Understanding the processes that generate novel adaptive phenotypes is central to evolutionary biology. We used comparative analyses to reveal the history of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in TTX-bearing salamanders. Resistance to TTX is a critical component of the ability to use TTX defensively but the origin of the TTX-bearing phenotype is unclear. Skeletal muscle of TTX-bearing salamanders (modern newts, family: Salamandridae) is unaffected by TTX at doses far in excess of those that block action potentials...
Data from: Evolution of larval competitiveness and associated life history traits in response to host shifts in a seed beetleCharles W. Fox, Frank J. Messina, F. J. Messina & C. W. Fox
Resource competition is frequently strong among parasites that feed within small discrete resource patches, such as seeds or fruits. The properties of a host can influence the behavioral, morphological, and life history traits of associated parasites, including traits that mediate competition within the host. For seed parasites, host size may be an especially important determinant of competitive ability. Using the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, we performed replicated, reciprocal host shifts to examine the role of...
Many organisms migrate between distinct habitats, exploiting variable resources while profoundly affecting ecosystem services, disease spread, and human welfare. However, the very characteristics that make migration captivating and significant also make it difficult to study, and we lack a comprehensive understanding of which species migrate and why. Here we show that, among mammals, migration is concentrated within Cetacea and Artiodactyla but also diffusely spread throughout the class (found in 12 of 27 orders). We synthesize...
Data from: Carrion fly-derived DNA metabarcoding is an effective tool for mammal surveys: evidence from a known tropical mammal communityTorrey W. Rodgers, Charles C. Y. Xu, Jacalyn Giacalone, Karen M. Kapheim, Kristin Saltonstall, Marta Vargas, Douglas W. Yu, Panu Somervuo, W. Owen McMillan & Patrick A. Jansen
Metabarcoding of vertebrate DNA derived from carrion flies has been proposed as a promising tool for biodiversity monitoring. To evaluate its efficacy, we conducted metabarcoding surveys of carrion flies on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, which has a well-known mammal community, and compared our results against diurnal transect counts and camera-trapping. We collected 1084 flies in 29 sampling days, conducted metabarcoding with mammal-specific (16S) and vertebrate-specific (12S) primers, and sequenced amplicons on Illumina MiSeq. For...
Data from: Serum biochemistry panels in African buffalo: Defining reference intervals and assessing variability across season, age and sexClaire E. Couch, Morgan A. Movius, Anna E. Jolles, M. Elena D. Gorman, Johanna D. Rigas, Brianna R. Beechler & M. Elena Gorman
Serum biochemical parameters can be utilized to evaluate the physiological status of an animal, and relate it to the animal’s health. In order to accurately interpret individual animal biochemical results, species-specific reference intervals (RI) must be established. Reference intervals for biochemical parameters differ between species, and physiological differences including reproductive status, nutritional resource availability, disease status, and age affect parameters within the same species. The objectives of this study were to (1) establish RI for...
Data from: Host conservatism, geography, and elevation in the evolution of a Neotropical moth radiationJoshua P. Jahner, Matthew L. Forister, Thomas L. Parchman, Angela M. Smilanich, James S. Miller, Joseph S. Wilson, Thomas R. Walla, Eric J. Tepe, Lora A. Richards, Mario A. Quijano-Abril, Andrea E. Glassmire & Lee A. Dyer
The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion,...
Data from: Convergent adaptation to dangerous prey proceeds through the same first-step mutation in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalisMichael Thomas Jonathan Hague, Chris R. Feldman, Brodie Jr., Edmund D., Brodie III., Edmund D., Michael T.J. Hague & Edmund D. Brodie
Convergent phenotypes often result from similar underlying genetics, but recent work suggests convergence may also occur in the historical order of substitutions en route to an adaptive outcome. We characterized convergence in the mutational steps to two independent outcomes of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in separate geographic lineages of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) that coevolved with toxic newts. Resistance is largely conferred by amino acid changes in the skeletal muscle sodium channel (NaV1.4) that...
Data from: The scaling of population persistence with carrying capacity does not asymptote in populations of a fish experiencing extreme climate variabilityRichard S.A. White, Brendan A. Wintle, Peter A. McHugh, Douglas J. Booker, Angus R. McIntosh & Richard S. A. White
Despite growing concerns regarding increasing frequency of extreme climate events and declining population sizes, the influence of environmental stochasticity on the relationship between population carrying capacity and time-to-extinction has received little empirical attention. While time-to-extinction increases exponentially with carrying capacity in constant environments, theoretical models suggest increasing environmental stochasticity causes asymptotic scaling, thus making minimum viable carrying capacity vastly uncertain in variable environments. Using empirical estimates of environmental stochasticity in fish metapopulations, we showed that...
Prey switching occurs when a generalist predator kills disproportionately more of an abundant prey species and correspondingly spares a rarer species. Although this behaviour is a classic stabilizing mechanism in food web models, little is known about its operation in free-living systems which often include dangerous prey species that resist predation. We used long-term (1995–2015) data from a large mammal system in northern Yellowstone National Park, USA, to understand how prey preference of a wild,...
Data from: Stable isotope tracers reveal a trade-off between reproduction and immunity in a reptile with competing needsAndrew M. Durso & Susannah S. French
1.Trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems are predicted when resources are limited, but are difficult to measure. 2.We used 15N labeled amino acids to directly compare protein allocation by lizards to eggs and healing wounds. 3.We showed that these two demands compete for the same resource, and that the ratio of protein allocation between them was related to body size, reproductive stage, and plasma corticosterone levels. 4.On average, rates of leucine deposition into eggs...
Data from: Spatial-temporal dynamics of Neotropical velvet ant (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) communities along a forest-savanna gradientJúlio M. Alvarenga, Cecília R. Vieira, Leandro B. Godinho, Pedro H. Campelo, James P. Pitts, Guarino R. Colli, Cecília Rodrigues Vieira, James Purser Pitts, Júlio Miguel Alvarenga, Leandro Braga Godinho, Pedro Henrique Campelo & Guarino Rinaldi Colli
Understanding how and why biological communities are organized over space and time is a major challenge and can aid biodiversity conservation in times of global changes. Herein, spatial-temporal variation in the structure of velvet ant communities was examined along a forest-savanna gradient in the Brazilian Cerrado to assess the roles of environmental filters and interspecific interactions upon community assembly. Velvet ants were sampled using 25 arrays of Y-shaped pitfall traps with drift fences for one...
Data from: Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continentsAimee Tallian, Andres Ordiz, Matthew C. Metz, Cyril Milleret, Camilla Wikenros, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. Stahler, Jonas Kindberg, Daniel R. MacNulty, Petter Wabakken, Jon E. Swenson & Håkan Sand
Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as...
1.Trait-based models of ecological communities typically assume intraspecific variation in functional traits is not important, though such variation can change species trait rankings along gradients in resources and environmental conditions, and thus influence community structure and function. 2. We examined the degree of intraspecific relative to interspecific variation, and reaction norms of 11 functional traits for 57 forest understory plant species, including: intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), Δ15N, 5 leaf traits, 2 stem traits and 2...
Data from: Biodiverse cities: the nursery industry, homeowners, and neighborhood differences drive urban tree compositionMeghan Avolio, Diane Pataki, Tara Trammell, Joanna Endter-Wada, Meghan L. Avolio, Diane E. Pataki & Tara L. E. Trammell
In arid and semi-arid regions, where few if any trees are native, city trees are largely human-planted. Societal factors such as resident preferences for tree traits, nursery offerings, and neighborhood characteristics are potentially key drivers of urban tree community composition and diversity, however they remain critically understudied. We investigated patterns of urban tree structure in residential neighborhoods of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, combining biological variables, such as neighborhood and plant nursery tree species and...
Data from: Wolf in sheep's clothing: model misspecification undermines tests of the neutral theory for life historiesMatthieu Authier, Lise M. Aubry & Emmanuelle Cam
Understanding the processes behind change in reproductive state along life-history trajectories is a salient research program in evolutionary ecology. Two processes, state dependence and heterogeneity, can drive the dynamics of change among states. Both processes can operate simultaneously, begging the difficult question of how to tease them apart in practice. The Neutral Theory for Life Histories (NTLH) holds that the bulk of variations in life-history trajectories is due to state dependence and is hence neutral:...
Data from: Long-term balancing selection on chromosomal variants associated with crypsis in a stick insectDorothea Lindtke, Kay Lucek, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Romain Villoutreix, Timothy E. Farkas, Rüdiger Riesch, Stuart R. Dennis, Zach Gompert & Patrik Nosil
How polymorphisms are maintained within populations over long periods of time remains debated, because genetic drift and various forms of selection are expected to reduce variation. Here, we study the genetic architecture and maintenance of phenotypic morphs that confer crypsis in Timema cristinae stick insects, combining phenotypic information and genotyping-by-sequencing data from 1360 samples across 21 populations. We find two highly divergent chromosomal variants that span megabases of sequence and are associated with color polymorphism....
Ploidy levels sometimes vary among individuals or populations, particularly in plants. When such variation exists, accurate determination of cytotype can inform studies of ecology or trait variation and is required for population genetic analyses. Here we propose and evaluate a statistical approach for distinguishing low-level ploidy variants (e.g., diploids, triploids and tetraploids) based on genotyping-by-sequencing data. The method infers cytotypes based on observed heterozygosity and the ratio of DNA sequences containing different alleles at thousands...
Data from: Reproductive isolation and environmental adaptation shape the phylogeography of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)Eddy J. Dowle, Ryan R. Bracewell, Michael E. Pfrender, Karen E. Mock, Barbara J. Bentz & Gregory J. Ragland
Chromosomal rearrangement can be an important mechanism driving population differentiation and incipient speciation. In the mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), deletions on the Y chromosome that are polymorphic among populations are associated with reproductive incompatibility. Here we used RAD sequencing across the entire MPB range in western North America to reveal the extent of the phylogeographic differences between Y haplotypes compared to autosomal and X-linked loci. Clustering and gene flow analyses revealed three distinct...
Data from: Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and beesMichael G. Branstetter, Bryan N. Danforth, James P. Pitts, Brant C. Faircloth, Philip S. Ward, Matthew L. Buffington, Michael W. Gates, Robert R. Kula & Seán G. Brady
The stinging wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) are an extremely diverse lineage of hymenopteran insects, encompassing over 70,000 described species and a diversity of life history traits, including ectoparasitism, cleptoparasitism, predation, pollen feeding (bees [Anthophila] and Masarinae) and eusociality (social vespid wasps, ants, and some bees) . The most well-studied lineages of Aculeata are the ants, which are ecologically dominant in most terrestrial ecosystems , and the bees, the most important lineage of angiosperm-pollinating insects . Establishing...
Utah State University19
Oregon State University3
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Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology1
University of California System1
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University of Virginia1
University of Minnesota1
Australian National University1