260 Works

Essays on Asset Pricing and Financial Stability

Jeongmin Lee
My two-essay dissertation revolves around understanding the financial crisis of 2008. First I focus on the repo market, a major funding source of the shadow banking system, and show the repo market can create and amplify the fragility of the system. Then I investigate a broader economy with heterogeneous agents and demonstrate how the dynamics of equilibrium asset prices and wealth distributions are determined. In Essay 1, I develop a dynamic model of collateral circulation...

Job Search Behaviors of Graduating College Seniors: A Test of the Social Cognitive Model of Career Self-Management

Robert Hiem Lim
Due to a changing employment climate and structure, individuals must become more proactive in the management of their careers (Hesketh, 2001; Russell, 2001). It has become increasingly important to know how to manage career transitions, especially between periods of non-employment and employment. Lent and Brown (2013) proposed a Career Self-Management model that examines the active process of managing one's own career. The purpose of this study is to test the Career Self-Management model by examining...

Saving College Radio: WMUC Past, Present and Future

Eric Cartier & Laura Schnitker
The University of Maryland's Special Collections is proud to present a new exhibit entitled Saving College Radio: WMUC Past, Present and Future, located in the Maryland Room Gallery at Hornbake Library. The title reflects a two-pronged approach in which "saving" refers to our efforts to archive this historical collection, as well as the importance of maintaining support for the campus station. The variety of materials in the WMUC collection is extensive, and includes photographs, fliers,...

Inhospitable Welcome - Hispanic Immigration to the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since 2000

Valarie R. Austin
The paper discusses the often hostile environment that Hispanic immigrant workers have experienced in the Atlanta metropolitan region as their population numbers have increased since 2000.

Challenges to Developing a Global Satellite Climate Monitoring System

Mariel Borowitz
Satellites are critical to the ability to understand and address climate change, due to their unique ability to provide comprehensive global monitoring of the environment. More than 30 nations have been involved in satellite Earth observations, with more than 200 satellite instruments operating in 2014 alone. However, gaps remain in the ability to adequately monitor global climate change, due in part to a lack of international consensus on the definition of an adequate monitoring system....

Rethinking U.S.-China Security Cooperation

Nancy Gallagher
This paper argues that traditional arms control approaches no longer work well for even traditional security problems on the U.S.-Chinese security agenda for three reasons: Firstly, even when both states reason for arms control from the superpowers’ experience during the Cold War, they do so in different ways; secondly, a growing number of experts and policy elite in both countries do not think the benefits of formal arms control outweigh the costs and risks; and...

Understanding Agricultural Liability: Maryland Fencing Law

Paul Goeringer
A fence is defined as “a barrier intended to prevent escape or intrusion or to mark a boundary; especially: such a barrier made of posts and wire or boards” (Merriam-Webster, 2012). In dealing with Maryland livestock producers, Maryland courts have adopted the traditional common law rule of “fence-in.” This article limits its scope to Maryland law and does not attempt to include any relevant county regulations on fencing, except for Howard, Kent, and St. Mary’s...

Anticipating Climate Mitigation: The Role of Small Modular Nuclear Reactors (SMRs)

John Steinbruner
Global warming is likely to force assertive redirection of global energy markets in order to achieve a prudent standard of mitigation; the resulting process of energy transformation will fundamentally alter prevailing policies and institutional relationships. Efficiency gains and renewable technologies—wind, solar, and biomass—will presumably make substantial contributions, as will carbon sequestration to some extent. But at the moment it seems quite apparent that global mitigation cannot be achieved without a very substantial expansion of nuclear...

DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EVALUATION OF A DISCRETELY ACTUATED STEERABLE CANNULA

Elif Ayvali
Needle-based procedures require the guidance of the needle to a target region to deliver therapy or to remove tissue samples for diagnosis. During needle insertion, needle deflection occurs due to needle-tissue interaction which deviates the needle from its insertion direction. Manipulating the needle at the base provides limited control over the needle trajectory after the insertion. Furthermore, some sites are inaccessible using straight-line trajectories due to delicate structures that need to be avoided. The goal...

Highly Efficient SiC Based Onboard Chargers for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Haoyu Wang
Grid-enabled plug-in electrified vehicles (PEVs) are deemed as one of the most sustainable solutions to profoundly reduce both oil consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. One of the most important realities, which will facilitate the adoption of PEVs is the method by which these vehicles will be charged. This dissertation focuses on the research of highly efficient onboard charging solutions for next generation PEVs. This dissertation designs a two-stage onboard battery charger to charge a 360...

CONTRIBUTIONS TO RESOLVING ISSUES IMPEDING THE OPERATION OF HIGH POWER MICROWAVE AND SUBMILLIMETER DEVICES

Dmytro Kashyn
This thesis reports an experimental study aimed at extending high power, high efficiency gyrotron operation to submillimeter wavelengths. A series of experiments carried out both at the University of Maryland and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science, succeeded in demonstrating output power at 670 GHz of 180 kilowatts with 20% efficiency (gyrotron voltage was 57 kV and beam current was 16 amperes). The maximum output power achieved in the experiments...

Interferense of Host Innate Immune Response by Hepatitis E Virus

Yuchen Nan
The host antiviral innate immunity mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR) and downstream interferon (IFN) signaling. Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR) and Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors (RLR). Activation of both TLR and RLR pathways can eventually lead to the secretion of type I IFNs, which can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens, including hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV causes acute hepatitis in...

A MULTISCALE APPROACH TO PARAMETERIZATION OF BURNING MODELS FOR POLYMERIC MATERIALS.

Jing Li
A quantitative understanding of the processes that occur in the condensed phase of burning materials is critical for the prediction of ignition and growth of fires. A number of models have been developed to simulate these condensed phase processes. The main issue that remains to be resolved is the determination of parameters to be input into these models, which are formulated in terms of fundamental physical and chemical properties. This work is focused on developing...

Optimization Techniques for Mapping Algorithms and Applications onto CUDA GPU Platforms and CPU-GPU Heterogeneous Platforms

Jing Wu
An emerging trend in processor architecture seems to indicate the doubling of the number of cores per chip every two years with same or decreased clock speed. Of particular interest to this thesis is the class of many-core processors, which are becoming more attractive due to their high performance, low cost, and low power consumption. The main goal of this dissertation is to develop optimization techniques for mapping algorithms and applications onto CUDA GPUs and...

Sparse Methods for Robust and Efficient Visual Recognition

Sumit Shekhar
Visual recognition has been a subject of extensive research in computer vision. A vast literature exists on feature extraction and learning methods for recognition. However, due to large variations in visual data, robust visual recognition is still an open problem. In recent years, sparse representation-based methods have become popular for visual recognition. By learning a compact dictionary of data and exploiting the notion of sparsity, start-of-the-art results have been obtained on many recognition tasks. However,...

Carbon composites for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries

Yang Wen
Due to the high demand for power supply in hybrid vehicle and renewable energy storage, Li-ion battery (LIB) and Na-ion battery (NIB) technologies have developed rapidly in the past few years. LIB industry has bloomed for portable devices and hybrid electric vehicles, while NIB techniques have been revived for large-scale energy storage. In this dissertation, novel anode materials, including Si-graphene, Si-carbon nanotubes composites for LIB anodes, and expanded graphite for NIB anodes, were studied. In...

HIERARCHICAL MAPPING TECHNIQUES FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS ON PARALLEL PLATFORMS

Lai-Huei Wang
Dataflow models are widely used for expressing the functionality of digital signal processing (DSP) applications due to their useful features, such as providing formal mechanisms for description of application functionality, imposing minimal data-dependency constraints in specifications, and exposing task and data level parallelism effectively. Due to the increased complexity of dynamics in modern DSP applications, dataflow-based design methodologies require significant enhancements in modeling and scheduling techniques to provide for efficient and flexible handling of dynamic...

Essays on the Comparison of Production Technologies: Applications to Maryland Dairy Farms

Kota Minegishi
This dissertation proposes three new methodologies in empirical production economics for assessing technical change, production risks, and technological frontiers. Each methodology is demonstrated with an application to Maryland dairy operations, with an emphasis on comparing production technologies between confinement and management-intensive grazing (MIG) dairy systems. The rapid decline of small to medium scale dairies has made the study of alternative dairy production like MIG politically and socially important. The first essay develops a regression-based approach...

AEROSOL SYNTHESIS OF CATHODE MATERIALS FOR NA-ION AND LI-ION BATTERIES

Alex Langrock
Energy production and storage are important issues that play a key role in our daily lives. There is a need for high energy and high power systems for portable electronic devices and zero-emission vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries are crucial in addressing these needs. However, for the smart electric grid and renewable energy storage where cost is critical but weight and footprint requirement is less important, the sodium-ion battery is the most suitable power sources. To achieve...

On the Design and Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms in Network Science

Yang Gao
With the rapid development of communication, computing and signal processing technologies, the last decade has witnessed a proliferation of emerging networks and systems, examples of which can be found in a wide range of domains from online social networks like Facebook or Twitter to crowdsourcing sites like Amazon Mechanical Turk or Topcoder; to online question and answering (Q&A) sites like Quora or Stack Overflow; all the way to new paradigms of traditional systems like cooperative...

Essays on Female Education, Fertility, and Health: Evidence From Turkey and the US

PINAR MINE GUNES
Education is an important factor in reducing poverty, improving child health, and empowering women, which are key indicators of economic development and are supported by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. While education is positively associated with these development indicators, identifying the extent that education has a causal impact in developing countries requires exogenous variation in education. Two dissertation chapters rely on a change in compulsory schooling law (CSL) in Turkey as a natural experiment...

Learning in Engineered Multi-agent Systems

Anup Menon
Consider the problem of maximizing the total power produced by a wind farm. Due to aerodynamic interactions between wind turbines, each turbine maximizing its individual power--as is the case in present-day wind farms--does not lead to optimal farm-level power capture. Further, there are no good models to capture the said aerodynamic interactions, rendering model based optimization techniques ineffective. Thus, model-free distributed algorithms are needed that help turbines adapt their power production on-line so as to...

Face Recognition and Facial Attribute Analysis from Unconstrained Visual Data

Huy Tho Ho
Analyzing human faces from visual data has been one of the most active research areas in the computer vision community. However, it is a very challenging problem in unconstrained environments due to variations in pose, illumination, expression, occlusion and blur between training and testing images. The task becomes even more difficult when only a limited number of images per subject is available for modeling these variations. In this dissertation, different techniques for performing classification of...

Photoresponsive Systems Based on Self-Assembly

Hyuntaek Oh
Photoresponsive systems based on self-assembled nanostructures have received considerable attention recently. There is a wide range of applications for these fluids such as in drug delivery, coatings, sensors, or microfluidic valves and dampers. Current photoresponsive systems have typically required the use of specialized molecules with various chemical modifications. However, the requirement of complicated chemical synthesis prevents these systems from being used widely for practical applications. In this study, we focus on creating photoresponsive systems using...

THREE ESSAYS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sang Won Yoon
The first chapter derives an empirically testable set of propositions on the determinants of environmental aid as a non-market solution for trans-border pollution. The donor country balances environmental benefits against the social costs of aid which results from possible erosion of competitiveness in the export market. Using the panel data for environmental aid from OECD countries to China, it is shown that trade competition significantly reduces types of environmental aid that enhance the competitiveness of...

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