620,342 Works

Monitoring for bovine arboviruses in the most southwestern islands in Japan between 1994 and 2014

Tomoko Kato, Tohru Yanase, , Yoshito Katagiri, Kazufumi Ikemiyagi, Katsunori Takayoshi, Hiroaki Shirafuji, Seiichi Ohashi, Kazuo Yoshida, Makoto Yamakawa & Tomoyuki Tsuda
Abstract Background In Japan, epizootic arboviral infections have severely impacted the livestock industry for a long period. Akabane, Aino, Chuzan, bovine ephemeral fever and Ibaraki viruses have repeatedly caused epizootic abnormal births and febrile illness in the cattle population. In addition, Peaton, Sathuperi, Shamonda and Dâ Aguilar viruses and epizootic hemorrhagic virus serotype 7 have recently emerged in Japan and are also considered to be involved in abnormal births in cattle. The above-mentioned viruses are...

Transplantation of human adipose stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells with restricted localization to liver using acellular amniotic membrane

Jie Yuan, , , , , Xin Lu, &
Abstract Introduction Adult stem cell-derived hepatocytes transplantation holds considerable promise for future clinical individualized therapy of liver failure or dysfunction. However, the low engraftment of the available hepatocytes in the liver disease microenvironment has been a major obstacle. Methods Acellular human amniotic membrane was developed as a three-dimensional scaffold and combined with hepatocyte-like cells derived from human adipose stem cells to engineer a hepatic tissue graft that would allow hepatocyte engraftment in the liver effectively....

Early identification of sepsis in hospital inpatients by ward nurses increases 30-day survival

Malvin Torsvik, Lise Gustad, Arne Mehl, Inger Bangstad, Liv Vinje, Jan Damås & Erik Solligård
Abstract Background Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis are now frequently identified by observations of vital signs and detection of organ failure during triage in the emergency room. However, there is less focus on the effect on patient outcome with better observation and treatment at the ward level. Methods This was a before-and-after intervention study in one emergency and community hospital within the Mid-Norway Sepsis Study catchment area. All patients with confirmed bloodstream infection...

The global pediatric nephrology workforce: a survey of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association

, Sophie Ocegueda, Meaghan Nazareth, Yi Zhong, Adam Weinstein, William Primack, Pierre Cochat & Maria Ferris
Abstract Background The global pediatric nephrology workforce is poorly characterized. The objectives of our study were to assess pediatric nephrologists’ perceptions of the adequacy of the pediatric nephrology workforce, and understand regional challenges to fellow recruitment and job acquisition. Perceptions regarding optimal length of training and research requirements were also queried. Methods A 17-question web-based survey comprised of 14 close-ended and 3 open-ended questions was e-mailed to members of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association. Quantitative...

Occurrence, diversity and community structure of culturable atrazine degraders in industrial and agricultural soils exposed to the herbicide in Shandong Province, P.R. China

Dmitry Bazhanov, , , , , &
Abstract Background Soil populations of bacteria rapidly degrading atrazine are critical to the environmental fate of the herbicide. An enrichment bias from the routine isolation procedure prevents studying the diversity of atrazine degraders. In the present work, we analyzed the occurrence, diversity and community structure of soil atrazine-degrading bacteria based on their direct isolation. Methods Atrazine-degrading bacteria were isolated by direct plating on a specially developed SM agar. The atrazine degradation genes trzN and atzABC...

Childhood asthma and physical activity: a systematic review with meta-analysis and Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology assessment

Lene Lochte, Kim Nielsen, Poul Petersen & Thomas Platts-Mills
Abstract Background Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The objectives of our study were to (1) summarize the evidence available on associations between PA and asthma prevalence in children and adolescents and (2) assess the role of PA...

Isolation, cultivation and molecular characterization of a new Trypanosoma equiperdum strain in Mongolia

Keisuke Suganuma, , , Shino Yamasaki, , Simon Musinguzi, , & Noboru Inoue
Abstract Background Trypanosoma equiperdum causes dourine via sexual transmission in Equidae. T. equiperdum is classified under the subgenus Trypanozoon along with the T. brucei sspp. and T. evansi; however, the species classification of Trypanozoon remains a controversial topic due to the limited number of T. equiperdum reference strains. In addition, it is possible that some were misclassified T. evansi strains. Thus, there is a strong need for a new T. equiperdum strain directly isolated from...

Exploration of the Drosophila buzzatii transposable element content suggests underestimation of repeats in Drosophila genomes

Nuria Rius, Yolanda GuillĂŠn, Alejandra Delprat, , & Alfredo Ruiz
Abstract Background Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution....

What criteria do decision makers in Thailand use to set priorities for vaccine introduction?

, , David Bishai, &
Abstract Background There is a need to identify rational criteria and set priorities for vaccines. In Thailand, many licensed vaccines are being considering for introduction into the Expanded Program on Immunization; thus, the government has to make decisions about which vaccines should be adopted. This study aimed to set priorities for new vaccines and to facilitate decision analysis. Methods We used a best-worst scaling study for rank-ordering of vaccines. The candidate vaccines were determined by...

RNA-seq analyses of changes in the Anopheles gambiae transcriptome associated with resistance to pyrethroids in Kenya: identification of candidate-resistance genes and candidate-resistance SNPs

Mariangela Bonizzoni, Eric Ochomo, William Dunn, Monica Britton, , , Joshua Hartsel, , , Andrew Githeko, Joseph Fass &
Abstract Background The extensive use of pyrethroids for control of malaria vectors, driven by their cost, efficacy and safety, has led to widespread resistance. To favor their sustainable use, the World Health Organization (WHO) formulated an insecticide resistance management plan, which includes the identification of the mechanisms of resistance and resistance surveillance. Recognized physiological mechanisms of resistance include target site mutations in the para voltage-gated sodium channel, metabolic detoxification and penetration resistance. Such understanding of...

Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

Leonardo Santos, Maria Assunção, Alicia Matijasevich, &
Abstract Background Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years....

The effect of mother’s educational status on early initiation of breastfeeding: further analysis of three consecutive Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys

Pawan Acharya &
Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of the mother’s education on early initiation of breastfeeding. Methods Data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2001, 2006 and 2011 were used which included 12,845 last born children born within 5 years before the surveys. Early initiation of breastfeeding was defined as the initiation of breastfeeding within the first...

Risk factors for human brucellosis in agro-pastoralist communities of south western Uganda: a case–control study

, Catherine Kansiime & Innocent Rwego
Abstract Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequelae and considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A case–control study was conducted in Nyabushozi, Kiruhura district, Uganda, so as to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in these communities. Methods We conducted a matched case–control study...

Left and right ventricular dyssynchrony and strains from cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking do not predict deterioration of ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot

, Gregory Wehner, Jonathan Suever, Richard Charnigo, , Evan Stearns, Dimitri Mojsejenko, Christopher Haggerty, Kelsey Hickey, Anne Valente, Tal Geva, Andrew Powell & Brandon Fornwalt
Abstract Background Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) suffer from progressive ventricular dysfunction decades after their surgical repair. We hypothesized that measures of ventricular strain and dyssynchrony would predict deterioration of ventricular function in patients with rTOF. Methods A database search identified all patients at a single institution with rTOF who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at least twice, >6 months apart, without intervening surgical or catheter procedures. Seven primary predictors were derived from...

Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from orangutan skin fibroblasts

Krishna Ramaswamy, Wing Yik, Xiao-Ming Wang, Erin Oliphant, , Darryl Shibata, Oliver Ryder & Joseph Hacia
Abstract Background Orangutans are an endangered species whose natural habitats are restricted to the Southeast Asian islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Along with the African great apes, orangutans are among the closest living relatives to humans. For potential species conservation and functional genomics studies, we derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from cryopreserved somatic cells obtained from captive orangutans. Results Primary skin fibroblasts from two Sumatran orangutans were transduced with retroviral vectors expressing the human...

Prognostic impact of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations in primary colorectal carcinomas: a population-based study

Grazia Palomba, Valentina Doneddu, Antonio Cossu, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Antonella Manca, Milena Casula, Maria Colombino, Annamaria Lanzillo, Efisio Defraia, Antonio Pazzola, Giovanni Sanna, Carlo Putzu, Salvatore Ortu, Mario Scartozzi, Maria Ionta, Giovanni Baldino, Giuseppina Sarobba, Francesca Capelli, Tito Sedda, Luciano Virdis, Michela Barca, Giulia Gramignano, Mario Budroni, Francesco Tanda & Giuseppe Palmieri
Abstract Background Activation of oncogenes downstream the EGFR gene contributes to colorectal tumorigenesis and determines the sensitivity to anti-EGFR treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS and PIK3CA mutations in a large collection of CRC patients from genetically-homogeneous Sardinian population. Methods A total of 1284 Sardinian patients with histologically-proven diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and presenting with metastatic disease were included into the study. Genomic DNA...

A Colletotrichum graminicola mutant deficient in the establishment of biotrophy reveals early transcriptional events in the maize anthracnose disease interaction

Maria Torres, , Ester Buiate, Neil Moore, Scott Schwartz, Charles Johnson & Lisa Vaillancourt
Abstract Background Colletotrichum graminicola is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes maize anthracnose disease. It progresses through three recognizable phases of pathogenic development in planta: melanized appressoria on the host surface prior to penetration; biotrophy, characterized by intracellular colonization of living host cells; and necrotrophy, characterized by host cell death and symptom development. A “Mixed Effects” Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was developed and applied to an existing Illumina transcriptome dataset, substantially increasing the statistical power...

Unaltered sequence of dental, skeletal, and sexual maturity in domestic dogs compared to the wolf

Madeleine Geiger, Karine Gendron, Florian Willmitzer & Marcelo Sรกnchez-Villagra
Abstract Background It has been hypothesised that domestication altered the sequence of dental, skeletal, and sexual maturity of dogs when compared to their wolf ancestor. To test this we investigated a comprehensive sample of domestic dogs. Methods We documented the timing of completed eruption of permanent dentition into occlusion (dental maturity) and the timing of growth plate closure at the proximal humerus (skeletal maturity) in ontogenetic series of wolves and 15 domestic dog breeds. Data...

Offspring reaction norms shaped by parental environment: interaction between within- and trans-generational plasticity of inducible defenses

Emilien Luquet & Juliette Tariel
Abstract Background Within-generational plasticity (WGP) and transgenerational plasticity (TGP) are mechanisms allowing rapid adaptive responses to fluctuating environments without genetic change. These forms of plasticity have often been viewed as independent processes. Recent evidence suggests that WGP is altered by the environmental conditions experienced by previous generations (i.e., TGP). In the context of inducible defenses, one of the most studied cases of plasticity, the WGP x TGP interaction has been poorly investigated. Results We provide...

Assessing the external validity of algorithms to estimate EQ-5D-3L from the WOMAC

& Martin Englund
Abstract Background The use of mapping algorithms have been suggested as a solution to predict health utilities when no preference-based measure is included in the study. However, validity and predictive performance of these algorithms are highly variable and hence assessing the accuracy and validity of algorithms before use them in a new setting is of importance. The aim of the current study was to assess the predictive accuracy of three mapping algorithms to estimate the...

methylPipe and compEpiTools: a suite of R packages for the integrative analysis of epigenomics data

Kamal Kishore, Stefano De Pretis, Ryan Lister, Marco Morelli, Valerio Bianchi, Bruno Amati, Joseph Ecker & Mattia Pelizzola
Abstract Background Numerous methods are available to profile several epigenetic marks, providing data with different genome coverage and resolution. Large epigenomic datasets are then generated, and often combined with other high-throughput data, including RNA-seq, ChIP-seq for transcription factors (TFs) binding and DNase-seq experiments. Despite the numerous computational tools covering specific steps in the analysis of large-scale epigenomics data, comprehensive software solutions for their integrative analysis are still missing. Multiple tools must be identified and combined...

Changes in renal WT-1 expression preceding hypertension development

Luciana Mazzei, Mercedes García, Juan Calvo, Mariana Casarotto, Miguel Fornés, María Abud, Darío Cuello-Carrión, León Ferder & Walter Manucha
Abstract Background Hypertension is a public health problem with mostly unknown causes, and where strong hereditary genetic alterations have not been fully elucidated. However, the use of experimental models has provided valuable information. Recent evidences suggest that alterations in key nephrogenic factors, such as Wilms’ tumor 1 transcription factor (WT-1), could contribute to the development of hypertension. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the expression of WT-1 and related genes in the nephrogenic...

Power Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of the joint-draining lymph node complex in rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective, proof-of-concept study on treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors

Antonio Manzo, Francesca Benaglio, Barbara Vitolo, Chandra Bortolotto, Francesca Zibera, Monica Todoerti, Claudia Alpini, Serena Bugatti, Roberto Caporali, Fabrizio Calliada &
Abstract Background Emerging research on the mechanisms of disease chronicity in experimental arthritis has included a new focus on the draining lymph node (LN). Here, we combined clinical-serological analyses and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) imaging to delineate noninvasively the reciprocal relationship in vivo between the joint and the draining LN in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Forty consecutive patients refractory to conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were examined through parallel PDUS of the handâ...

Protein import complexes in the mitochondrial outer membrane of Amoebozoa representatives

Dorota Buczek, , Yutaka Suzuki, Seiji Sonobe, Yukinori Nishigami, Monika Antoniewicz, Hanna Kmita & Wojciech MakałOwski
Abstract Background An ancestral trait of eukaryotic cells is the presence of mitochondria as an essential element for function and survival. Proper functioning of mitochondria depends on the import of nearly all proteins that is performed by complexes located in both mitochondrial membranes. The complexes have been proposed to contain subunits formed by proteins common to all eukaryotes and additional subunits regarded as lineage specific. Since Amoebozoa is poorly sampled for the complexes we investigated...

STI tests and proportion of positive tests in female sex workers attending local public health departments in Germany in 2010/11

Viviane Bremer, Karin Haar, Martyna Gassowski, & Stine Nielsen
Abstract Background In Germany, local public health departments (LPHD) are required to offer low-threshold access to confidential counselling and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) for sex workers. We collected data from LPHD in Germany to estimate the number of performed STI tests and the proportion of positive STI tests among attending female sex workers (FSW) in order to formulate recommendations for improving STI testing and care for FSW in Germany. Methods We recruited LPHD...

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