87,044 Works

Assessing the implementation processes of a large-scale, multi-year quality improvement initiative: survey of health care providers

Donna Goodridge, Masud Rana, Elizabeth Harrison, Thomas Rotter, Roy Dobson, Gary Groot, Sonia Udod & Joshua Lloyd
Abstract Background Beginning in 2012, Lean was introduced to improve health care quality and promote patient-centredness throughout the province of Saskatchewan, Canada with the aim of producing coordinated, system-wide change. Significant investments have been made in training and implementation, although limited evaluation of the outcomes have been reported. In order to better understand the complex influences that make innovations such as Lean â workableâ in practice, Normalization Process Theory guided this study. The objectives of...

Assessing the implementation processes of a large-scale, multi-year quality improvement initiative: survey of health care providers

Donna Goodridge, Masud Rana, Elizabeth Harrison, Thomas Rotter, Roy Dobson, Gary Groot, Sonia Udod & Joshua Lloyd
Abstract Background Beginning in 2012, Lean was introduced to improve health care quality and promote patient-centredness throughout the province of Saskatchewan, Canada with the aim of producing coordinated, system-wide change. Significant investments have been made in training and implementation, although limited evaluation of the outcomes have been reported. In order to better understand the complex influences that make innovations such as Lean “workable” in practice, Normalization Process Theory guided this study. The objectives of the...

Phenotype-driven gene prioritization for rare diseases using graph convolution on heterogeneous networks

Aditya Rao, Saipradeep VG, Thomas Joseph, Sujatha Kotte, Naveen Sivadasan & Rajgopal Srinivasan
Abstract Background One of the major goals of genomic medicine is the identification of causal genomic variants in a patient and their relation to the observed clinical phenotypes. Prioritizing the genomic variants by considering only the genotype information usually identifies a few hundred potential variants. Narrowing it down further to find the causal disease genes and relating them to the observed clinical phenotypes remains a significant challenge, especially for rare diseases. Methods We propose a...

Phenotype-driven gene prioritization for rare diseases using graph convolution on heterogeneous networks

Aditya Rao, Saipradeep VG, Thomas Joseph, Sujatha Kotte, Naveen Sivadasan & Rajgopal Srinivasan
Abstract Background One of the major goals of genomic medicine is the identification of causal genomic variants in a patient and their relation to the observed clinical phenotypes. Prioritizing the genomic variants by considering only the genotype information usually identifies a few hundred potential variants. Narrowing it down further to find the causal disease genes and relating them to the observed clinical phenotypes remains a significant challenge, especially for rare diseases. Methods We propose a...

Manipulating ungulate herbivory in temperate and boreal forests: effects on vegetation and invertebrates. A systematic review

Claes Bernes, Biljana Macura, Bengt Jonsson, Kaisa Junninen, Jörg Müller, Jennie Sandström, Asko Lõhmus & Ellen Macdonald
Abstract Background Livestock grazing and ‘overabundance’ of large wild herbivores in forested areas have long been perceived as conflicting with the aims of both silviculture and forest conservation; however, certain kinds of herbivory can help to maintain habitat values in forest ecosystems. Management of mammalian herbivory in protected forests can, therefore, be a critical tool for biodiversity conservation. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine how forest vegetation and invertebrates are affected...

Manipulating ungulate herbivory in temperate and boreal forests: effects on vegetation and invertebrates. A systematic review

Claes Bernes, Biljana Macura, Bengt Jonsson, Kaisa Junninen, Jörg Müller, Jennie Sandström, Asko Lõhmus & Ellen Macdonald
Abstract Background Livestock grazing and ‘overabundance’ of large wild herbivores in forested areas have long been perceived as conflicting with the aims of both silviculture and forest conservation; however, certain kinds of herbivory can help to maintain habitat values in forest ecosystems. Management of mammalian herbivory in protected forests can, therefore, be a critical tool for biodiversity conservation. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine how forest vegetation and invertebrates are affected...

What is the effect of prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forest on biodiversity, beyond pyrophilous and saproxylic species? A systematic review

Jacqualyn Eales, Neal Haddaway, Claes Bernes, Steven Cooke, Bengt Jonsson, Jari Kouki, Gillian Petrokofsky & Jessica Taylor
Abstract Background While the effects of prescribed burning on tree regeneration and on pyrophilous and/or saproxylic species are relatively well known, effects on other organisms are less clear. The primary aim of this systematic review was to clarify how biodiversity is affected by prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forests, and whether burning may be useful as a means of conserving or restoring biodiversity, beyond that of pyrophilous and saproxylic species. Methods The review examined...

What is the effect of prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forest on biodiversity, beyond pyrophilous and saproxylic species? A systematic review

Jacqualyn Eales, Neal Haddaway, Claes Bernes, Steven Cooke, Bengt Jonsson, Jari Kouki, Gillian Petrokofsky & Jessica Taylor
Abstract Background While the effects of prescribed burning on tree regeneration and on pyrophilous and/or saproxylic species are relatively well known, effects on other organisms are less clear. The primary aim of this systematic review was to clarify how biodiversity is affected by prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forests, and whether burning may be useful as a means of conserving or restoring biodiversity, beyond that of pyrophilous and saproxylic species. Methods The review examined...

What specific plant traits support ecosystem services such as pollination, bio-control and water quality protection in temperate climates? A systematic map

Claire Cresswell, Heidi Cunningham, Andrew Wilcox & Nicola Randall
Abstract Background Agricultural intensification has contributed to increased diffuse source pollution within water catchments, reduced heterogeneity within the landscape and caused major declines in farmland wildlife. This decrease in biodiversity has been shown to decrease vital ecosystem services such as pollination, biological pest control (bio-control) and water quality protection. The morphological traits of plant species, such as floral display size and leaf area, provide support to these services and vegetative strips can be established with...

What specific plant traits support ecosystem services such as pollination, bio-control and water quality protection in temperate climates? A systematic map

Claire Cresswell, Heidi Cunningham, Andrew Wilcox & Nicola Randall
Abstract Background Agricultural intensification has contributed to increased diffuse source pollution within water catchments, reduced heterogeneity within the landscape and caused major declines in farmland wildlife. This decrease in biodiversity has been shown to decrease vital ecosystem services such as pollination, biological pest control (bio-control) and water quality protection. The morphological traits of plant species, such as floral display size and leaf area, provide support to these services and vegetative strips can be established with...

How have carbon stocks in central and southern Africa’s miombo woodlands changed over the last 50 years? A systematic map of the evidence

Davison Gumbo, Jessica Clendenning, Christopher Martius, Kaala Moombe, Isla Grundy, Robert Nasi, Kondwani Mumba, Natasha Ribeiro, Gillian Kabwe & Gillian Petrokofsky
Abstract Background Miombo woodlands cover ≈ 2.7 million km2 of central and southern Africa between dry (650 mm mean annual rainfall) and moist miombo (1400 mm) and are currently threatened by land use and land cover changes that have intensified over the last 50 years. Despite the miombo’s global significance for carbon (C) storage and sequestration, there has been no regional synthesis that maps carbon stocks and changes in the woodlands. This information is crucial...

How have carbon stocks in central and southern Africa’s miombo woodlands changed over the last 50 years? A systematic map of the evidence

Davison Gumbo, Jessica Clendenning, Christopher Martius, Kaala Moombe, Isla Grundy, Robert Nasi, Kondwani Mumba, Natasha Ribeiro, Gillian Kabwe & Gillian Petrokofsky
Abstract Background Miombo woodlands cover ≈ 2.7 million km2 of central and southern Africa between dry (650 mm mean annual rainfall) and moist miombo (1400 mm) and are currently threatened by land use and land cover changes that have intensified over the last 50 years. Despite the miombo’s global significance for carbon (C) storage and sequestration, there has been no regional synthesis that maps carbon stocks and changes in the woodlands. This information is crucial...

To what extent do mesophotic coral ecosystems and shallow reefs share species of conservation interest? A systematic review

Jack Laverick, Shanice Piango, Dominic Andradi-Brown, Dan Exton, Pim Bongaerts, Tom Bridge, Michael Lesser, Richard Pyle, Marc Slattery, Daniel Wagner & Alex Rogers
Abstract Background Globally, shallow-water coral reef biodiversity is at risk from a variety of threats, some of which may attenuate with depth. Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs), occurring from 30 to 40 m and deeper in tropical locations, have been subject to a surge of research this century. Though a number of valuable narrative reviews exist, a systematic quantitative synthesis of published MCE studies is lacking. We conducted a systematic review to collate mesophotic research, including...

To what extent do mesophotic coral ecosystems and shallow reefs share species of conservation interest? A systematic review

Jack Laverick, Shanice Piango, Dominic Andradi-Brown, Dan Exton, Pim Bongaerts, Tom Bridge, Michael Lesser, Richard Pyle, Marc Slattery, Daniel Wagner & Alex Rogers
Abstract Background Globally, shallow-water coral reef biodiversity is at risk from a variety of threats, some of which may attenuate with depth. Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs), occurring from 30 to 40 m and deeper in tropical locations, have been subject to a surge of research this century. Though a number of valuable narrative reviews exist, a systematic quantitative synthesis of published MCE studies is lacking. We conducted a systematic review to collate mesophotic research, including...

Can linear transportation infrastructure verges constitute a habitat and/or a corridor for insects in temperate landscapes? A systematic review

Anne Villemey, Arzhvaël Jeusset, Marianne Vargac, Yves Bertheau, Aurélie Coulon, Julien Touroult, Sylvie Vanpeene, Bastien Castagneyrol, Hervé Jactel, Isabelle Witte, Nadine Deniaud, Frédérique Flamerie De Lachapelle, Emmanuel Jaslier, Véronique Roy, Eric Guinard, Eric Le Mitouard, Vanessa Rauel & Romain Sordello
Abstract Background The role of linear transportation infrastructures (roads, railways, oil and gas pipelines, power lines, rivers and canals) in fragmenting natural habitats is fully acknowledged. Up to now, the potential of linear transportation infrastructures verges (road and railway embankments, strips of grass under power lines or above buried pipelines, or waterway banks) as habitat or corridor for biodiversity, remains controversial. In a context of decreasing natural habitats, the opportunities of anthropogenic areas for contributing...

Can linear transportation infrastructure verges constitute a habitat and/or a corridor for insects in temperate landscapes? A systematic review

Anne Villemey, Arzhvaël Jeusset, Marianne Vargac, Yves Bertheau, Aurélie Coulon, Julien Touroult, Sylvie Vanpeene, Bastien Castagneyrol, Hervé Jactel, Isabelle Witte, Nadine Deniaud, Frédérique Flamerie De Lachapelle, Emmanuel Jaslier, Véronique Roy, Eric Guinard, Eric Le Mitouard, Vanessa Rauel & Romain Sordello
Abstract Background The role of linear transportation infrastructures (roads, railways, oil and gas pipelines, power lines, rivers and canals) in fragmenting natural habitats is fully acknowledged. Up to now, the potential of linear transportation infrastructures verges (road and railway embankments, strips of grass under power lines or above buried pipelines, or waterway banks) as habitat or corridor for biodiversity, remains controversial. In a context of decreasing natural habitats, the opportunities of anthropogenic areas for contributing...

What is the available evidence for the application of genome editing as a new tool for plant trait modification and the potential occurrence of associated off-target effects: a systematic map protocol

Dominik Modrzejewski, Frank Hartung, Thorben Sprink, DĂśrthe Krause, Christian Kohl, Joachim Schiemann & Ralf Wilhelm
Abstract Background Plant breeding is a developing process and breeding methods have continuously evolved over time. In recent years, genome editing techniques such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated proteins (CRISPR/Cas), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), meganucleases (MN) and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODM) enabled a precise modification of DNA sequences in plants. Genome editing has already been applied in a wide range of plant species due to its simplicity, time saving...

What is the available evidence for the application of genome editing as a new tool for plant trait modification and the potential occurrence of associated off-target effects: a systematic map protocol

Dominik Modrzejewski, Frank Hartung, Thorben Sprink, Dörthe Krause, Christian Kohl, Joachim Schiemann & Ralf Wilhelm
Abstract Background Plant breeding is a developing process and breeding methods have continuously evolved over time. In recent years, genome editing techniques such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated proteins (CRISPR/Cas), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), meganucleases (MN) and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODM) enabled a precise modification of DNA sequences in plants. Genome editing has already been applied in a wide range of plant species due to its simplicity, time saving...

How does roadside vegetation management affect the diversity of vascular plants and invertebrates? A systematic review

Simon Jakobsson, Claes Bernes, James Bullock, Kris Verheyen & Regina Lindborg
Abstract Background With appropriate management, based on vegetation removal that reverses late-successional vegetation stages, roadsides can support high levels of biodiversity. However, current recommendations for roadside management to conserve or restore biodiversity are largely based on research on non-roadside grassland habitats, and much of the evidence on how roadside management practices affect biodiversity is found in non-peer-reviewed grey literature. Therefore, based on suggestions from key stakeholders and an initial systematic map that identified 97 studies...

The multifunctional roles of vegetated strips around and within agricultural fields

Neal Haddaway, Colin Brown, Jacqui Eales, Sönke Eggers, Jonas Josefsson, Brian Kronvang, Nicola Randall & Jaana Uusi-Kämppä
Abstract Background Agriculture can have substantial negative impacts on the environment. The establishment and management of vegetated strips adjacent to farmed fields (including various field margins, buffer strips and hedgerows) are commonly advocated mitigation measures for these negative environmental impacts. However, it may be difficult to obtain reliable evidence on the effects of implementation and management of vegetated strips, even though a substantial body of evidence exists. We describe a systematic map of research relating...

How does roadside vegetation management affect the diversity of vascular plants and invertebrates? A systematic review

Simon Jakobsson, Claes Bernes, James Bullock, Kris Verheyen & Regina Lindborg
Abstract Background With appropriate management, based on vegetation removal that reverses late-successional vegetation stages, roadsides can support high levels of biodiversity. However, current recommendations for roadside management to conserve or restore biodiversity are largely based on research on non-roadside grassland habitats, and much of the evidence on how roadside management practices affect biodiversity is found in non-peer-reviewed grey literature. Therefore, based on suggestions from key stakeholders and an initial systematic map that identified 97 studies...

The multifunctional roles of vegetated strips around and within agricultural fields

Neal Haddaway, Colin Brown, Jacqui Eales, Sönke Eggers, Jonas Josefsson, Brian Kronvang, Nicola Randall & Jaana Uusi-Kämppä
Abstract Background Agriculture can have substantial negative impacts on the environment. The establishment and management of vegetated strips adjacent to farmed fields (including various field margins, buffer strips and hedgerows) are commonly advocated mitigation measures for these negative environmental impacts. However, it may be difficult to obtain reliable evidence on the effects of implementation and management of vegetated strips, even though a substantial body of evidence exists. We describe a systematic map of research relating...

Absence of evidence for the conservation outcomes of systematic conservation planning around the globe: a systematic map

Emma McIntosh, Sarah Chapman, Stephen Kearney, Brooke Williams, Glenn Althor, Jessica Thorn, Robert Pressey, Madeleine McKinnon & Richard Grenyer
Abstract Background Systematic conservation planning is a discipline concerned with the prioritisation of resources for biodiversity conservation and is often used in the design or assessment of terrestrial and marine protected area networks. Despite being an evidence-based discipline, to date there has been no comprehensive review of the outcomes of systematic conservation plans and assessments of the relative effectiveness of applications in different contexts. To address this fundamental gap in knowledge, our primary research question...

Absence of evidence for the conservation outcomes of systematic conservation planning around the globe: a systematic map

Emma McIntosh, Sarah Chapman, Stephen Kearney, Brooke Williams, Glenn Althor, Jessica Thorn, Robert Pressey, Madeleine McKinnon & Richard Grenyer
Abstract Background Systematic conservation planning is a discipline concerned with the prioritisation of resources for biodiversity conservation and is often used in the design or assessment of terrestrial and marine protected area networks. Despite being an evidence-based discipline, to date there has been no comprehensive review of the outcomes of systematic conservation plans and assessments of the relative effectiveness of applications in different contexts. To address this fundamental gap in knowledge, our primary research question...

What is the effect of phasing out long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in the environment? A systematic review

Magnus Land, Cynthia Wit, Anders Bignert, Ian Cousins, Dorte Herzke, Jana Johansson & Jonathan Martin
Abstract Background There is a concern that continued emissions of man-made per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may cause environmental and human health effects. Now widespread in human populations and in the environment, several PFASs are also present in remote regions of the world, but the environmental transport and fate of PFASs are not well understood. Phasing out the manufacture of some types of PFASs started in 2000 and further regulatory and voluntary actions have followed....

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  • 2018
    87,044

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    87,044