115 Works

Data from: Toxin-resistant isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in snakes do not closely track dietary specialization on toads

Shabnam Mohammadi, Zachariah Gompert, Jonathan Gonzalez, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Akira Mori & Alan H. Savitzky
Toads are chemically defended by bufadienolides, a class of cardiotonic steroids that exert toxic effects by binding to and disabling the Na+/K+-ATPases of cell membranes. Some predators, including a number of snakes, have evolved resistance to the toxic effects of bufadienolides and prey regularly on toads. Resistance in snakes to the acute effects of these toxins is conferred by at least two amino acid substitutions in the cardiotonic steroid binding pocket of the Na+/K+-ATPase. We...

Data from: The truncated bell: an enigmatic but pervasive elevational diversity pattern in Middle American ants

John T. Longino & Michael G. Branstetter
Studies on elevation gradients in Panama and Costa Rica have shown that leaf-litter ants exhibit a mid-elevation peak in diversity. This diversity pattern has been observed in other groups and regions, but uncertainty remains as to just how pervasive it is and what might explain it. Here we examine the robustness of the mid-elevation peak in ant diversity across the entire Middle American corridor, from Veracruz, Mexico, to Costa Rica. We sampled 56 sites distributed...

Data from: Comparison of population genetic patterns in two widespread freshwater mussels with contrasting life histories in western North America

Karen E. Mock, Jayne C. Brim Box, Jer Pin Chong, Joseph Furnish, Jeanette K. Howard, K. E. Mock, J. P. Chong, J. Furnish & J. C. Brim Box
We investigate population genetic structuring in Margaritifera falcata, a freshwater mussel native to western North America, across the majority of its geographical range. We find shallow rangewide genetic structure, strong population-level structuring and very low population diversity in this species, using both mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite data. We contrast these patterns with previous findings in another freshwater mussel species group (Anodonta californiensis/A. nuttalliana) occupying the same continental region and many of the same watersheds....

Data from: Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development

Gareth R. Hopkins, Susannah S. French, Brodie Jr., Edmund D. & Edmund D. Brodie
The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting road-side habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life-stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be...

Data from: Genetic and morphological evidence of a geographically widespread hybrid zone between two crocodile species, Crocodylus acutus and Crocodylus moreletii

Gualberto Pacheco-Sierra, Zachariah Gompert, Jerónimo Domínguez-Laso & Ella Vázquez-Domínguez
Hybrid zones represent natural laboratories to study gene flow, divergence and the nature of species boundaries between closely related taxa. We evaluated the level and extent of hybridization between Crocodylus moreletii and C. acutus using genetic and morphological data on 300 crocodiles from 65 localities. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic study that includes the entire historic range and sympatric zone of the two species. Contrary to expectations, Bayesian admixture proportions and maximum...

Data from: Large-effect mutations generate trade-off between predatory and locomotor ability during arms race coevolution with deadly prey

Michael T.J. Hague, Gabriela Toledo, Shana L. Geffeney, Charles T. Hanifin, Brodie Jr., Edmund D., Brodie III., Edmund D., Michael T. J. Hague & Edmund D. Brodie
Adaptive evolution in response to one selective challenge may disrupt other important aspects of performance. Such evolutionary trade-offs are predicted to arise in the process of local adaptation, but it is unclear if these phenotypic compromises result from the antagonistic effects of simple amino acid substitutions. We tested for trade-offs associated with beneficial mutations that confer tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in the voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.4) in skeletal muscle of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis)....

Data from: Developmental and evolutionary history affect survival in stressful environments

Gareth R. Hopkins, Brodie Jr., Edmund D., Susannah S. French & Edmund D. Brodie
The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the...

Data from: Niche opportunities and invasion dynamics in a desert annual community

Ginger R. H. Allington, Thomas J. Valone, David N. Koons, S. K. Morgan Ernest, Michele R. Schutzenhofer & S. K. Morgan Ernest
Although many factors influence the ability of exotics to invade successfully, most studies focus on only a few variables to explain invasion; attempts at theoretical synthesis are largely untested. The niche opportunities framework proposes that the demographic success of an invader is largely affected by the availability of resources and the abundance of its enemies. Here, we use a 31-year study from a desert ecosystem to examine the niche opportunities framework via the invasion of...

Data from: Phylogeny and systematics of the bee genus Osmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) with emphasis on North American Melanosmia: subgenera, synonymies, and nesting biology revisited

Molly G. Rightmyer, Terry Griswold & Seán G. Brady
The predominantly Holarctic bee genus Osmia Panzer is species-rich and behaviourally diverse. A robust phylogeny of this genus is important for understanding the evolution of the immense variety of morphological and behavioural traits exhibited by this group. We infer a phylogeny of Osmia using DNA sequence data obtained from three nuclear genes (elongation factor 1-α, LW-rhodopsin and CAD) and the mitochondrial gene COI. Our taxon sampling places special attention on North American members of the...

Data from: Genetic architecture, biochemical underpinnings, and ecological impact of floral UV patterning

Marcus Brock, Lauren Lucas, Nickolas Anderson, Matthew Rubin, R. J. Markelz, Michael Covington, Upendra Devisetty, Clint Chapple, Julin Maloof, Cynthia Weinig, Nickolas A. Anderson, Lauren K. Lucas, Marcus T. Brock, Matthew J. Rubin, R. J. Cody Markelz, Michael F. Covington, Upendra K. Devisetty & Julin N. Maloof
Floral attraction traits can significantly affect pollinator visitation patterns, but adaptive evolution of these traits may be constrained by correlations with other traits. In some cases, molecular pathways contributing to floral attraction are well-characterized, offering the opportunity to explore loci potentially underlying variation among individuals. Here, we quantify the range of variation in floral UV patterning (i.e., UV “bulls-eye” nectar guides) among crop and wild accessions of Brassica rapa. We then use experimental crosses to...

Data from: Wolf in sheep's clothing: model misspecification undermines tests of the neutral theory for life histories

Matthieu Authier, Lise M. Aubry & Emmanuelle Cam
Understanding the processes behind change in reproductive state along life-history trajectories is a salient research program in evolutionary ecology. Two processes, state dependence and heterogeneity, can drive the dynamics of change among states. Both processes can operate simultaneously, begging the difficult question of how to tease them apart in practice. The Neutral Theory for Life Histories (NTLH) holds that the bulk of variations in life-history trajectories is due to state dependence and is hence neutral:...

Data from: The evolution of novel host use is unlikely to be constrained by tradeoffs or a lack of genetic variation

Zachariah Gompert, Joshua P. Jahner, Cynthia F. Scholl, Joseph S. Wilson, Lauren K. Lucas, Victor Soria-Carrasco, James A. Fordyce, Chris C. Nice, C. Alex Buerkle & Matthew L. Forister
The genetic and ecological factors that shape the evolution of animal diets remain poorly understood. For herbivorous insects, the expectation has been that trade-offs exist, such that adaptation to one host plant reduces performance on other potential hosts. We investigated the genetic architecture of alternative host use by rearing individual Lycaeides melissa butterflies from two wild populations in a crossed design on two hosts (one native and one introduced) and analysing the genetic basis of...

Data from: Fully-sampled phylogenies of squamates reveal evolutionary patterns in threat status

João Filipe Riva Tonini, Karen H. Beard, Rodrigo Barbosa Ferreira, Walter Jetz & R. Alexander Pyron
Macroevolutionary rates of diversification and anthropogenic extinction risk differ vastly throughout the Tree of Life. This results in a highly heterogeneous distribution of Evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) and threat status among species. We examine the phylogenetic distribution of ED and threat status for squamates (amphisbaenians, lizards, and snakes) using fully-sampled phylogenies containing 9574 species and expert-based estimates of threat status for ~ 4000 species. We ask whether threatened species are more closely related than would be...

Data from: Long-term balancing selection on chromosomal variants associated with crypsis in a stick insect

Dorothea Lindtke, Kay Lucek, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Romain Villoutreix, Timothy E. Farkas, Rüdiger Riesch, Stuart R. Dennis, Zach Gompert & Patrik Nosil
How polymorphisms are maintained within populations over long periods of time remains debated, because genetic drift and various forms of selection are expected to reduce variation. Here, we study the genetic architecture and maintenance of phenotypic morphs that confer crypsis in Timema cristinae stick insects, combining phenotypic information and genotyping-by-sequencing data from 1360 samples across 21 populations. We find two highly divergent chromosomal variants that span megabases of sequence and are associated with color polymorphism....

Data from: Heterogeneity and concordance in locus-specific differentiation and introgression between species of towhees

Sarah E. Kingston, Thomas L. Parchman, Zachariah Gompert, C. Alex Buerkle, Michael J. Braun, T. L. Parchman, Z. Gompert, C. A. Buerkle, S. E. Kingston & M. J. Braun
The maintenance or breakdown of reproductive isolation are observable outcomes of secondary contact between species. In cases where hybrids beyond the F1 are formed, the representation of each species’ ancestry can vary dramatically among genomic regions. This genomic heterogeneity in ancestry and introgression can offer insight into evolutionary processes, particularly if introgression is compared in multiple hybrid zones. Similarly, considerable heterogeneity exists across the genome in the extent to which populations and species have diverged,...

Data from: Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect

Aaron A. Comeault, Samuel M. Flaxman, Rüdiger Riesch, Emma Curran, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Timothy E. Farkas, Moritz Muschick, Thomas L. Parchman, Tanja Schwander, Jon Slate & Patrik Nosil
The interplay between selection and aspects of the genetic architecture of traits (such as linkage, dominance, and epistasis) can either drive or constrain speciation. Despite accumulating evidence that speciation can progress to “intermediate” stages—with populations evolving only partial reproductive isolation—studies describing selective mechanisms that impose constraints on speciation are more rare than those describing drivers. The stick insect Timema cristinae provides an example of a system in which partial reproductive isolation has evolved between populations...

Data from: Detection of individual ploidy levels with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analysis

Zachariah Gompert & Karen E. Mock
Ploidy levels sometimes vary among individuals or populations, particularly in plants. When such variation exists, accurate determination of cytotype can inform studies of ecology or trait variation and is required for population genetic analyses. Here we propose and evaluate a statistical approach for distinguishing low-level ploidy variants (e.g., diploids, triploids and tetraploids) based on genotyping-by-sequencing data. The method infers cytotypes based on observed heterozygosity and the ratio of DNA sequences containing different alleles at thousands...

Data from: Distance, elevation, and environment as drivers of diversity and divergence in bumble bees across latitude and altitude

Jason M. Jackson, Meaghan L. Pimsler, K. Jeannet Oyen, Jonathan B. Koch-Uhuad, James D. Herndon, James P. Strange, Michael E. Dillon, Jeffrey D. Lozier & Kennan Jeannet Oyen
Identifying drivers of dispersal limitation and genetic differentiation is a key goal in biogeography. We examine patterns of population connectivity and genetic diversity using Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) in two bumble bee species, Bombus vosnesenskii and Bombus bifarius across latitude and altitude in mountain ranges from California, Oregon, and Washington, U.S.A. Bombus vosnesenskii, which occurs across a broader elevational range at most latitudes, exhibits little population structure while B. bifarius, which occupies a relatively...

Data from: Unexpected ancestry of Populus seedlings from a hybrid zone implies a large role for postzygotic selection in the maintenance of species

Dorothea Lindtke, Zachariah Gompert, Christian Lexer & C. Alex Buerkle
In the context of potential interspecific gene flow, the integrity of species will be maintained by reproductive barriers that reduce genetic exchange, including traits associated with prezygotic isolation or poor performance of hybrids. Hybrid zones can be used to study the importance of different reproductive barriers, particularly when both parental species and hybrids occur in close spatial proximity. We investigated the importance of barriers to gene flow that act early versus late in the life...

Data from: The predictability of genomic changes underlying a recent host shift in Melissa blue butterflies

Samridhi Chaturvedi, Lauren K. Lucas, Chris C. Nice, James A. Fordyce, Matt L. Forister, Zachariah Gompert & Matthew L. Forister
Despite accumulating evidence that evolution can be predictable, studies quantifying the predictability of evolution remain rare. Here, we measured the predictability of genome-wide evolutionary changes associated with a recent host shift in the Melissa blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa). We asked whether and to what extent genome-wide patterns of evolutionary change in nature could be predicted (1) by comparisons among instances of repeated evolution, and (2) from SNP $\times$ performance associations in a lab experiment. We...

Data from: Admixture and the organization of genetic diversity in a butterfly species complex revealed through common and rare genetic variants

Zachariah Gompert, Lauren K. Lucas, C. Alex Buerkle, Matthew L. Forister, James A. Fordyce & Chris C. Nice
Detailed information about the geographic distribution of genetic and genomic variation is necessary to better understand the organization and structure of biological diversity. In particular, spatial isolation within species and hybridization between them can blur species boundaries and create evolutionary relationships that are inconsistent with a strictly bifurcating tree model. Here we analyze genome-wide DNA sequence and genetic ancestry variation in Lycaeides butterflies to quantify the effects of admixture and spatial isolation on how biological...

Data from: Experimental evidence for ecological selection on genome variation in the wild

Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Jeffery L. Feder, Thomas L. Parchman, Alex C. Buerkle, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & C. Alex Buerkle
Understanding natural selection's effect on genetic variation is a major goal in biology, but the genome-scale consequences of contemporary selection are not well known. In a release and recapture field experiment we transplanted stick insects to native and novel host plants and directly measured allele frequency changes within a generation at 186 576 genetic loci. We observed substantial, genome-wide allele frequency changes during the experiment, most of which could be attributed to random mortality (genetic...

Data from: The many dimensions of diet breadth: phytochemical, genetic, behavioral, and physiological perspectives on the interaction between a native herbivore and an exotic host

Joshua G. Harrison, Zachariah Gompert, James A. Fordyce, C. Alex Buerkle, Rachel Grinstead, Joshua P. Jahner, Scott Mikel, Christopher C. Nice, Aldrin Santamaria & Matthew L. Forister
From the perspective of an herbivorous insect, conspecific host plants are not identical, and intraspecific variation in host nutritional quality or defensive capacity might mediate spatially variable outcomes in plant-insect interactions. Here we explore this possibility in the context of an ongoing host breadth expansion of a native butterfly (the Melissa blue, Lycaeides melissa) onto an exotic host plant (alfalfa, Medicago sativa). We examine variation among seven alfalfa populations that differed in terms of colonization...

Data from: Reproductive isolation and environmental adaptation shape the phylogeography of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)

Eddy J. Dowle, Ryan R. Bracewell, Michael E. Pfrender, Karen E. Mock, Barbara J. Bentz & Gregory J. Ragland
Chromosomal rearrangement can be an important mechanism driving population differentiation and incipient speciation. In the mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), deletions on the Y chromosome that are polymorphic among populations are associated with reproductive incompatibility. Here we used RAD sequencing across the entire MPB range in western North America to reveal the extent of the phylogeographic differences between Y haplotypes compared to autosomal and X-linked loci. Clustering and gene flow analyses revealed three distinct...

Data from: Multilocus approaches for the measurement of selection on correlated genetic loci

Zachariah Gompert, Scott P. Egan, Rowan D. H. Barrett, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
The study of ecological speciation is inherently linked to the study of selection. Methods for estimating phenotypic selection within a generation based on associations between trait values and fitness (e.g. survival) of individuals are established. These methods attempt to disentangle selection acting directly on a trait from indirect selection caused by correlations with other traits via multivariate statistical approaches (i.e. inference of selection gradients). The estimation of selection on genotypic or genomic variation could also...

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