690 Works

Essays in Behavioral and Experimental Economics

Kristian Miguel Lopez Vargas
My dissertation consists of three essays on behavioral and experimental economics. In Chapter 1, I introduce an integrated model of risk attitudes and other-regarding preferences that extends the standard notion of inequity discount to lotteries. In this model, a decision maker perceives inequity partly by comparing the marginal risks she and others face. It predicts that fairness considerations will alter risk attitudes, in particular, a higher tolerance to positively correlated (fair) risks compared to negatively...

Modern Movie Magic

Allison Giza
I have included both the bibliography used in the paper and the annotated bibliography that I referenced in my reflection essay in this submission.

Millennial students' mental models of search tools

Lucy Holman
Association of College and Research Libraries

Teacher Talk in Early Head Start Classrooms

Kristine-Marie Beck Strausbaugh
This study investigated the oral language of Early Head Start teachers who work in preschool centers. Specifically, this study analyzed the amount, richness, and the sophistication of the oral language input offered by five Early Head Start teachers to their students. This study also analyzed the quality and quantity of the conversational supports teachers offered their students during encounters with sophisticated vocabulary. Each teacher was observed on four occasions. Each occasion occurred on separate day,...

Participatory Budgeting in the Dominican Republic: Implications for Agency, Democracy and Development

Marie Claire Vasquez Duran
This study examines participatory budgeting (PB) as an important kind of citizen participation in the Dominican Republic (DR) and the implications of this recent practice for agency, democracy, and development. PB is a process that intends to drive change with specific outcomes: through deliberative decision-making, ordinary citizens select well-being- and agency-enhancing projects that ideally lead to more local and authentic development. Together with the attainment of these tangible outcomes, valuable subjective states may also come...

How users approach discovery tools

Lucy Holman, Elias Darraj, Jonathan Glaser, Alice Hom, Heather Mathieson & Deane Nettles
Researchers observed 21 participants (undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty) conduct known item and topic searches using EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS)™1, Ex Libris’ Primo®2, and Serials Solutions’®3 Summon™4 discovery tools to compare users’ reaction to their interface design and evaluate each tool’s functionality. Participants generally liked the tools’ simple interfaces but had difficulty identifying material formats and faceted search features and were often confused by advanced search limiters and other features. Most demonstrated right-side blindness, failing...

Spectroscopy with Laser-cooled Francium and Progress on Atomic Parity Non-conservation

Jiehang Zhang
Francium, the heaviest alkali, possesses a unique combination of structural simplicity and great sensitivity to effects such as atomic parity non-conservation (APNC). We report in this thesis our progress towards measuring weak-interaction physics in a low energy system: the francium atom. We have built a new generation of high-efficiency laser cooling and trapping facility at TRIUMF national laboratory in Canada. We constructed a precision science chamber and demonstrate francium atom transfer into the precision trap,...

SEARCHING HETEROGENEOUS DOCUMENT IMAGE COLLECTIONS

Rajiv Jain
A decrease in data storage costs and widespread use of scanning devices has led to massive quantities of scanned digital documents in corporations, organizations, and governments around the world. Automatically processing these large heterogeneous collections can be difficult due to considerable variation in resolution, quality, font, layout, noise, and content. In order to make this data available to a wide audience, methods for efficient retrieval and analysis from large collections of document images remain an...

Optimization Models for Speed Control in Air Traffic Management

James Calvin Jones
In a typical air traffic control environment, the precise landing times of en route aircraft are not set until each aircraft approaches the airspace adjacent to the destination airport. In times of congestion, it is not unusual for air traffic controllers to subject arriving aircraft to various maneuvers to create an orderly flow of flights onto an arrival runway. Typical maneuvers include flying in zig-zag patterns, flying in race track shaped patterns and tromboning. These...

Negotiating the Place of Assyrians in Modern Iraq, 1960–1988

Alda Benjamen
This dissertation deals with the social, intellectual, cultural, and political history of the Assyrians under changing regimes from the 1960s to the 1980s. It examines the place of Assyrians in relation to a state that was increasing in strength and influence, and locates their interactions within socio-political movements that were generally associated with the Iraqi opposition. It analyzes the ways in which Assyrians contextualized themselves in their society and negotiated for social, cultural, and political...

“Is This Enough?” Digitizing Liz Lerman Dance Exchange Archives Media

Bria Parker, Robin C. Pike & Vincent Novara
Special Collections in Performing Arts (SCPA) at University of Maryland Libraries collects performing arts materials that preserve performance practice, instruction, and scholarship, including the full scope of audiovisual (AV) formats. The Liz Lerman Dance Exchange Archives at SCPA contains, among common print archival materials, a significant number of AV materials including performances, workshops, and choreography demonstrations. This collection of AV materials is exemplar of the numerous challenges facing AV digitization and preservation projects in university...

Polymorphism of Cyclic Dinucleotides

Benjamin Thompson Roembke
Cyclic dinucleotides such as cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP,) cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) and cyclic guanosine-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and are important in cell signaling processes. The work discussed herein aims at understanding the aggregative properties of these cyclic dinucleotides for interest in the biological implications of aggregation and for the purpose of various applications of these higher order structures. The applications include simple detection methods for these...

New Wine Calls for New Wineskins: Black Megachurch Approaches to Racial Inequality

Kendra Hadiya Barber
The changing nature of racism in the post-Civil Rights period coincides with the decline in collective racial protest, or what some scholars consider the activist or prophetic wing, of black churches. As a result of the shift from the overt racism of the Civil Rights era to the hidden and often invisible forms of contemporary racism, the ways in which blacks address and resist racism might reflect similar shifts. In other words, I argue that...

INTERACTIONS OF NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE WITH EPITHELIAL CELLS

LIANG-CHUN WANG
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infects epithelial cells lining the female reproductive tract. The majority of GC infections in women are asymptomatic, which can lead to chronic inflammation and serious complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, disseminated gonococcal infection, and infertility. GC is known to induce signaling in epithelial cells, including the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ca2+ flux; however, the mechanism by which the signaling leads to GC infection is unknown. Using human cervical...

Going to the Source: A Case Study of Four Faculty and Their Approaches to Writing Instruction

Megan Callow
This dissertation examines four college professors’ approaches to writing instruction in the disciplines of history and engineering. An investigation of writing instruction in two disparate disciplinary contexts contributes to our understanding of how instructors approach writing instruction in the disciplines, and which factors encourage and inhibit writing instruction. This study proposes and assesses the validity of a guiding conceptual framework, which posits that the primary factors influencing faculty’s approaches to writing instruction are academic biography,...

Shocks and Human Capital in Developing Countries

Aaron Szott
I begin my dissertation by introducing the following two chapters. I start out by describing the basic theory underlying economists' historical interest in the effects of shocks in developing countries. I then briefly review the empirical literature on household responses to shocks and outline how it is reasonable to expect that even recurring, non-exotic shocks have substantial permanent effects on affected young peoples' completed human capital stocks. Next, I describe the contributions that the following...

THE ROLE OF SOILS IN PRODUCTION: AGGREGATION, SEPARABILITY, AND YIELD DECOMPOSITION IN KENYAN AGRICULTURE

Simone Pieralli
Agricultural production relies on soils. Increasing global population and the impact of climate change threaten the sustainability of soil for agricultural production. For these reasons, it is necessary to broaden present current methodological approaches to incorporating soil into economic analysis. The first essay proposes a methodology to aggregate quantitative soil characteristics through the use of separability theory in a Data Envelopment Analysis framework. This yields an aggregate soil-quality measure that appropriately aggregates soil characteristics. The...

WHEN THERAPY RELATIONSHIPS MAKE A DIFFERENCE: CORRECTIVE RELATIONAL EXPERIENCES OF ADULT CLIENTS IN OPEN-ENDED INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOTHERAPY

Teresa Chen-Chieh Huang
The present study examined the antecedents, types, and consequences of Corrective Relational Experiences (CREs), as well as whether these aspects of CREs (antecedents, types, and consequences) differ depending on client attachment anxiety and avoidance. Clients completed a measure of adult attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships scale; ECR; Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998) before starting open-ended, individual psychotherapy at a psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy clinic. After completion of therapy, 31 clients completed post-therapy interviews assessing their therapy experience,...

Arming Agents or Assailants? A Principal-Agent Approach to Examining US Military Aid and Repression

Emma Cutrufello
The United States provides billions of dollars each year in military assistance to foreign nations, yet we know very little about how aid affects recipients. This dissertation considers the impact of military aid on repression. I use a principal-agent framework to examine the strategic interaction between the United States and recipient country and evaluate the conditions under which an agent "works" or "shirks" on human rights policy. The principal-agent theory of military assistance reveals that...

TRANSPARENCY AND TRUST IN JOURNALISM: AN EXAMINATION OF VALUES, PRACTICES AND EFFECTS

Michael Koliska
Journalism scholars and practitioners have repeatedly argued that transparency is crucial to generate trust in the news media, which, over the years, has faced continues decline in public trust. As news organizations have been encouraged to implement transparency in their daily work, transparency has increasingly gained the status of a professional norm in journalism. However, very little is actually known about how journalists think and apply transparency in their everyday practices or how news organizations...

Peter Paul Rubens' Daniel in the Lions' Den: Its Sources and Its Political Significance

Rachel Aviva Pollack
This dissertation evaluates Rubens' Daniel in the Lions' Den (ca. 1614-1618) through an examination of the visual and emblematic sources that likely inspired the artist, as well as the political meaning that it held to Rubens and to its early owners. In my analysis, I reevaluate the all'antica and antique sources that Rubens likely studied to explain how the artist imbued his lions with impressive qualities that exceed naturalism. Through the lens of Josephus' Antiquity...

Characterizing forest disturbance dynamics in the humid tropics using optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data sets

Alexandra Tyukavina
Human-induced tropical deforestation and forest degradation are widely recognized as major environmental threats, negatively affecting tropical forest ecosystem services, such as biodiversity and climate regulation. To mitigate the effects of forest disturbance, particularly carbon emissions, national forest monitoring systems are being established throughout the tropics. Multiple good practice guidelines aimed at developing accurate, compatible and cost-effective monitoring systems have been issued by IPCC, UNFCCC, GFOI and other organizations. However, there is a lack of consensus...

Roles of the symbiotic microbial communities associated with sponge hosts in the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles

Fan Zhang
Marine sponges are habitat-forming organisms in coral reefs. Many sponge species host highly abundant microorganisms inside their bodies, forming symbiotic relationships. Efficient nutrient cycling between the symbiotic microbial communities and their hosts is considered to be a vital mechanism to retain limited resources inside the holobiont, providing a competitive edge in an environment where ambient nutrient availability is extremely low. In this dissertation, I describe microbially mediated nitrogen fixation, ammonia oxidation and phosphorus accumulation in...

Novel Dark Matter Phenomenology At Colliders

Kyle Wardlow
While a suitable candidate particle for dark matter (DM) has yet to be discovered, it is possible one will be found by experiments currently investigating physics on the weak scale. If discovered on that energy scale, the dark matter will likely be producible in significant quantities at colliders like the LHC, allowing the properties of and underlying physical model characterizing the dark matter to be precisely determined. I assume that the dark matter will be...

Actin-binding protein 1 and Dynamin-2 modulate attenuation of B-cell signaling and regulate B-cell function

Margaret Kathryn Seeley-Fallen
B-cells mediate humoral immune responses with production of an amazingly diverse repertoire of antigen specific antibodies. Antigen binding to the B-cell receptor (BCR) induces coordinated BCR signaling and BCR-mediated antigen internalization, processing, and presentation to helper T-cells, necessary for generation of humoral memory. Prolonged or uncontrolled BCR signaling has been linked to development of autoimmunity; therefore controlled attenuation of B-cell signaling is required for maintenance of B-cell tolerance. This study investigates the role of an...

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