260 Works

Regularization Methods for High-Dimensional Inference

David A. Shaw
High dimensionality is a common problem in statistical inference, and is becoming more prevalent in modern data analysis settings. While often data of interest may have a large -- often unmanageable -- dimension, modifications to various well-known techniques can be made to improve performance and aid interpretation. We typically assume that although predictors lie in a high-dimensional ambient space, they have a lower-dimensional structure that can be exploited through either prior knowledge or estimation. In...

Investigating genetic and health factors related to AA amyloidosis prevalence in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus): implications for population management

Ashley Danielle Franklin
Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality among captive cheetahs, yet wild cheetahs are virtually unaffected, suggesting the phenomenon is a result of the captive condition. The self-aggregating AA protein responsible for this disease, is a byproduct of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein degradation, an acute phase protein highly upregulated during inflammation. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between genetics, stress, and inflammation with...

A MULTISCALE APPROACH TO PARAMETERIZATION OF BURNING MODELS FOR POLYMERIC MATERIALS.

Jing Li
A quantitative understanding of the processes that occur in the condensed phase of burning materials is critical for the prediction of ignition and growth of fires. A number of models have been developed to simulate these condensed phase processes. The main issue that remains to be resolved is the determination of parameters to be input into these models, which are formulated in terms of fundamental physical and chemical properties. This work is focused on developing...

Analyzing Complex Events and Human Actions in "in-the-wild" Videos

Hyungtae Lee
We are living in a world where it is easy to acquire videos of events ranging from private picnics to public concerts, and to share them publicly via websites such as YouTube. The ability of smart-phones to create these videos and upload them to the internet has led to an explosion of video data, which in turn has led to interesting research directions involving the analysis of ``in-the-wild'' videos. To process these types of videos,...

Requirements and Feasibility for the Transition from a Ballistic Missile Capability to an Anti-Satellite (ASAT) Capability

Jaganath Sankaran
Ballistic missiles and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons operate using similar technological means but not with the same level of technology or engineering maturity. ASATs require more sophisticated systems engineering and integration requirements to adapt to the challenges posed by an ASAT intercept. The main difficulties arise from the requirements for detection in space and the high closing velocities needed to execute an ASAT intercept. These difficulties have been underestimated after the recent Chinese ASAT test by...

Evidence of Being: Urban Black Gay Men's Literature and Culture, 1978-1995

Darius Bost
This dissertation is an interdisciplinary study of black gay men's literary and cultural production and activism emerging at the height of the AIDS epidemic in the United States, focusing in particular on cultural formations in Washington, DC, and New York City. Through an exploration of the work of black gay male writers and activists from the late 1970s to the mid-1990s, I argue that recognizing the centrality of trauma and violence in black communities means...

CORTICOLIMBIC FUNCTIONING, NICOTINE DEPENDENCE CHARACTERISTICS, AND SMOKING LAPSE HISTORY: AN FMRI STUDY

Jessica Margaret Richards
Nicotine dependence is a prevalent and costly disorder characterized by notoriously high relapse rates. Extant research implicates stress as a key mechanism driving smoking across the stages of addiction, and neurobiological models of stress and addiction emphasize the role of overlapping corticolimbic circuits in both emotion dysregulation and compulsive drug seeking. However, neuroimaging research examining the neural correlates of stress processing in human smokers is limited and lacking in some areas, leaving key questions unanswered....

Strategy and bias in comprehension of multiple texts: How do readers with topic beliefs use strategies when reading controversial documents?

Jong-Yun Kim
Research on multiple text comprehension reveals key principles and elements of comprehension: readers' mental representation, cognitive text processing, and strategy use while reading multiple texts (Goldman, 2004; Rouet, 2006). However, many studies of multiple text comprehension fail to investigate the influence of reader bias. Grounded in both the literature on reading strategies and the social psychology literature on bias (e.g., Edwards & Smith, 1996), this study investigated how readers' topic beliefs influence comprehension strategies in...

Essays on Strategic Behavior in Financial Markets

Alvaro Enrique Pedraza
This dissertation explores the role of strategic behavior in financial markets and highlights the effects of such behavior on portfolio choice, trading behavior and asset prices. In Chapter 1 I study portfolio choice of strategic fund managers in the presence of a peer-based underperformance penalty. While the penalty generates herding behavior, correlated trading among managers is exacerbated when a strategic setting is considered. The equilibrium portfolios are driven by the least restricted manager, who may...

The Underground Railroad: South to North

Christopher Densmore
Christopher Densmore's presentation notes from the MARAC Spring 2014 conference. His presentation is titled "The Underground Railroad: South to North", S12 - April 25, 2014, Rochester, NY

Performance enhancement of heat exchanger coolers with evaporative cooling

Sahil Popli
Air or water cooled heat exchangers (HX) are typically utilized as condensers or coolers for air-conditioning, refrigeration or process cooling applications in both commercial and industrial sector. However, air cooled heat exchanger performance degrades considerably with rise in ambient air temperature and water cooled coolers require considerable pumping power, a cooling tower and may consume a significant amount of water which may come from fresh water sources. Evaporative cooling offers a unique solution to this...

The Evolving National Security Role of the Vice President

Aaron Mannes
For most of U.S. history the vice president played little role in White House decision-making. In the 1970s this began to change. This dissertation uses a series of case studies of instances of vice presidential influence (with a focus on national security issues) to identify how and why the vice presidency has became an important presidential advisor. Gathering information through interviews and existing literature, this dissertation examines several factors that have facilitated the rise of...

ROLE OF SALT BRIDGES IN GROEL ALLOSTERY

Dong Yang
Chaperonin GroEL facilitates protein folding with two stacked back-to-back, identical rings and the "lid", co-chaperonin GroES. The mis-folded/unfolded substrate protein (SP) adjusts the chaperonin cycling from an asymmetric to a symmetric cycle by catalyzing the release of ADP from the trans ring of GroEL, thus promoting the R to T allosteric transition. ATP binding to the SP bound ring promotes the association of a second GroES and subsequently a GroEL-GroES 2 "football" complex is formed...

Analyzing the Combined Effects of Measurement Error and Perturbation Error on Performance Measurement

Geoffrey Melvin Stoker
Dynamic performance analysis of executing programs commonly relies on statistical profiling techniques to provide performance measurement results. When a program execution is sampled we learn something about the examined program, but also change, to some extent, the program's interaction with the underlying system and thus its behavior. The amount we learn diminishes (statistically) with each sample taken, while the change we affect with the intrusive sampling risks growing larger. Effectively sampling programs is challenging largely...

Effects sparked by shining stars: Consequences earned and posed by high performers at work

Elizabeth Margaret Campbell
Organizations tend to follow two common practices. First, they seek out and recruit the best and the brightest, with the assumption that these high performers create value and drive success within the organization. Second, they increasingly rely upon workgroups and teams to accomplish organizational goals. Though each practice alone has merit, their interaction seems problematic. Organizational leaders invest substantial resources to recruit standouts, yet also want high performers to seamlessly embed within, and contribute to,...

The functional importance and significance of ecdysteroids in molt-cycle regulation of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus

Sirinart Techa
This study aims to expand our understanding of how ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones (MIH/CHH) regulate molting in crustaceans using the blue crab Callinectes sapidus as a model animal. The hypothesis of this study is that ecdysteroids have a stimulatory effect on MIH/CHH production in eyestalks while generating both positive and negative feedback on ecdysteroidogenesis in Y-organs. Since ecdysteroids exert their signals through an ecdysteroid receptor complex, composed of an ecdysone receptor (EcR) and its partner,...

Hierarchical Bayes Analysis of Behavioral Experiments

Chen Dong
In this dissertation, we develop generalized hierarchical Bayesian ANOVA, to assist experimental researchers in the behavioral and social sciences in the analysis of the effects of experimentally manipulated within- and between-subjects factors. The method alleviates several limitations of classical ANOVA, still commonly employed in those fields. An accompanying R package for hierarchical Bayesian ANOVA is developed. It offers statistical routines and several easy-to-use functions for esti- mation of hierarchical Bayesian ANOVA models that are tailored...

Rilke's Russian Encounter and the Transformative Impact on the Poet

Victoria Finney
Russian culture had a pivotal role in the development of Rainer Maria Rilke's poetic perception and evolution. As late as 1922, Rilke emphatically claimed that Russian culture made him into what he is. Decades earlier, during his visits to Russia in 1899 and 1900, Rilke encountered many Russians from different walks of life: writers, artists, intellectuals and ordinary folk. Having immersed himself in the study of Russian language, literature, visual arts and religious ritual, Rilke...

Essays on Asset Pricing and Financial Stability

Jeongmin Lee
My two-essay dissertation revolves around understanding the financial crisis of 2008. First I focus on the repo market, a major funding source of the shadow banking system, and show the repo market can create and amplify the fragility of the system. Then I investigate a broader economy with heterogeneous agents and demonstrate how the dynamics of equilibrium asset prices and wealth distributions are determined. In Essay 1, I develop a dynamic model of collateral circulation...

Job Search Behaviors of Graduating College Seniors: A Test of the Social Cognitive Model of Career Self-Management

Robert Hiem Lim
Due to a changing employment climate and structure, individuals must become more proactive in the management of their careers (Hesketh, 2001; Russell, 2001). It has become increasingly important to know how to manage career transitions, especially between periods of non-employment and employment. Lent and Brown (2013) proposed a Career Self-Management model that examines the active process of managing one's own career. The purpose of this study is to test the Career Self-Management model by examining...

Saving College Radio: WMUC Past, Present and Future

Eric Cartier & Laura Schnitker
The University of Maryland's Special Collections is proud to present a new exhibit entitled Saving College Radio: WMUC Past, Present and Future, located in the Maryland Room Gallery at Hornbake Library. The title reflects a two-pronged approach in which "saving" refers to our efforts to archive this historical collection, as well as the importance of maintaining support for the campus station. The variety of materials in the WMUC collection is extensive, and includes photographs, fliers,...

Inhospitable Welcome - Hispanic Immigration to the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since 2000

Valarie R. Austin
The paper discusses the often hostile environment that Hispanic immigrant workers have experienced in the Atlanta metropolitan region as their population numbers have increased since 2000.

Challenges to Developing a Global Satellite Climate Monitoring System

Mariel Borowitz
Satellites are critical to the ability to understand and address climate change, due to their unique ability to provide comprehensive global monitoring of the environment. More than 30 nations have been involved in satellite Earth observations, with more than 200 satellite instruments operating in 2014 alone. However, gaps remain in the ability to adequately monitor global climate change, due in part to a lack of international consensus on the definition of an adequate monitoring system....

Rethinking U.S.-China Security Cooperation

Nancy Gallagher
This paper argues that traditional arms control approaches no longer work well for even traditional security problems on the U.S.-Chinese security agenda for three reasons: Firstly, even when both states reason for arms control from the superpowers’ experience during the Cold War, they do so in different ways; secondly, a growing number of experts and policy elite in both countries do not think the benefits of formal arms control outweigh the costs and risks; and...

Understanding Agricultural Liability: Maryland Fencing Law

Paul Goeringer
A fence is defined as “a barrier intended to prevent escape or intrusion or to mark a boundary; especially: such a barrier made of posts and wire or boards” (Merriam-Webster, 2012). In dealing with Maryland livestock producers, Maryland courts have adopted the traditional common law rule of “fence-in.” This article limits its scope to Maryland law and does not attempt to include any relevant county regulations on fencing, except for Howard, Kent, and St. Mary’s...

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