52 Works

About the promotion of natural restoration of Pinus sylvestris L.

N. P. Savinykh, E. V. Lelekova ORCID & M. N. Shakleina ORCID
The research was carried out in the pine forest of the specially protected natural areas “Medvedsky Bor” in the Nolinsky District of the Kirov Region. One can meet there both typical boron and boreal plant species and some representatives of broad-leaved forests and steppes. We researched the composition of vegetation and flora, as well as the state of Pinus sylvestris L. of the overgrown strip that had been formed after the gradual next-but-one belt logging,...

Biosorption of heavy metals by micromycetes: specificity of the process, mechanisms, kinetics

S.G. Skugoreva, G.Ya. Kantor & L.I. Domracheva
One of the ways to remove heavy metal (HM) compounds from the environment is biosorption. Most studies on biosorption are carried out on microorganisms, among which micromycetes occupy leading positions. They have a high degree of adaptation and resistance to the action of HM, are able to accumulate and transform HM compounds, show high sorption activity in relation to them. A feature of the cell wall of micromycetes is the predominance of polysaccharides (in particular,...

Исследование процессов миграции и трансформации смазочно-охлаждающих жидкостей в почве урбанизированной территории

Л.М. Щуклина, Г.М. Батракова & Т.В. Нурисламова
Актуальность работы определяется требованиями экологической безопасности при строительстве на территориях с выявленным техногенным загрязнением почв. В работе рассматривается применение хроматомасс-спектрометрии в исследовании загрязнённого грунта с целью идентификации продуктов трансформации в природных условиях многокомпонентных рецептур смазочно-охлаждающих жидкостей. Выполнена идентификация и поиск по масс-спектрам компонентного состава продуктов трансформации индустриального масла, предложено маркерное соединение. Показана возможность идентификации на основании регистрации масс-спектров ионов химических соединений, определена структура и элементный состав. Поиск характеристических ионов органических соединений выполнялся с помощью банка...

Изменение почвенной актинобиоты под влиянием инвазии борщевика Сосновского

Е.В. Товстик, И.Г. Широких, Е.С. Соловьёва, А.А. Широких, Т.Я. Ашихмина & В.П. Савиных
Отдельные виды растений, а также растительные сообщества могут существенно влиять на структуру и разнообразие почвенных микробных сообществ. Актиномицеты являются неотъемлемым компонентом почвенной микробной системы, осуществляющей важные экологические функции, связанные, в числе прочих, с трансформацией органического вещества. Настоящее исследование было проведено для выявления различий в структуре почвенных актиномицетных комплексов между участками, заросшими борщевиком Сосновского (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) и неинвазированными (контрольными) участками. Отмечено увеличение родового и видового разнообразия актиномицетов в инвазированных почвах, по сравнению с контролем, в...

Комбинированные расчётные схемы в математических моделях процессов фракционирования зерна

В.А. Сысуев, А.В. Алёшкин, Ю.В. Сычугов & А.Ю. Исупов
Сельскохозяйственная экология предлагает новые методы и подходы к осуществлению производственных процессов, которые позволят снизить вредное влияние на окружающую среду. В статье изложены подходы к формированию комбинированной расчётной схемы процесса фракционирования зерновых материалов воздушным потоком в горизонтальном канале. Основной идеей метода является последовательное уточнение взаимного влияния зернового и воздушного потоков при расчёте поля скоростей воздуха и траекторий дисперсных частиц. Математическая модель движения воздушного потока построена на основе решения методом конечных элементов уравнений Лапласа для плоского потенциального...

Monitoring of structure of plant communities on waste dumps from non-ferrous metals enrichment

A.Ya. Tamakhina & A.A. Akhkubekova
The state of the vegetation cover and the composition of plant communities on the terraces of the tailing dump of the Tyrnyauz tungsten-molybdenum combine were studied. Control was a section of the mountain steppe at a distance of 3–4 km up the valley of the Baksan river. Ecotopes at different levels of the terraces of the tailings dump dam differ in the nature of moistening, the qualitative composition and alkalinity of the substrate. In the...

Fractal analysis of information content of multispectral images in problems of ecological monitoring

O.R. Nikitin & A.N. Kislyakov
Method of estimating the information content of digital multispectral images based on computing their fractal dimension and the possibility of its application in problems of ecological monitoring of the earth surface is presented. When using a multichannel system of remote sensing there is a need to assess the information content of multispectral images. To implement the method of estimation of information content the entropy approach and the theory of fractals are used, which allow to...

Получение экологически безопасных строительных материалов с использованием осадков сточных вод целлюлозно-бумажного производства

Е.С. Ширинкина
В работе представлены исследования в области использования осадка сточных вод целлюлозно-бумажной промышленности (ЦБП) в качестве ресурса при производстве строительных материалов. В ходе анализа научнотехнической информации было установлено, что осадок сточных вод ЦБП, содержащий в своём составе целлюлозное волокно (скоп) и активный ил, может применяться в качестве добавки при производстве композитных материалов, теплоизоляционных плит, лёгких заполнителей для бетонов и в качестве выгорающей добавки при производстве керамического кирпича. В лабораторных условиях исследовали возможность получения керамического кирпича с...

Фитопоглощение радия-226 из техногенно загрязнённых почв на примере Chamaenerion angustifolium, Lathirus pratensis и L. vernus

Л. М. Шапошникова
Исследовано влияние физико-химического состава радиоактивно загрязнённых почв на поглощение радия-226 иван-чаем узколистным (Chamaenerion angustifolium) и чиной (Lathirus pratensis, L. vernus). Методами корреляционного и регрессионного анализа выявлено, что валовое содержание радия в исследуемых техногенных почвах больше всего зависит от содержания в них органического углерода и фосфора, содержание подвижных форм (ПФ) радионуклида связано с такими физико-химическими характеристиками как содержание органического углерода, а также обменных катионов кальция и магния. Межвидовых различий в накоплении радия указанными растениями выявлено не...

Statistical methods for analyzing the correlatio between air quality and the state of children’s health in the Kirov region

S.I. Kalinin & S.I. Toropova
The aim of this study is to assess the contribution of atmospheric air pollution to the formation of childhood morbidity in the Kirov region. Statistically significant interaction of air emissions of hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds and the primary incidence of respiratory diseases among the children of the region has been established on the base of the regional indicators assessment. The analysis of statistical indicators at the municipal level showed the presence of a statistically significant...

Conceptual framework for ensuring resource and environmental safety in the region

P.V. Рysarenko, M.S. Samojlik, I.L. Plaksiienko & L.A. Kolesnikova
A problem of providing the resource-ecological safety, increase of efficiency of the naturally-economic potential use of territory is one of priority for every region of Ukraine. At the same time, formation of an efficient market economy in the regions requires solution of the problems between the goals of the social and economic system development and negative effects of its impact on the environment with considering the influence of destabilizing factors. In this aspect, forming new...

Environmental safety of consumer products: legal and regulatory issues

D.G. Domrachev, А.А. Kirillovykh, V.N. Pugach & Y.M. Gordeeva
Modern problems of ensuring ecological safety of consumer products in the Russian Federation are considered, and also measures for improvement of the mechanism of regulation of quality and ecological safety in the sphere of consumption are offered. The methodological basis of the research is the analytical method, which allows to consider the practice of regulation of the environmental safety of products, the formal legal method, which allows to reveal the systemic connections in legal regulation,...

Testing the stability of different forms of Hordeum vulgare L. to the toxic action of aluminum

N.V. Kononenko, I.A. Chaban, E.A. Smirnova, I.G. Shirokikh, O.N. Shupletsova & E.N. Baranova
Combined effect of aluminum toxicity and acidic soil conditions is the major problem for barley productivity in certain areas of crop cultivation. Therefore the development of effective test systems for the identification and selection of aluminum-resistant barley genotypes is an important goal, especially for regions all over the world with high soil acidity. We used barley genotypes with different resistance to ionic toxicity (Belgorodsky 100, Belogorsky, Kupets, Elo, 999-93 and regenerant line 917-01) for characterization...

Reducing the emission of odorous substances in industrial pig breeding enterprises

Yu.N. Terentyev, N.V. Syrchina, T.Ya. Ashikhmina & L.V. Pilip
Pig-breeding enterprises are a source of intense odor pollution of atmospheric air. The enlargement of the existing complexes and construction of new ones leads to a significant exacerbation of the problem of odor pollution and numerous public complaints about the state of the environment. The current situation determines the high relevance and practical significance of research aimed at solving the problem of reducing the emission of odorous substances. The purpose of this work is the...

Electrochemical obtaining of nickel hydroxide from nickel plating waste water for application in the alkali secondary cells

V.L. Kovalenko, V.A. Kotok & V.V. Malyshev
The rinsing and waste water of the plating industry, containing the heavy metal cations, are the source of environmental pollution. Nickel cations have a strong biological hazard. At the same time, up to 30% of nickel compounds spent on nickel plating are irretrievably lost to the rinsing water. Purification of the rinsing and wastewater from heavy metal cations is expensive. It’s economically effective to develop the methods of local treatment of plating rinsing water with...

Population characteristic of tundra vole in radioecological studies

O.V. Ermakova & O.V. Raskosha
Different changes in certain demographic and morpho-physiological parameters of tundra voles (Аlexandromys oeconomus Pall.) at different stages of the population cycle were found as a result of long-term (1981–2018) radioecological studies of two isolated nature populations, living in the areas with similar ecology and different level (by one or two orders of magnitude) of natural radioactivity (Ukhta district of the Komi Republic). We used sex-age structure of the populations, reproduction level and certain morphological and...

Pools and carbon fluxes in felling ecosystems spruce forests of the middle taiga of the Komi Republic

N.V. Likhanova & K.S. Bobkova
The quantitative characteristics of the reserves and distribution of carbon of organic matter in the soil–phytocenosis system after clearing the stand of two types of spruce forests on peaty-podzolic-gleyed soils are shown. It is established that in the ecosystems of 4–6 years old felling of spruce forests 115–121 thousand kgC/ha are accumulated, most of which is concentrated in the soil. The production-destructive processes of organic matter in the phytocenosis-soil system are estimated. It is shown...

Evaluation of fire carbon emissions in pine and oak forests of the Yalta mountain forest natural reserve

V.G. Kobechinskaya & O.B. Yarosh
We performed studies for a 10-year period for carbon emissions in carbon dioxide due to the influence of the pyrogenic factor on the stand, undergrowth and litter in uneven-aged stands of the southern macroslope of the Crimean Mountains. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the fact that work to assess the volume of carbon dioxide emissions from burning in the forests of Crimea has not previously been carried out. As a result...

Ethnoecology of the Slavic World: application significance on the Eurasian space

I.Yu. Trushkova, T.Ya. Ashikhmina & L.V. Kondakova
Ecology is a science dealing with relations of living organisms with the environment and the ways of sustaining the harmonious balance in the world. Ecological approach determines the attitude of the people to the environment, it is the basis of their worldview, their behavior and culture. Ecologically oriented economy management and human behavior mean tendency of the mankind to nature preserving and keeping their environment healthy. Using ethnocultural experience helps to save financial, human, and...

“Smart” state regulation in the sphere of environmental protection and nature management

M.A. Kostenko, O.V. Popova & M. Lutovac
The main purpose of spreading the concept of “smart” state regulation to the environment area is natural protection for future generations. A special place in the solution of problems of environmental sustainability, environmental protection and nature management belongs to legal means, and norm-setting in this area should be outstripping in nature. Important legal acts have already been adopted to address environmental problems, the central one being the development of the list of “best available technologies”,...

Microbial transformation of organic matter of sod-podzolic soils in the Pre-Urals under conditions of different use and application of mineral fertilizers

N.E. Zavyalova, I.G. Shirokikh, A.I. Kosolapova & A.A. Shirokikh
Microbiological parameters and character of transformation of humic substances of sod-podzolic soil at the end of five rotations of eight-full crop rotation in long-term stationary field experiment (1978–2017) are investigated. The direction of microbiological processes due to the effect of long-term application of mineral fertilizers in increasing doses – 30 to 150 kg/ha of NPK was determined. A comparison of the arable soil with its virgin analogs (mixed forest and natural meadow) as well as...

Optimization of the microbiological composition of the biological product for cultivation of Lotus corniculatus

L.I. Domracheva, D.V. Kozylbayeva, A.L. Kovina, L.V. Trefilova, Yu.N. Zykova, M.N. Gripas & V.A. Izotova
In a field experiment the effectiveness of presowing treatment of seeds of Lotus corniculatus by mono- and multicomponent microbial associations has been investigated. The associations were based on the nodule bacteria (NB) of Rhizobium loti, cyanobacteria (CB) Fischerella muscicola and actinobacteria (AB) Streptomyces hygroscopicus A4. Evaluation of effectiveness was carried out by the analysis of morphometric parameters of the aerial part and the plants biomass, as well as the intensity of the tubercles formation. The...

The possibility of reducing the toxicity of gaseous emissions of power plants by the effect of an electrostatic field on the organic fuel combustion zone

I.A. Zyryanov, A.P. Pozolotin, A.G. Budin & E.V. Kantor
Electric power generation based on combustion of organic fuel is one of the largest sources of air pollution by toxic substances, including products of incomplete combustion. To reduce the negative impact of power plants on the environment, various methods are used to optimize the regimes for burning fuel and cleaning the emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. One of the promising ways to regulate the combustion of fuels in order to reduce emissions is...

Development and optimization of biological treatment of quarry waters from mineral nitrogen in the Arctic

L.A. Ivanova, V.A. Myazin, M.V. Korneykova, N.V. Fokina, V.V. Redkina & G.A. Evdokimova
The new concept of bioremediation of anthropogenic water bodies and quarry wastewaters treatment by phytoextraction and phytotransformation in the Arctic conditions is presented. This technology is based on transformating the man-caused water reservoirs into nature-like marsh ecosystems. At the first stage, a new patented method for advanced waste treatment using floating bioplato was developed and implemented. After implementing the bioplato, the concentration of ammonium ions in water decreased by 53–90%, nitrate nitrogen reduced by 15–20%....

The use of multicomponent adsorption filters in water purification systems and luminescent control of ecotoxicant content

E.I. Tikhomirova, O.A. Plotnikova, O.V. Atamanova, M.V. Istrashkina, A.V. Koshelev & A.L. Podolsky
The paper presents the results of innovative design development for multicomponent adsorption filters with sliding cartridges or with a metal-graphite electrode system. The proposed filters allow providing water purification by 98–99% simultaneously from various polluting organic substances, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The filtering media of these filters include bentonite modified by various methods. To study the effectiveness of adsorption filters as a rapid method, qualitative spot test analysis (sensu Feigl) was used. To control the...

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  • 2018
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  • 2019
    36

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  • Journal «Theoretical and applied ecology»
    52