533 Works

Data from: Malagasy cichlids differentially limit impacts of body shape evolution on oral jaw functional morphology

Christopher M. Martinez & John Steven Sparks
Patterns of trait covariation, like integration and modularity, are vital factors that influence the evolution of vertebrate body plans. In functional systems, decoupling of morphological modules buffers functional change in one trait by reducing correlated variation with another. However, for complex morphologies with many-to-one mapping of form to function (MTOM), resistance to functional change may also be achieved by constraining morphological variation within a functionally stable region of morphospace. For this research, we used geometric...

Data from: Gene trees, species trees and Earth history combine to shed light on the evolution of migration in a model avian system

Gary Voelker, Rauri C. K. Bowie & John Klicka
The evolution of migration in birds has fascinated biologists for centuries. In this study, we performed phylogenetic-based analyses of Catharus thrushes, a model genus in the study of avian migration, and their close relatives. For these analyses, we used both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and the resulting phylogenies were used to trace migratory traits and biogeographic patterns. Our results provide the first robust assessment of relationships within Catharus and relatives and indicate that both mitochondrial...

Data from: Climate structures genetic variation across a species' elevation range: a test of range limits hypotheses

Jason P. Sexton, Matthew B. Hufford, Ashley Bateman, David B. Lowry, Harald Meimberg, Sharon Y. Strauss, Kevin J. Rice & Ashley C.Bateman
Gene flow may influence the formation of species range limits, yet little is known about the patterns of gene flow with respect to environmental gradients or proximity to range limits. With rapid environmental change it is especially important to understand patterns of gene flow to inform conservation efforts. Here we investigate the species range of the selfing, annual plant, Mimulus laciniatus, in the California Sierra Nevada. We assessed genetic variation, gene flow, and population abundance...

Data from: Cladogenetic and anagenetic models of chromosome number evolution: a Bayesian model averaging approach

William A. Freyman, Sebastian Höhna & William A Freyman
Chromosome number is a key feature of the higher-order organization of the genome, and changes in chromosome number play a fundamental role in evolution. Dysploid gains and losses in chromosome number, as well as polyploidization events, may drive reproductive isolation and lineage diversification. The recent development of probabilistic models of chromosome number evolution in the groundbreaking work by Mayrose et al. (2010, ChromEvol) have enabled the inference of ancestral chromosome numbers over molecular phylogenies and...

Data from: Declines in low-elevation subalpine tree populations outpace growth in high-elevation populations with warming

Erin Conlisk, Cristina Castanha, Matthew J. Germino, Thomas T. Veblen, Jeremy M. Smith & Lara M. Kueppers
1. Species distribution shifts in response to climate change require that recruitment increase beyond current range boundaries. For trees with long lifespans, the importance of climate-sensitive seedling establishment to the pace of range shifts has not been demonstrated quantitatively. 2. Using spatially explicit, stochastic population models combined with data from long-term forest surveys, we explored whether the climate-sensitivity of recruitment observed in climate manipulation experiments was sufficient to alter populations and elevation ranges of two...

Data from: Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow

Roger K. Butlin, Maria Saura, Grégory Charrier, Benjamin Jackson, Carl André, Armando Caballero, Jerry A. Coyne, Juan Galindo, John W. Grahame, Johann Hollander, Petri Kemppainen, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marina Panova, Humberto Quesada, Kerstin Johannesson, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Johan Hollander
Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to...

Data from: Unlinked Mendelian inheritance of red and black pigmentation in snakes: implications for Batesian mimicry

Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Christian L. Cox & Daniel L. Rabosky
Identifying the genetic basis of mimetic signals is critical to understanding both the origin and dynamics of mimicry over time. For species not amenable to large laboratory breeding studies, widespread color polymorphism across natural populations offers a powerful way to assess the relative likelihood of different genetic systems given observed phenotypic frequencies. We classified color phenotype for 2,175 ground snakes (Sonora semiannulata) across the continental United States to analyze morph ratios and test among competing...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Feeding ecology underlies the evolution of cichlid jaw mobility

Christopher M. Martinez, Matthew David McGee, Samuel Robert Borstein, Peter C Wainwright, Matthew D. McGee, Samuel R. Borstein & Peter C. Wainwright
The fish feeding apparatus is among the most diverse functional systems in vertebrates. While morphological and mechanical variation of feeding systems are well studied, we know far less about the diversity of the motions that they produce. We explored patterns of feeding movements in African cichlids from Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika, asking whether the degree of kinesis is associated with dietary habits of species. We used geometric morphometrics to measure feeding kinesis as trajectories of...

Data from: Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with different evolutionary histories differ in their climate occupancy

Burke T. Greer, Christopher Still, Glenn T. Howe, Christina Tague & Dar A. Roberts
Quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.) are found in diverse habitats throughout North America. While the biogeography of aspens' distribution has been documented, the drivers of the phenotypic diversity of aspen are still being explored. In our study, we examined differences in climate between northern and southwestern populations of aspen, finding large-scale differences between the populations. Our results suggest that northern and southwestern populations live in distinct climates and support the inclusion of genetic and phenotypic...

Data from: Molecular phylogenetics of squirrelfishes and soldierfishes (Teleostei:Beryciformes: Holocentridae): reconciling more than 100 years of taxonomic confusion

Alex Dornburg, Jon A. Moore, Rachel Webster, Dan L. Warren, Matthew C. Brandley, Teresa L. Iglesias, Peter C. Wainwright & Thomas J. Near
Squirrelfishes and soldierfishes (Holocentridae) are among the most conspicuous species in the nocturnal reef fish community. However, there is no clear consensus regarding their evolutionary relationships, which is reflected in a complicated taxonomic history. We collected DNA sequence data from multiple single copy nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene sampled from over fifty percent of the recognized holocentrid species and infer the first species-level phylogeny of the Holocentridae. Our results strongly support the monophyly of...

Data from: Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

Nichola J. Hill, John Y. Takekawa, Joshua T. Ackerman, Keith A. Hobson, Garth Herring, Carol J. Cardona, Jonathan A. Runstadler & Walter M. Boyce
Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) - resident, intermediate-distance migrant or long-distance migrant, occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards, a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration...

Data from: Proteomic divergence in Arabidopsis autopolyploids and allopolyploids and their progenitors

Danny W. K. Ng, Changqing Zhang, Marisa Miller, Zhouxin Shen, Steven P. Briggs, Z. Jeffrey Chen, D W-K Ng, C Zhang, M Miller, Z J Chen, Z Shen & S P Briggs
Autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy are common in many plants and some animals. Rapid changes in genomic composition and gene expression have been observed in both auto- and allopolyploids, but the effects of polyploidy on proteomic divergence are poorly understood. Here we report quantitative analysis of protein changes in leaves of Arabidopsis auto- and allotetraploids and their progenitors using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with mass spectrometry. Over 1 000 proteins analyzed, the...

Data from: Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales)

Sarah Tepler Drobnitch, Kaare H. Jensen, Paige Prentice & Jarmila Pittermann
Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric scaling suggests that these phyla have each evolved an ‘optimal’ transport strategy that has been overwhelmingly adopted by extant species. To truly evaluate the dominance and universality of vascular optimization, however, it is critical...

Data from: Seascape drivers of Macrocystis pyrifera population genetic structure in the northeast Pacific

Mattias L. Johansson, Filipe Alberto, Daniel C. Reed, Peter T. Raimondi, Nelson C. Coelho, Mary A. Young, Patrick T. Drake, Christopher A. Edwards, Kyle Cavanaugh, Jorge Assis, Lydia B. Ladah, Tom W. Bell, James A. Coyer, David A. Siegel & Ester A. Serrão
At small spatial and temporal scales, genetic differentiation is largely controlled by constraints on gene flow, while genetic diversity across a species' distribution is shaped on longer temporal and spatial scales. We assess the hypothesis that oceanographic transport and other seascape features explain different scales of genetic structure of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. We followed a hierarchical approach to perform a microsatellite-based analysis of genetic differentiation in Macrocystis across its distribution in the northeast Pacific....

Data from: The kinetochore prevents centromere-proximal crossover recombination during meiosis

Nadine Vincenten, Lisa-Marie Kuhl, Isabel Lam, Ashwini Oke, Alastair R. W. Kerr, Andreas Hochwagen, Jennifer C. Fung, Scott Keeney, Gerben Vader & Adèle L. Marston
During meiosis, crossover recombination is essential to link homologous chromosomes and drive 22 faithful chromosome segregation. Crossover recombination is non-random across the genome, 23 and centromere-proximal crossovers are associated with an increased risk of aneuploidy, 24 including Trisomy 21 in humans. Here, we identify the conserved Ctf19/CCAN kinetochore sub- 25 complex as a major factor that minimizes potentially deleterious centromere-proximal crossovers 26 in budding yeast. We uncover multi-layered suppression of pericentromeric recombination by the 27...

Data from: Temporal structure of human gaze dynamics is invariant during free viewing

Colleen A. Marlow, Indre V. Viskontas, Alisa Matlin, Cooper Boydston, Adam Boxer & Richard P. Taylor
We investigate the dynamic structure of human gaze and present an experimental study of the frequency components of the change in gaze position over time during free viewing of computer-generated fractal images. We show that changes in gaze position are scale-invariant in time with statistical properties that are characteristic of a random walk process. We quantify and track changes in the temporal structure using a well-defined scaling parameter called the Hurst exponent, H. We find...

Data from: Genome-wide evidence reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals are distinct species

Klaus-Peter Koepfli, John Pollinger, Raquel Godinho, Jacqueline Robinson, Amanda Lea, Sarah Hendricks, Rena M. Schweizer, Olaf Thalmann, Pedro Silva, Zhenxin Fan, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Pavel Dobrynin, Alexey Makunin, James A. Cahill, Beth Shapiro, Francisco Álvares, José C. Brito, Eli Geffen, Jennifer A. Leonard, Kristofer M. Helgen, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Blaire Van Valkenburgh & Robert K. Wayne
The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a...

Data from: Negligible nuclear introgression despite complete mitochondrial capture between two species of chipmunks

Jeffrey M. Good, Dan Vanderpool, Sara Maria Keeble, Ke Bi & Sara Keeble
The idea that species boundaries can be semipermeable to gene flow is now widely accepted but the evolutionary importance of introgressive hybridization remains unclear. Here we examine the genomic contribution of gene flow between two hybridizing chipmunk species, Tamias ruficaudus and Tamias amoenus. Previous studies have shown that ancient hybridization has resulted in complete fixation of introgressed T. ruficaudus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in some populations of T. amoenus, but the extent of nuclear introgression is...

Data from: Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

Jessica L. Yorzinski, Michael L. Platt & Geoffrey K. Adams
Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed...

Data from: Complex histories of repeated gene flow in Cameroon crater lake cichlids cast doubt on one of the clearest examples of sympatric speciation

Christopher Herbert Martin, Joseph S. Cutler, John P. Friel, Cyrille T. Dening, Graham Coop, Peter C. Wainwright & Christopher H. Martin
One of the most celebrated examples of sympatric speciation in nature are monophyletic radiations of cichlid fishes endemic to Cameroon crater lakes. However, phylogenetic inference of monophyly may not detect complex colonization histories involving some allopatric isolation, such as double invasions obscured by genome-wide gene flow. Population genomic approaches are better suited to test hypotheses of sympatric speciation in these cases. Here we use comprehensive sampling from all four sympatric crater lake cichlid radiations in...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & T. C. Munyai
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Reduced crossover interference and increased ZMM-independent recombination in the absence of Tel1/ATM

Carol M. Anderson, Ashwini Oke, Phoebe Yam, Tangna Zhuge & Jennifer C. Fung
Meiotic recombination involves the repair of double-strand break (DSB) precursors as crossovers (COs) or noncrossovers (NCOs). The proper number and distribution of COs is critical for successful chromosome segregation and formation of viable gametes. In budding yeast the majority of COs occurs through a pathway dependent on the ZMM proteins (Zip2-Zip3-Zip4-Spo16, Msh4-Msh5, Mer3), which form foci at CO-committed sites. Here we show that the DNA-damage-response kinase Tel1/ATM limits ZMM-independent recombination. By whole-genome mapping of recombination...

Data from: Small-scale restoration in intensive agricultural landscapes supports more specialized and less mobile pollinator species

Claire Kremen & Leithen K. M'Gonigle
1. Agriculture now constitutes 40–50% of terrestrial land use globally. By enhancing habitat suitability and connectivity, restoration within agricultural landscapes could have a major influence on biodiversity conservation. However, habitat management within intensive agricultural landscapes may primarily boost abundances of common, highly mobile generalists, rather than vulnerable or endangered species. We studied pollinator community response to small-scale habitat restoration in the intensively farmed Central Valley of California to determine whether restoration could also promote more...

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