we test for habitat choice in enhancing crypsis in ground-perching grasshoppers colonizing an urbanized environment, composed of a mosaic of four distinctly coloured substrates (asphalt roads and adjacent pavements). Additionally, we determine its relative importance compared to present-day natural selection and phenotypic plasticity. We found...

Supplementary material from "Biased movement drives local cryptic coloration on distinct urban pavements"

Pim Edelaar, Adrian Baños-Villalba, David P. Quevedo, Graciela Escudero, Daniel I. Bolnick & Aída Jordán-Andrade
Explanations of how organisms might adapt to urban environments have mostly focused on divergent natural selection and adaptive plasticity. However, differential habitat choice has been suggested as an alternative. Here, we test for habitat choice in enhancing crypsis in ground-perching grasshoppers colonizing an urbanized environment, composed of a mosaic of four distinctly coloured substrates (asphalt roads and adjacent pavements). Additionally, we determine its relative importance compared to present-day natural selection and phenotypic plasticity. We found...

Supplementary material from "Fear effects associated with predator presence and habitat structure interact to alter herbivory on coral reefs"

Andrew G. Bauman, Jovena C. L. Seah, Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley, Andrew S. Hoey, Jenny Fong & Peter A. Todd
Non-consumptive fear effects are an important determinant of foraging decisions by consumers across a range of ecosystems. However, how fear effects associated with the presence of predators interact with those associated with habitat structure remains unclear. Here, we used predator fish models (Plectropomus leopardus) and experimental patches of the macroalga Sargassum ilicifolium of varying densities to investigate how predator- and habitat-associated fear effects influence herbivory on coral reefs. We found the removal of macroalgal biomass...

Supplementary material from "Fear effects associated with predator presence and habitat structure interact to alter herbivory on coral reefs"

Andrew G. Bauman, Jovena C. L. Seah, Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley, Andrew S. Hoey, Jenny Fong & Peter A. Todd
Non-consumptive fear effects are an important determinant of foraging decisions by consumers across a range of ecosystems. However, how fear effects associated with the presence of predators interact with those associated with habitat structure remains unclear. Here, we used predator fish models (Plectropomus leopardus) and experimental patches of the macroalga Sargassum ilicifolium of varying densities to investigate how predator- and habitat-associated fear effects influence herbivory on coral reefs. We found the removal of macroalgal biomass...

Source rupture process of the 2018 Hokkaido Eastern Iburi earthquake deduced from strong-motion data considering seismic wave propagation in three-dimensional velocity structure

Kimiyuki Asano & Tomotaka Iwata
Abstract The source rupture process of the 2018 Hokkaido Eastern Iburi earthquake (MJMA 6.7) was analyzed by a kinematic waveform inversion method using strong-motion data in 0.04–0.5 Hz. This earthquake occurred close to the Hidaka Collision Zone and the Ishikari depression, where the crustal structure is rather complex. Thus, we used a three-dimensional velocity structure model to compute the theoretical Green’s functions by the finite difference method. A source fault model with strike-angle variation was...

Clinical characteristics and mutation Spectrum of NF1 in 12 Chinese families with orbital/periorbital plexiform Neurofibromatosis type 1

Peiwei Chai, Yingxiu Luo, Chuandi Zhou, Yefei Wang, Xianqun Fan & Renbing Jia
Abstract Background Orbital/periorbital plexiform neurofibroma (OPPN) can compromise physical appearance and visual function. However, the clinical characteristics and NF1 mutation landscape in patients with heritable OPPN have not been reported. Methods The medical charts of 26 Chinese patients with OPPN from 12 families were reviewed. Mutation analysis of the entire coding region and flanking splice sites of the NF1 gene was performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Novel NF1 mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results...

Clinical characteristics and mutation Spectrum of NF1 in 12 Chinese families with orbital/periorbital plexiform Neurofibromatosis type 1

Peiwei Chai, Yingxiu Luo, Chuandi Zhou, Yefei Wang, Xianqun Fan & Renbing Jia
Abstract Background Orbital/periorbital plexiform neurofibroma (OPPN) can compromise physical appearance and visual function. However, the clinical characteristics and NF1 mutation landscape in patients with heritable OPPN have not been reported. Methods The medical charts of 26 Chinese patients with OPPN from 12 families were reviewed. Mutation analysis of the entire coding region and flanking splice sites of the NF1 gene was performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Novel NF1 mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results...

Immunosuppression by monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with pancreatic ductal carcinoma is orchestrated by STAT3

Rosalinda Trovato, Alessandra Fiore, Sara Sartori, Stefania Canè, Rosalba Giugno, Luciano Cascione, Salvatore Paiella, Roberto Salvia, Francesco Sanctis, Ornella Poffe, Cristina Anselmi, Francesca Hofer, Silvia Sartoris, Geny Piro, Carmine Carbone, Vincenzo Corbo, Rita Lawlor, Samantha Solito, Laura Pinton, Susanna Mandruzzato, Claudio Bassi, Aldo Scarpa, Vincenzo Bronte & Stefano Ugel
Abstract Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly devastating disease with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 8%. New evidence indicates that PDAC cells release pro-inflammatory metabolites that induce a marked alteration of normal hematopoiesis, favoring the expansion and accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We report here that PDAC patients show increased levels of both circulating and tumor-infiltrating MDSC-like cells. Methods The frequency of MDSC subsets in the peripheral blood was...

Immunosuppression by monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with pancreatic ductal carcinoma is orchestrated by STAT3

Rosalinda Trovato, Alessandra Fiore, Sara Sartori, Stefania Canè, Rosalba Giugno, Luciano Cascione, Salvatore Paiella, Roberto Salvia, Francesco Sanctis, Ornella Poffe, Cristina Anselmi, Francesca Hofer, Silvia Sartoris, Geny Piro, Carmine Carbone, Vincenzo Corbo, Rita Lawlor, Samantha Solito, Laura Pinton, Susanna Mandruzzato, Claudio Bassi, Aldo Scarpa, Vincenzo Bronte & Stefano Ugel
Abstract Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly devastating disease with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 8%. New evidence indicates that PDAC cells release pro-inflammatory metabolites that induce a marked alteration of normal hematopoiesis, favoring the expansion and accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We report here that PDAC patients show increased levels of both circulating and tumor-infiltrating MDSC-like cells. Methods The frequency of MDSC subsets in the peripheral blood was...

Defective angiogenesis in CXCL12 mutant mice impairs skeletal muscle regeneration

David Hardy, MylèNe Fefeu, Aurore Besnard, David Briand, PamÊla Gasse, Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos, Pierre Rocheteau & Fabrice ChrÊtien
Abstract Background During muscle regeneration, the chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1) and the synthesis of some specific heparan sulfates (HS) have been shown to be critical. CXCL12 activity has been shown to be heavily influenced by its binding to extracellular glycosaminoglycans (GAG) by modulating its presentation to its receptors and by generating haptotactic gradients. Although CXCL12 has been implicated in several phases of tissue repair, the influence of GAG binding under HS influencing conditions such as acute...

Defective angiogenesis in CXCL12 mutant mice impairs skeletal muscle regeneration

David Hardy, MylèNe Fefeu, Aurore Besnard, David Briand, PamÊla Gasse, Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos, Pierre Rocheteau & Fabrice ChrÊtien
Abstract Background During muscle regeneration, the chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1) and the synthesis of some specific heparan sulfates (HS) have been shown to be critical. CXCL12 activity has been shown to be heavily influenced by its binding to extracellular glycosaminoglycans (GAG) by modulating its presentation to its receptors and by generating haptotactic gradients. Although CXCL12 has been implicated in several phases of tissue repair, the influence of GAG binding under HS influencing conditions such as acute...

Fluorescence optical imaging for treatment monitoring in patients with early and active rheumatoid arthritis in a 1-year follow-up period

Anne-Marie Glimm, Lisa Sprenger, Ida Haugen, Ulrich Mansmann, Sandra Hermann, Thomas Häupl, Paula Hoff, Gerd-Rüdiger Burmester, Marina Backhaus, Lien Le & Sarah Ohrndorf
Abstract Background Fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) enables visualization of inflammation in the hands in rheumatic joint diseases with currently a lack of long-term follow-up studies. Objective To investigate FOI for treatment monitoring in a homogenous cohort of patients with early (disease duration 3.2) RA over a period of 12 months. Methods Thirty-five RA patients (24 (68.6%) females, mean age 53.3 years (SD 13.6)) were investigated clinically by DAS28, tender joint count (TJC) and swollen joint...

Fluorescence optical imaging for treatment monitoring in patients with early and active rheumatoid arthritis in a 1-year follow-up period

Anne-Marie Glimm, Lisa Sprenger, Ida Haugen, Ulrich Mansmann, Sandra Hermann, Thomas Häupl, Paula Hoff, Gerd-Rüdiger Burmester, Marina Backhaus, Lien Le & Sarah Ohrndorf
Abstract Background Fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) enables visualization of inflammation in the hands in rheumatic joint diseases with currently a lack of long-term follow-up studies. Objective To investigate FOI for treatment monitoring in a homogenous cohort of patients with early (disease duration 3.2) RA over a period of 12 months. Methods Thirty-five RA patients (24 (68.6%) females, mean age 53.3 years (SD 13.6)) were investigated clinically by DAS28, tender joint count (TJC) and swollen joint...

Psychosocial correlates of regular syphilis and HIV screening practices among female sex workers in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey

Richard Muhindo, Barbara Castelnuovo, Andrew Mujugira, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Nelson Sewankambo, Juliet Kiguli, Nazarius Tumwesigye & Edith Nakku-Joloba
Abstract Background Limited data are available regarding correlates of regular sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV screening among female sex workers (FSW) in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we aimed to assess the frequency of regular syphilis and HIV screening and the psychosocial correlates associated with screening among FSW in Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted among 441 FSW, aged 17–49 years. We enrolled FSW through peer referrals and ascertained self-reported data on...

Psychosocial correlates of regular syphilis and HIV screening practices among female sex workers in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey

Richard Muhindo, Barbara Castelnuovo, Andrew Mujugira, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Nelson Sewankambo, Juliet Kiguli, Nazarius Tumwesigye & Edith Nakku-Joloba
Abstract Background Limited data are available regarding correlates of regular sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV screening among female sex workers (FSW) in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we aimed to assess the frequency of regular syphilis and HIV screening and the psychosocial correlates associated with screening among FSW in Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted among 441 FSW, aged 17–49 years. We enrolled FSW through peer referrals and ascertained self-reported data on...

Targeting interferon signaling and CTLA-4 enhance the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in preclinical model of HPV+ oral cancer

Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Venkatesh Hegde, Ravaen Slay, Rachel Sun, Ananta Yanamandra, Courtney Nicholas, Sita Nookala, Gloria Sierra, Michael Curran & K. Sastry
Abstract Background The US is experiencing an epidemic of HPV+ oropharyngeal cancers (OPC), the rates and burden of which now exceed that for cervical cancer. Immunotherapy targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1) on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and/or its ligand PD-L1 on tumor cells, which was effective in several cancers has however, showed efficacy in only less than 15% of patients. Methods We used a preclinical HPV+ oral tumor model, mEER, consisting of mouse tonsil derived epithelial cells...

Targeting interferon signaling and CTLA-4 enhance the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in preclinical model of HPV+ oral cancer

Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Venkatesh Hegde, Ravaen Slay, Rachel Sun, Ananta Yanamandra, Courtney Nicholas, Sita Nookala, Gloria Sierra, Michael Curran & K. Sastry
Abstract Background The US is experiencing an epidemic of HPV+ oropharyngeal cancers (OPC), the rates and burden of which now exceed that for cervical cancer. Immunotherapy targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1) on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and/or its ligand PD-L1 on tumor cells, which was effective in several cancers has however, showed efficacy in only less than 15% of patients. Methods We used a preclinical HPV+ oral tumor model, mEER, consisting of mouse tonsil derived epithelial cells...

Using the behaviour change wheel to explore infant feeding peer support provision; insights from a North West UK evaluation

Gill Thomson & Nicola Crossland
Abstract Background Breastfeeding peer support is advocated in national and international guidelines, but the evidence base is mixed. In the UK, breastfeeding peer support was found to be ineffective in randomised controlled trials, while women report positive impacts on breastfeeding experiences in qualitative studies. A key criticism levied against breastfeeding peer support is the lack of theory underpinning intervention design. Here we use the Behaviour Change Wheel to structure the analysis of evaluation data from...

Using the behaviour change wheel to explore infant feeding peer support provision; insights from a North West UK evaluation

Gill Thomson & Nicola Crossland
Abstract Background Breastfeeding peer support is advocated in national and international guidelines, but the evidence base is mixed. In the UK, breastfeeding peer support was found to be ineffective in randomised controlled trials, while women report positive impacts on breastfeeding experiences in qualitative studies. A key criticism levied against breastfeeding peer support is the lack of theory underpinning intervention design. Here we use the Behaviour Change Wheel to structure the analysis of evaluation data from...

SLC39A8 is a risk factor for schizophrenia in Uygur Chinese: a case-control study

Xuemin Jian, Jianhua Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Zhijian Song, Juan Zhou, Wei Xu, Yahui Liu, Jiawei Shen, Yonggang Wang, Qizhong Yi & Yongyong Shi
Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe mental disease with high morbidity and heritability. The SLC39A8 gene is located in 4q24 and encodes a protein that transports many metal ions. Multiple previous studies found that one of the most pleiotropic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC39A8, rs13107325, is associated with schizophrenia in the European population. However, the polymorphism of this locus is rare in other populations. In China, the Han Chinese and the Uygur Chinese are...

Intergenerational patterns of mental health problems: the role of childhood peer status position

Evelina Landstedt & Ylva Almquist
Abstract Background Past research has established the intergenerational patterning of mental health: children whose parents have mental health problems are more likely to present with similar problems themselves. However, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which factors related to the childâ s own social context, such as peer relationships, matter for this patterning. The aim of the current study was to examine the role of childhood peer status positions for the association in...

Intergenerational patterns of mental health problems: the role of childhood peer status position

Evelina Landstedt & Ylva Almquist
Abstract Background Past research has established the intergenerational patterning of mental health: children whose parents have mental health problems are more likely to present with similar problems themselves. However, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which factors related to the childâ s own social context, such as peer relationships, matter for this patterning. The aim of the current study was to examine the role of childhood peer status positions for the association in...

SLC39A8 is a risk factor for schizophrenia in Uygur Chinese: a case-control study

Xuemin Jian, Jianhua Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Zhijian Song, Juan Zhou, Wei Xu, Yahui Liu, Jiawei Shen, Yonggang Wang, Qizhong Yi & Yongyong Shi
Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe mental disease with high morbidity and heritability. The SLC39A8 gene is located in 4q24 and encodes a protein that transports many metal ions. Multiple previous studies found that one of the most pleiotropic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC39A8, rs13107325, is associated with schizophrenia in the European population. However, the polymorphism of this locus is rare in other populations. In China, the Han Chinese and the Uygur Chinese are...

Association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid dysfunction: a case-control seroprevalence study

Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Agar Ramos-Nevarez, Carlos Guido-Arreola, Sandra Cerrillo-Soto, Alma Pérez-Álamos, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Verónica Gutierrez-Martinez, Antonio Sifuentes-Alvarez, Eda Ramírez-Valles & Edith Contreras-Cisneros
Abstract Background The association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid disease has been poorly studied. Therefore, we sought to determine the association between T. gondii seropositivity and thyroid dysfunction. Methods We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 176 patients suffering from hypothyroidism (n = 161) or hyperthyroidism (n = 15) and 528 control subjects without these diseases in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were determined in sera from...

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein accelerates migration by inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition through TGF-β signaling pathway in esophageal cancer cells

Yuxiang Jin, Xinye Lu, Mingdong Wang, Xuewei Zhao & Lei Xue
Abstract Background The prognosis of esophageal cancer is still dismal because of its high probability of metastasis that is likely related to the cellular process of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recent studies have shown a novel role of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in regulating the migration process of cancer cells and, therefore, linking to progression and poor prognosis of cancer. Methods The expression of XIAP in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) tissues was determined...

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