37 Works

Humanities Unbound: Supporting Careers and Scholarship Beyond the Tenure Track

Katina Rogers
As humanities scholars increasingly recognize the value of public engagement, and as the proportion of tenure-track faculty positions available to new graduates continues to decline, many humanities programs are focusing renewed attention on equipping graduate students for careers as scholars both within and beyond academe. To support those efforts, the Scholarly Communication Institute has carried out a study investigating perceptions about career preparation provided by humanities graduate programs. The survey results help to create a...

The Impact of Free Clinic Services on Healthcare Utilization among Charlottesville Residents Experiencing Homelessness

Steven Neal
The UVA Community Outreach Clinic is a free clinic run by UVA physicians and medical students that provides access to healthcare for Charlottesville residents currently experiencing homelessness. The study population includes patients experiencing homelessness who have had at least one visit at this free clinic. The primary objective of this study is to assess changes in the frequency of emergency department visits before and after a patient’s initial UVA Community Outreach Clinic visit. Secondary objectives...

Covid-19 in Native America

Brianna Baldwin
According to CDC data, American Indians, and Alaskan Natives (AI/AN) have insofar experienced the highest rates of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths among any ethnic group in the U.S., despite the highest rate of vaccinations among any ethnic group. AI/AN peoples suffer 1.7x cases, 3.5x hospitalizations, and 2.4x deaths when compared to White, Non-Hispanic persons. In June 2020 in particular, the Navajo Nation reported a 3.4% COVID-19 infection rate, higher than any U.S. state. The...

COVID-19 Vaccination Status Surveying and Education

Cam Stadlin & Caroline Cotton
We travelled throughout Charlottesville and the surrounding counties to conduct research regarding why community members chose not to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, where they obtained vaccine information, and what the demographics were of this population. We collected this information through anonymous, voluntary paper surveys. Concurrently, we also distributed informational handouts on the virus, vaccine, free rides to vaccinations, and lists of vaccination sites nearby. 215 surveys were completed by community members and 264 online surveys...

Academic Productivity Among Underrepresented Minority Urologists at Academic Institutions

Caleigh Smith
Background: This study compares academic productivity among underrepresented minorities (URMs) and genders within urology. Methods: A database of residents and faculty was created from 145 urology residency programs including demographics, URM status, and publications (pubs). URM equals Black, Hispanic, or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Multivariable analysis included URM status, gender, years of practice, and Doximity institution rank. Results: Among 1,644 residents, 145 (9%) were URMs, with a median of 2 (IQR 1,5) pubs for URMs and...

Retrospective Chart Review of Melanoma Outcomes in Non-Hispanic Black Patients and Case-Matched Non-Hispanic White Patients

Nicole Edmonds
Background: It has long been studied that non-Hispanic black (NHB) patients have a lower incidence rate of melanoma but are typically diagnosed at a later stage and have poorer survival rates than non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients. No study has ever compared melanoma outcomes in NHB and NHW patients in our region, however. This study was performed to compare melanoma outcomes in NHB and NHW patients when melanoma depth of invasion is controlled. Methods: A retrospective...

Diversity Representation On Integrated Plastic Surgery Residency Websites

Hannah Jacobs-El
Background: Recruitment and retention of a diverse healthcare workforce is a common residency program requirement as outlined by the American Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Surgical subspecialties (plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, etc.) still face longstanding low racial and ethnic representation among healthcare providers. Diversifying the healthcare workforce is paramount to addressing healthcare disparities. Methods: The websites of all integrated plastic surgery programs acknowledged by the ACGME in December 2020 were analyzed. All websites attributed...

The APTrust Story

Martha Sites
The Academic Preservation Trust (APTrust) is an innovative consortium committed to the creation and management of a sustainable environment for digital preservation and aggregate repository services for academic and research content. This paper responds to a number of questions that were voiced when APTrust was established: What led to the formation of APTrust? What does APTrust hope to accomplish? Most important, why should it be a top priority for academic libraries? After considering these questions...

Putting Communities at the Center of Connected, Automated Mobility

Andrew Mondschein, Laura Nagle, Michael Salgueiro & Marnissa Claflin
This project explores ways that communities can reclaim control over their streets as Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) and associated technologies become part of the urban fabric. The historic loss of flexible public space associated with the introduction of cars in the early 20th century and emerging concerns about management of CAVs today indicate that local governments and communities must find new ways to assert control over the planning and operation of streets. We define...

Guiding Principles for Designing an Accessible, Inclusive, and Diverse Library Makerspace

Fang Yi & Melinda Baumann
Accessibility, inclusion, and diversity are core library values. In this paper the authors share findings from small focus group interviews of students’ perceptions and preferences towards a new library makerspace, as well as their understandings of and expectations for accessibility, inclusion, and diversity. Building on findings from qualitative research at the University of Virginia (UVA) Library’s Robertson Media Center (RMC) and an interview with staff members from the UVA Student Disability Center, the authors also...

Faster Secure Two-Party Computation Using Garbled Circuits

Yan Huang, David Evans, Jonathan Katz & Lior Malka
Secure two-party computation enables two parties to evaluate a function cooperatively without revealing to either party anything beyond the function's output. The garbled-circuit technique, a generic approach to secure two-party computation for semi-honest participants, was developed by Yao in the 1980s, but has been viewed as being of limited practical significance due to its inefficiency. We demonstrate several techniques for improving the running time and memory requirements of the garbled-circuit technique, resulting in an implementation...

Variability in Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) Between White and Black Patients is Not Explained by Environmental Impacts

Tiana Walker
Introduction: Training in sensitive discussions, such as the topic of race and discrimination, is necessary to help medical students develop skills to forge meaningful patient-physician relationships. However, there is little consensus about how to implement learning activities to promote skill development for use in clinical settings. A pilot activity incorporating a simulated patient encounter was implemented for clerkship phase students to meet the following learning objectives: practice strategies to reject racism expressed by patients and...

A Medical Student-Run Inpatient Homelessness Consult Service

Jacqueline Carson
Objective: The inpatient homelessness consult service at the University of Virginia was created to provide continuity of care, connect patients to local resources, facilitate safe discharges, and ultimately reduce length of stay, emergency department visits, and readmissions for this vulnerable population. Methods: A specific pager number was generated for the consult service. Any member of the inpatient care team can page a trained student team member once they identify their patient to be experiencing homelessness....

Systems of Systems Perspectives on Critical Infrastructure Management in Response to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

Yacov Haimes & Eugene Stakhiv
Since 1980, the U.S. has experienced 151 weather disasters with damages exceeding one billion dollars each. With changing climate and development patterns and the severity and frequency of extreme weather events increasing, the United States must address the vulnerability of its complex critical infrastructure, which is largely a fragmented system of systems. The nation’s critical infrastructure provides the essential services that underpin the American way of life. A vast array of interdependent infrastructure and information...

\"But Who Looks East at Sunset?\" Gerard Manley Hopkins and Scientific Perception

Bethany Nowviskie
This essay examines published scientific writings of Gerard Manley Hopkins in the context of his poetry, journal-writing, and correspondence on subjective and objective cognition, or “unusually observant” perception. Hopkins’ response to special atmospheric conditions (the after-effects of the Krakatoa eruption, and the phenomenon of rayons du crepuscule at sunset) is considered in a matrix of Victorian scientific amateurism, conflicting views on observational agency and perspective, and precision in poetic and descriptive language. Key to valid...

Should Place of Death be Added to the Index of Disparities Between Black and White Breast Cancer Patients?

Sarah Marion
Background: Compared to their white counterparts, Black women with breast cancer suffer from earlier onset of diagnosis, higher mortality rates, and are at risk of racial bias from healthcare providers and treatment plans that do not align with the standard of care. Place of death can be considered a metric for high quality end-of-life care as hospital death is associated with both physical and emotional distress. Given Black patients’ particular vulnerability, the purpose of this...

Racial Bias in the Assessment of Pain among HBCU Trainees

Kovosh Dastan
The objectives of our study were to assess whether U.S. medical students and resident physicians (collectively referred to as trainees) at Historically Black Colleges & Universities (HBCUs) – particularly Howard University College of Medicine and Howard University Hospital – displayed any racial bias in the assessment of pain or treatment recommendations; if they held any false beliefs about biological differences between Black and White people; if any of their existing biases and/or beliefs were the...

COVID Vaccine Education Efforts and Uptake Among People Experiencing Homelessness in Charlottesville

Jessica Lin
Objectives: Address questions about COVID-19 vaccination among people experiencing homelessness in Charlottesville before initial vaccine distribution. Methods: As an extension of existing homeless health outreach services, a team of seven University of Virginia medical students and one undergraduate student offered ten educational outreach sessions at three local shelters over two weeks to promote COVID-19 vaccination events and combat vaccine hesitancy and misinformation. These outreach sessions involved 1-2 students approaching shelter guests to discuss their COVID-19...

Telemedicine at the Charlottesville Free Clinic - A Qualitative Study of a Natural Experiment

Rachel O'Brien
At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, essentially all in-person visits at the Charlottesville Free Clinic (CFC) were stopped and telemedicine appointments were offered instead, a care delivery model never before implemented at CFC. This complete switch offered an opportunity to study the impact of telemedicine on the care of the unique free clinic population. We conducted a small-scale qualitative study through semi-structured interviews with both CFC patients and providers. Our study aimed to explore...

The Hydraulics Project: Empowering Communities to Build a Digital Library Utilizing Fedora and an Event-Driven Service-Oriented Messaging Framework

Andrew Curley
Recent collaborative efforts including the Hydra Project and development of Blacklight have made significant strides towards creating revolutionary tools for indexing and accessing digital content managed by a Fedora repository. Comparatively, less attention has been paid to creating applications and standardized workflows designed to easily ingest content into repositories. This issue demands attention because a key measure of a repositoryʼs usefulness is the quality and quantity of digital content made available to the public. A...

National Network of Libraries of Medicine Hurricane Summit Report

Susan Yowell & Daniel Wilson
On Wednesday, February 8, 2012, the Louis Calder Memorial Library of the University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine hosted a summit meeting to share best practices, discuss roles for libraries following a disaster, and facilitate communication and cooperation among librarians and emergency planners in the Miami/Dade County area. The meeting was sponsored through an award by the Southeastern/Atlantic Region of National Network of Libraries of Medicine’s (NN/LM) Emergency Preparedness & Response Initiative.

An Algorithm for State Constrained Stochastic Linear-Quadratic Control

Zhou Zhou & Randy Cogill
Here we consider a state-constrained stochastic linear quadratic control problem. This problem has linear dynamics and a quadratic cost, and states are required to satisfy a probabilistic constraint. In this paper, the joint probabilistic constraint in the model is converted to a conservative deterministic one using multi-dimensional Chebyshev bound. A maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid problem is solved to obtain this probability bound. We then design an optimal affine controller for the resulting problem. The convexity...

Managing Competing Interests with Off-Site Storage

Esther Onega & Kara McClurken
The University of Virginia Library has had a twenty-year history of off-site storage for its growing collections. As our need to store things off-site has grown, so have the growth of a comprehensive preservation program and the preservation goals of off-site storage. Ivy Stacks, the Library’s off-site repository, opened in 1994, with books stored in boxes. A major renovation from 2010-2012 expanded that building’s capacity by installing both high density shelving and sorting the books...

Healthcare Needs and Protective Factors of Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Older Adults: A Systematic Integrative Review

Lauren Catlett
Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) older adults encounter discrimination in healthcare settings and experience health disparities and lack of access to healthcare. However, given these disparities, TGNC elders have protective factors like resilience that may mitigate healthcare challenges. A systematic integrative review was conducted to synthesize and analyze recent studies addressing the needs and protective factors of TGNC older adults living in the US. Methods included a systematic literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of...

Art, Health Disparities, and Medical Education

Lydia Prokosch
Historical and contemporary artists have used visual representations to lead, and contribute to, dialogue on healthcare disparities. As a first-year medical student, I created paintings of the historical segregated hospital wards at UVA and of the Fifeville neighborhood adjacent to UVA hospital in partnership with the UVA Center for Health Humanities and Ethics. Since then, I have worked with UVA faculty to study paintings, photographs, and murals that depict a variety of topics related to...

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