352 Works

Data from: The role of defensive ecological interactions in the evolution of conotoxins

Jutty Rajan Prashanth, Sebastien Dutertre, Ai-Hua Jin, Vincent Lavergne, Brett Hamilton, Fernanda C. Cardoso, John Griffin, Deon J. Venter, Paul F. Alewood, Richard J. Lewis & A. H. Jin
Venoms comprise of complex mixtures of peptides evolved for predation and defensive purposes. Remarkably, some carnivorous cone snails can inject two distinct venoms in response to predatory or defensive stimuli, providing a unique opportunity to study separately how different ecological pressures contribute to toxin diversification. Here, we report the extraordinary defensive strategy of the Rhizoconus subgenus of cone snails. The defensive venom from this worm-hunting subgenus is unusually simple, almost exclusively composed of αD-conotoxins instead...

Data from: Parental exposure modulates the effects of UV-B on offspring in guppies

Ensiyeh Ghanizadeh Kazerouni, Craig E. Franklin & Frank Seebacher
1.The environment experienced by parents can alter offspring phenotypes. Such developmental plasticity is beneficial when it optimises offspring responses to their prevailing environment. Plasticity may be detrimental, however, if there is a mismatch between parental and offspring environments, although reversible acclimation within individuals could counteract a developmental mismatch. 2.UV-B radiation damages cells directly and by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. There are indications that the developmental environment can influence ROS defences, which could enhance...

Data from: Sibling species of mutualistic Symbiodinium clade G from bioeroding sponges in the western Pacific and western Atlantic oceans

Blake D. Ramsby, Malcolm S. Hill, Daniel J. Thornhill, Sieuwkje F. Steenuizen, Michelle Achlatis, Allison M. Lewis, Todd C. LaJeunesse & Sieuwkje F. Steenhuizen
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium associate with a broad array of metazoan and protistian hosts. Symbiodinium-based symbioses involving bioeroding sponge hosts have received less attention than those involving scleractinian hosts. Certain species of common Cliona harbor high densities of an ecologically restricted group of Symbiodinium, referred to as Clade G. The relationships of these unusual Clade G Symbiodinium with Foraminifera, sponges, and black coral (Antipatharia) are rarely studied. Nonetheless, analyses of genetic evidence indicate that...

Data from: Constraints on trait combinations explain climatic drivers of biodiversity: the importance of trait covariance in community assembly

John M. Dwyer & Daniel C. Laughlin
Trade-offs maintain diversity and structure communities along environmental gradients. Theory indicates that if covariance among functional traits sets a limit on the number of viable trait combinations in a given environment, then communities with strong multidimensional trait constraints should exhibit low species diversity. We tested this prediction in winter annual plant assemblages along an aridity gradient using multilevel structural equation modelling. Univariate and multivariate functional diversity measures were poorly explained by aridity, and were surprisingly...

Data from: Mobulid rays feed on euphausiids in the Bohol Sea

Christoph A. Rohner, Katherine B. Burgess, Joshua M. Rambahiniarison, Joshua D. Stewart, Alessandro Ponzo & Anthony J. Richardson
Mobulid rays have a conservative life history and are caught in direct fisheries and as by-catch. Their subsequent vulnerability to overexploitation has recently been recognized, but fisheries management can be ineffective if it ignores habitat and prey preferences and other trophic interactions of the target species. Here, we assessed the feeding ecology of four mobulids (Manta birostris, Mobula tarapacana, M. japanica, M. thurstoni) in the Bohol Sea, Philippines, using stomach contents analysis of fisheries specimens...

Data from: Higher-order interactions capture unexplained complexity in diverse communities

Margaret Mayfield & Daniel Stouffer
Natural communities are well known to be maintained by many complex processes. Despite this, the practical aspects of studying them often require some simplification, such as the widespread assumption that direct, additive competition captures the important details about how interactions between species impact community diversity. On the other hand, more complex non-additive ‘higher-order’ interactions, are assumed to be negligible or absent. Notably, these assumptions are poorly supported and have major consequences for the accuracy with...

Data from: Epithelial magnesium transport by TRPM6 is essential for prenatal development and adult survival

Vladimir Chubanov, Thomas Gudermann, Wenke Jonas, Annette Schürmann, Önder A Yildirim, Yuriy Shymkiv, Alexey G Ryazanov, Christian Weber, Emiel PC Van Der Vorst, Harald Bartsch, Karl Sotlar, Attila Braun, David G Simmons, Silvia Ferioli, Annika Wisnowsky, Banu Akdogan, Lorenz Mittermeier, Ludmila Sytik, Susanna Zierler & Vindi Jurinovic
Mg2+ regulates many physiological processes and signalling pathways. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the organismal balance of Mg2+. Capitalizing on a set of newly generated mouse models, we provide an integrated mechanistic model of the regulation of organismal Mg2+ balance during prenatal development and in adult mice by the ion channel TRPM6. We show that TRPM6 activity in the placenta and yolk sac is essential for embryonic development. In adult mice, TRPM6...

Data from: The molecular biogeography of the Indo-Pacific: testing hypotheses with multispecies genetic patterns

Eric D. Crandall, Cynthia Riginos, Chris E. Bird, Libby Liggins, Eric Treml, Maria Beger, Paul H. Barber, Sean R. Connolly, Peter F. Cowman, Joseph D. Dibattista, Jeff A. Eble, Sharon F. Magnuson, John B. Horne, Marc Kochzius, Harilaos A. Lessios, Shang Yin Vanson Liu, William B. Ludt, Hawis Madduppa, John M. Pandolfi, Robert R. Toonen, Contributing Members Of Diversity Of The Indo-Pacific Network & Michelle R. Gaither
Aim: To test hypothesized biogeographic partitions of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean with phylogeographic data from 56 taxa, and to evaluate the strength and nature of barriers emerging from this test. Location: The Indo-Pacific Ocean. Time Period: Pliocene through the Holocene. Major Taxa Studied: 56 marine species. Methods: We tested eight biogeographic hypotheses for partitioning of the Indo-Pacific using a novel modification to analysis of molecular variance. Putative barriers to gene flow emerging from this analysis...

Data from: Morphological and digestive adjustments buffer performance: how staging shorebirds cope with severe food declines

Shoudong Zhang, Zhijun Ma, Chi-Yeung Choi, He-Bo Peng, David S. Melville, Tian-Tian Zhao, Qing-Quan Bai, Wen-Liang Liu, Ying-Chi Chan, Jan A. Van Gils & Theunis Piersma
Organisms cope with environmental stressors by behavioral, morphological, and physiological adjustments. Documentation of such adjustments in the wild provides information on the response space in nature and the extent to which behavioral and bodily adjustments lead to appropriate performance effects. Here we studied the morphological and digestive adjustments in a staging population of migrating Great Knots Calidris tenuirostris in response to stark declines in food abundance and quality at the Yalu Jiang estuarine wetland (northern...

Data from: QuLinePlus: extending plant breeding strategy and genetic model simulation to cross-pollinated populations – case studies in forage breeding

Valerio Hoyos-Villegas, Vivi N. Arief, Wen-Hsi Yang, Mingzhu Sun, Ian H. DeLacy, Brent A. Barrett, Zulfi Jahufer & Kaye E. Basford
Plant breeders are supported by a range of tools that assist them to make decisions about the conduct or design of plant breeding programs. Simulations are a strategic tool that enable the breeder to integrate the multiple components of a breeding program into a number of proposed scenarios that are compared by a range of statistics measuring the efficiency of the proposed systems. A simulation study for the trait growth score compared two major strategies...

Data from: Sensitivity analysis of conservation targets in systematic conservation planning

Noam Levin, Tessa Mazor, Eran Brokovich, Pierre-Elie Jablon & Salit Kark
Systematic conservation planning has rapidly advanced in the past decade and has been increasingly incorporated in multiple studies and conservation projects. One of its requirements is a quantitative definition of conservation targets. While the Convention on Biological Diversity aims to expand the world's protected area network to 17% of the land surface, in many cases such uniform policy-driven targets may not be appropriate for achieving persistence of various species. Targets are often set arbitrarily, often...

Data from: Heterogeneity of genetic architecture of body size traits in a free-living population

Camillo Bérénos, Philip A. Ellis, Jill G. Pilkington, S. Hong Lee, Jake Gratten & Josephine M. Pemberton
Knowledge of the underlying genetic architecture of quantitative traits could aid in understanding how they evolve. In wild populations, it is still largely unknown whether complex traits are polygenic or influenced by few loci with major effect, due to often small sample sizes and low resolution of marker panels. Here, we examine the genetic architecture of five adult body size traits in a free-living population of Soay sheep on St Kilda using 37 037 polymorphic...

Data from: Landscape context explains changes in the functional diversity of regenerating forests better than climate or species richness

Michael Sams, Hao Ran Lai, Stephen Bonser, Peter Vesk, Robert Kooyman, Daniel Metcalfe, John W. Morgan, Margaret Mayfield, M. A. Sams, D. J. Metcalfe, R. M. Kooyman & P. A. Vesk
Aim A rich literature on forest succession provides general expectations for the steps forests go through while reassembling after disturbance, yet we still have a surprisingly poor understanding of why the outcomes of forest recovery after logging (or other disturbances) vary so extensively. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that regional species pool, system productivity, climate and landscape structure are important drivers of forest reassembly outcomes. Location Transect 1,500 km in length along the...

Data from: A newly recognised species that has been confused with the global polyphagous pest scale insect, Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae)

Yen-Po Lin, Hirotaka Tanaka, Takumasa Kondo & Lyn G. Cook
Coccus hesperidum L. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae), the type species of the soft scale genus Coccus L., the family Coccidae and the whole of the scale insects (Coccoidea), is a cosmopolitan plant pest. Using DNA sequence data and morphological comparisons, we determine that there is a distinct species that is morphologically very similar to C. hesperidum. Here, we describe the species as Coccus praetermissus Lin & Tanaka sp. n., based on adult female specimens from Australia,...

Data from: The role of topography and plant functional traits in determining tropical reforestation success

Alexander W. Cheesman, Noel D. Preece, Penny Van Oosterzee, Peter D. Erskine & Lucas A. Cernusak
1.Early establishment and sapling growth is a key phase in ensuring cost-effective reforestation success in relation to biodiversity outcomes. Therefore species selection must consider the interaction between plant functional traits and the often-challenging and heterogeneous biophysical environment of degraded landscapes. 2.In this study, we examine how microtopography (slope) results in spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients, especially phosphorus (P) in a degraded tropical pasture landscape in Queensland, Australia. We then explore how this small-scale heterogeneity influences...

Data from: The large-scale drivers of population declines in a long-distance migratory shorebird

Nicholas J. Murray, Peter P. Marra, Richard A. Fuller, Robert S. Clemens, Kiran Dhanjal-Adams, Ken B. Gosbell, Chris J. Hassell, Takuya Iwamura, David Melville, Clive D. T. Minton, Adrian C. Riegen, Danny I. Rogers, Eric J. Woehler & Colin E. Studds
Migratory species can travel tens of thousands of kilometers each year, spending different parts of their annual cycle in geographically distinct locations. Understanding the drivers of population change is vital for conserving migratory species, yet the challenge of collecting data over entire geographic ranges has hindered attempts to identify the processes leading to observed population changes. Here, we use remotely sensed environmental data and count data to investigate the factors driving variability in abundance in...

Data from: Evolutionary potential of the extrinsic incubation period of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti

Yixin H. Ye, Stephen F. Chenoweth, Alison M. Carrasco, Scott Lee Allen, Francesca D. Frentiu, Andrew F. Van Den Hurk, Nigel W. Beebe & Elizabeth A. McGraw
Dengue fever is the most common arboviral disease worldwide. It is caused by dengue viruses (DENV) and the mosquito Aedes aegypti is its primary vector. One of the most powerful determinants of a mosquito's ability to transmit DENV is the length of the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), the time it takes for a virus to be transmitted by a mosquito after consuming an infected blood meal. Here, we repeatedly measured DENV load in the saliva...

Data from: Potential mechanisms of coexistence in closely related forbs

Timothy L. Staples, John M. Dwyer, Xingwen Loy & Margaret M. Mayfield
The stable coexistence of very similar species has perplexed ecologists for decades and has been central to the development of coexistence theory. According to modern coexistence theory, species can coexist stably (i.e. persist indefinitely with no long-term density trends) as long as species' niche differences exceed competitive ability differences, even if these differences are very small. Recent studies have directly quantified niche and competitive ability differences in experimental communities at small spatial scales, but provide...

Data from: Integrating local knowledge to prioritise invasive species management

Hernan Caceres-Escobar, Salit Kark, Scott C. Atkinson, Hugh P. Possingham, Katrina J. Davis & Hernan Caceres
1. Invasive species management involves complex and multidimensional challenges. There is considerable uncertainty regarding how to identify management strategies that will achieve invasive species control to enhance biodiversity, local economies, and human well-being. Invasive species management on inhabited islands is especially challenging, often due to perceived socio-political risks and unexpected technical difficulties. 2. Failing to incorporate local knowledge and local perspectives in the early stages of planning can compromise the ability of decision-makers to achieve...

Data from: Recovery of decomposition rates and decomposer invertebrates during rainforest restoration on disused pasture

Marisa J. Stone, Luke Shoo, Nigel E. Stork, Fran Sheldon & Carla P. Catterall
Converting forest to pasture can alter the roles of biota in ecosystem functioning, while vegetation restoration should arguably assist functional recovery. Since tests of this are scarce, this study quantifies both litter decomposition rates and their association with decomposer invertebrates, across 25 sites representing different phases of deforestation and subsequent reforestation of rainforest. Open and closed (to exclude macro-invertebrates) mesh bags containing forest leaves were exposed in the field for up to eight months, and...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

The iron-responsive genome of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata

Kevin Kocot, Rebecca M Varney, Daniel I Speiser, Carmel McDougall, Bernard M Degnan & Kevin M Kocot
Molluscs biomineralize structures that vary in composition, form, and function, prompting questions about the genetic mechanisms responsible for their production and the evolution of these mechanisms. Chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) are a promising system for studies of biomineralization because they build a range of calcified structures including shell plates and spine- or scale-like sclerites. Chitons also harden the calcified teeth of their rasp-like radula with a coat of iron (as magnetite). Here we present the genome...

Habitat structure mediates vulnerability to climate change through its effects on thermoregulatory behavior

Lauren Neel, Michael Logan, Daniel Nicholson, Christina Miller, Albert Chung, Inbar Maayan, Zach Degon, Madeline DuBois, John David Curlis, Q Taylor, Kaitlin Keegan, Owen McMillan, Jonathan Losos & Christian Cox
Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because they are thermal specialists, having evolved in aseasonal thermal environments. However, even within the tropics, habitat structure can influence opportunities for behavioral thermoregulation. Open (and edge) habitats likely promote more effective thermoregulation due to the high spatial heterogeneity of the thermal landscape, while forests are thermally homogenous and may constrain opportunities for behavioral buffering of environmental temperatures. Nevertheless, the ways in which behavior...

Population genomic response to geographic gradients by widespread and endemic fishes of the Arabian Peninsula

Joseph DiBattista, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Marek Piatek, Fernando Cagua, Brian Bowen, John Choat, Luiz Rocha, Michelle Gaither, Jean-Paul Hobbs, Tane Sinclair-Taylor, Jennifer McIlwain, Mark Priest, Camrin Braun, Nigel Hussey, Steven Kessel & Michael Berumen
Genetic structure within marine species may be driven by local adaptation to their environment, or alternatively by historical processes, such as geographic isolation. The gulfs and seas bordering the Arabian Peninsula offer an ideal setting to examine connectivity patterns in coral reef fishes with respect to environmental gradients and vicariance. The Red Sea is characterized by a unique marine fauna, historical periods of desiccation and isolation, as well as environmental gradients in salinity, temperature, and...

Supplemental data for: Late Sandbian (Sa2) radiolarians of the Pingliang Formation from the Guanzhuang section, Gansu Province, China

Siyumini Perera & Jonathan C. Aitchison
A diverse, well-preserved radiolarian assemblage is reported from the Sandbian age Climacograptus bicornis Graptolite Biozone. This new assemblage recovered from the Pingliang Formation in the Guanzhuang section, China includes six new species along with 13 other previously described taxa. Geminusphaera new genus incorporates G. grandis n. sp and G. kongtongensis n. sp. and is proposed for inaniguttids constructed from two distinct porous spheres bearing seven or more primary spines. Protopylentonema new genus is introduced to...

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