76 Works

Pollen color morphs take different paths to fitness

Matthew Koski, Andrea Berardi & Laura Galloway
Color phenotypes are often involved in communication and are thus under selection by species interactions. However, selection may also act on color through correlated traits or alternative functions of biochemical pigments. Such forms of selection are instrumental in maintaining petal color diversity in plants. Pollen color also varies markedly, but the maintenance of this variation is little understood. In Campanula americana, pollen ranges from white to dark purple, with darker morphs garnering more pollinator visits...

Rapid reversal of a potentially constraining genetic covariance between leaf and flower traits in Silene latifolia

Janet Steven, Ingrid Anderson, Edmund Brodie & Lynda Delph
Genetic covariance between two traits generates correlated responses to selection, and may either enhance or constrain adaptation. Silene latifolia exhibits potentially constraining genetic covariance between specific leaf area and flower number in males. Flower number is likely to increase via fecundity selection but the correlated increase in specific leaf area increases mortality, and specific leaf area is under selection to decrease in dry habitats. We selected on trait combinations in two selection lines for four...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity, but not adaptive tracking, underlies seasonal variation in post-cold hardening freeze tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster

Helen Stone, Priscilla Erickson & Alan Bergland
In temperate regions, an organism’s ability to rapidly adapt to seasonally varying environments is essential for its survival. In response to seasonal changes in selection pressure caused by variation in temperature, humidity, and food availability, some organisms exhibit plastic changes in phenotype. In other cases, seasonal variation in selection pressure can rapidly increase the frequency of genotypes that offer survival or reproductive advantages under the current conditions. Little is known about the relative influences of...

Sex‐differences in disease avoidance behavior vary across modes of pathogen exposure

Carl N. Keiser, Volker H.W. Rudolf, Matthew C. Luksik & Julia B. Saltz
Sex‐differences in disease susceptibility are widespread, and these disparities are often compounded in cases where sexual dimorphism increases exposure risk to parasites for one sex more than the other. Studies rarely link sex‐differences in disease susceptibility to sex‐differences in infection avoidance behavior. Yet, understanding the intersection of hosts’ susceptibility to infection and infection avoidance behavior is essential to predicting infection risk variation. Here, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and a generalist entomopathogenic fungus,...

Data from: Normal table of embryonic development in the four-toed salamander, Hemidactylium scutatum

Carol A. Hurney, Sharon K. Babcock, David R. Shook, Teresa M. Pelletier, Stephen D. Turner, John Maturo, Salimah Cogbill, Michael C. Snow, Kristie Kinch, C.A. Hurney, S.K. Babcock, T.M. Pelletier, J. Maturo, S. Cogbill, M.C. Snow, K. Kinch, S.D. Turner & D.R. Shook
We present a complete staging table of normal development for the lungless salamander, Hemidactylium scutatum (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Terrestrial egg clutches from naturally ovipositing females were collected and maintained at 15 °C in the laboratory. Observations, photographs, and time-lapse movies of embryos were taken throughout the 45-day embryonic period. The complete normal table of development for H. scutatum is divided into 28 stages and extends previous analyses of H. scutatum embryonic development (Bishop, 1920; Humphrey, 1928)....

Data from: Stalking the fourth domain in metagenomic data: searching for, discovering, and interpreting novel, deep branches in phylogenetic trees of phylogenetic marker genes

Dongying Wu, Martin Wu, Aaron Halpern, Douglas B. Rusch, Shibu Yooseph, Marvin Frazier, J. Craig Venter & Jonathan A. Eisen
BACKGROUND: Most of our knowledge about the ancient evolutionary history of organisms has been derived from data associated with specific known organisms (i.e., organisms that we can study directly such as plants, metazoans, and culturable microbes). Recently, however, a new source of data for such studies has arrived: DNA sequence data generated directly from environmental samples. Such metagenomic data has enormous potential in a variety of areas including, as we argue here, in studies of...

Data from: A generation time effect on the rate of molecular evolution in bacteria

Cory Andrew Weller, Martin Wu & Cory Weller
Molecular evolutionary rate varies significantly among species and a strict global molecular clock has been rejected across the tree of life. Generation time is one primary life-history trait that influences the molecular evolutionary rate. Theory predicts that organisms with shorter generation times evolve faster because of the accumulation of more DNA replication errors per unit time. While the generation-time effect has been demonstrated consistently in plants and animals, the evidence of its existence in bacteria...

Data from: Does hugging provide stress-buffering social support? A study of susceptibility to upper respiratory infection and illness

Sheldon Cohen, Denise Janicki-Deverts, Ronald B. Turner & William J. Doyle
Perceived social support has been hypothesized to protect against the pathogenic effects of stress. How such protection might be conferred, however, is not well understood. Using a sample of 404 healthy adults, we examined the roles of perceived social support and received hugs in buffering against interpersonal stress-induced susceptibility to infectious disease. Perceived support was assessed by questionnaire, and daily interpersonal conflict and receipt of hugs were assessed by telephone interviews on 14 consecutive evenings....

Data from: Survival of the fattest? Indices of body condition do not predict viability in the brown anole (Anolis sagrei)

Robert M. Cox & Ryan Calsbeek
1. Measures of body mass and length are commonly used to derive indices of condition, which are often assumed to reflect the energetic state of an animal and, by extension, to predict its fitness. However, the relationship between condition and fitness is rarely quantified, and the appropriate method(s) for deriving indices of condition are frequently debated. 2. Data from a decade of mark-recapture studies involving over 4,600 individual lizards (Anolis sagrei) and 41 replicates of...

Data from: How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics

Jonathan A. Walter, Marcia S. Meixler, Thomas Mueller, William F. Fagan, Patrick C. Tobin & Kyle J. Haynes
1. Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. 2. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony,...

Data from: Adaptive radiation along a deeply conserved genetic line of least resistance in Anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, D. Luke Mahler, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos, Brodie III., Edmund D. & Edmund D. Brodie
On microevolutionary timescales, adaptive evolution depends upon both natural selection and the underlying genetic architecture of traits under selection, which may constrain evolutionary outcomes. Whether such genetic constraints shape phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales is more controversial, however. One key prediction is that genetic constraints should bias the early stages of species divergence along “genetic lines of least resistance” defined by the genetic (co)variance matrix, G. This bias is expected to erode over time as...

Data from: Effect of the anther-smut fungus Microbotryum on the juvenile growth of its host Silene latifolia

Janis Antonovics, Jessica L. Abbate, Emily L. Bruns, Peter D. Fields, Nicole J. Forrester, Kimberley Gilbert, Michael E. Hood, Timothy Park & Douglas R. Taylor
Premise of the Study: Plant pathogens that form persistent systemic infections within plants have the potential to affect multiple plant life history traits, yet we tend to focus only on visible symptoms. Anther-smut disease of Silene latifolia caused by the fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces the anthers of its host to produce fungal spores in place of pollen, and the pathogen is primarily transmitted among flowering plants by pollinators. Nevertheless, most of its life cycle is...

Data from: Adaptive dynamics of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila

Subhash Rajpurohit, Robert Hanus, Vladimir Vrkoslav, Emily L. Behrman, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri Petrov, Josef Cvacka & Paul S. Schmidt
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are hydrophobic compounds deposited on the arthropod cuticle that are of functional significance with respect to stress tolerance, social interactions, and mating dynamics. We characterized CHC profiles in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster at five levels: across a latitudinal transect in the eastern U.S., as a function of developmental temperature during culture, across seasonal time in replicate years, and as a function of rapid evolution in experimental mesocosms in the field. Furthermore,...

Data from: Spatiotemporal dynamics and genome-wide association analysis of desiccation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

Subhash Rajpurohit, Eran Gefen, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri A. Petrov, Allen G. Gibbs & Paul S. Schmidt
Water availability is a major environmental challenge to a variety of terrestrial organisms. In insects, desiccation tolerance varies predictably over spatial and temporal scales and is an important physiological determinant of fitness in natural populations. Here, we examine the dynamics of desiccation tolerance in North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster using: 1) natural populations sampled across latitudes and seasons; 2) experimental evolution in field mesocosms over seasonal time; 3) genome-wide associations to identify SNPs/genes associated...

Data from: Co-occurrence and hybridization of anther-smut pathogens specialized on Dianthus hosts

Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud & Michael Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps. In contrast to prior studies on this pathogen...

Data from: "Development of the draft genome sequence of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae as a reference of population genomic analysis" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 February 2015 – 31 March 2015

Yuki Minegishi, Minoru Ikeda, Lynda F. Delph, Laura A. Weingartner, Peter D. Fields, Laura Bertini, Carla Caruso, Silvia Proietti, Wolfgang Arthofer, Francesco Cicconardi, Heike Ritthammer, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner, Gregor A. Wachter & Herbert C. Wagner
This article documents the public availability of the draft genome sequence data (raw reads, assembled contigs and unassembled reads) and RAD-tag read data of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae (Pleuronectiformes; Pleuronectidae).

Data from: Does adaptive radiation of a host lineage promote ecological diversity of its bacterial communities? A test using gut microbiota of Anolis lizards

Tiantian Ren, Ariel F. Kahrl, Martin Wu & Robert M. Cox
Adaptive radiations provide unique opportunities to test whether and how recent ecological and evolutionary diversification of host species structures the composition of entire bacterial communities. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing of faecal samples to test for differences in the gut microbiota of six species of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards characterized by the evolution of distinct ‘ecomorphs’ related to differences in habitat use. We found substantial variation in the composition of the microbiota within each...

Data from: Rate of resistance evolution and polymorphism in long- and short-lived hosts

Emily L. Bruns, Michael E. Hood, Janis Antonovics & Emily Bruns
Recent theoretical work has shown that long-lived hosts are expected to evolve higher equilibrium levels of disease resistance than shorter-lived hosts, but questions of how longevity affects the rate of resistance evolution and the maintenance of polymorphism remain unanswered. Conventional wisdom suggests that adaptive evolution should occur more slowly in long-lived organisms than in short-lived organisms. However, the opposite may be true for the evolution of disease-resistance traits where exposure to disease, and therefore the...

Data from: Toxicity and population structure of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa) outside the range of an arms race with resistant predators

Michael T. J. Hague, Leleña A. Avila, Charles T. Hanifin, W. Andrew Snedden, Amber N. Stokes, Brodie Jr., Edmund D., Brodie III, Edmund D., Michael T.J. Hague & Edmund D. Brodie
Species interactions, and their fitness consequences, vary across the geographic range of a coevolutionary relationship. This spatial heterogeneity in reciprocal selection is predicted to generate a geographic mosaic of local adaptation, wherein coevolutionary traits are phenotypically variable from one location to the next. Under this framework, allopatric populations should lack variation in coevolutionary traits due to the absence of reciprocal selection. We examine phenotypic variation in tetrodotoxin (TTX) toxicity of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa)...

Data from: Spatial variation in Allee effects influences patterns of range expansion

Jonathan A. Walter, Derek M. Johnson & Kyle J. Haynes
Allee effects are thought to slow range expansion and contribute to stable range boundaries. Recent studies have shown Allee effects to vary spatiotemporally due to influences of environmental heterogeneity on population processes. Gradients in Allee effects might occur as a species' range approaches suboptimal conditions while expanding into new territory. Allee effects could exhibit patchiness if drivers of positive density dependence (e.g., mate finding rates) are influenced by habitat patchiness. However, theoretical studies have largely...

Data from: Female anoles retain responsiveness to testosterone despite the evolution of androgen-mediated sexual dimorphism

Christian L. Cox, Amanda F. Hanninen, Aaron M. Reedy & Robert M. Cox
1. The evolution of sexual dimorphism presents a challenge because males and females must express two phenotypes from the same underlying genome. In vertebrates, one solution to this challenge is to link the expression of shared traits to sex steroids. However, even ‘male-biased’ steroids such as testosterone (T) circulate at biologically significant levels in females, raising the question of whether sexual dimorphism evolves not only through the coupling of trait expression to T in males,...

Data from: A key floral scent component (β-trans-bergamotene) drives pollinator preferences independently of pollen rewards in seep monkeyflower

Ariela I. Haber, James W. Sims, Mark C. Mescher, Consuelo M. De Moraes & David E. Carr
1) Floral odors play an important role in attracting insect pollinators. Because pollinators visit flowers to obtain pollen and nectar rewards, they should prefer floral odor profiles associated with the highest-rewarding flowers (honest signals). In previous work, bumble bees exhibited a preference for flowers from outbred over inbred Mimulus guttatus plants. Pollen is the only floral reward in M. guttatus, and pollen viability (a reliable indicator of protein content) is reduced in inbred plants. Yet,...

Data from: Convergent adaptation to dangerous prey proceeds through the same first-step mutation in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis

Michael Thomas Jonathan Hague, Chris R. Feldman, Brodie Jr., Edmund D., Brodie III., Edmund D., Michael T.J. Hague & Edmund D. Brodie
Convergent phenotypes often result from similar underlying genetics, but recent work suggests convergence may also occur in the historical order of substitutions en route to an adaptive outcome. We characterized convergence in the mutational steps to two independent outcomes of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in separate geographic lineages of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) that coevolved with toxic newts. Resistance is largely conferred by amino acid changes in the skeletal muscle sodium channel (NaV1.4) that...

Data from: Evolutionary shifts in habitat aridity predict evaporative water loss across squamate reptiles

Christian L. Cox & Robert M. Cox
Aridity is an important determinant of species distributions, shaping both ecological and evolutionary diversity. Lizards and snakes are often abundant in deserts, suggesting a high potential for adaptation or acclimation to arid habitats. However, phylogenetic evidence indicates that squamate diversity in deserts may be more strongly tied to speciation within arid habitats than to convergent evolution following repeated colonization from mesic habitats. To assess the frequency of evolutionary transitions in habitat aridity while simultaneously testing...

Data from: Range‐wide population genetic structure of the Caribbean marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum

Kor-Jent Van Dijk, Eric Bricker, Brigitta Ine Van Tussenbroek, Michelle Waycott & Brigitta I. Van Tussenbroek
Many marine species have widespread geographic ranges derived from their evolutionary and ecological history particularly their modes of dispersal. Seagrass (marine angiosperm) species have ranges that are unusually widespread, which is not unexpected following recent reviews of reproductive strategies demonstrating the potential for long distance dispersal combined with longevity through clonality. An exemplar of these dual biological features is turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) which is an ecologically important species throughout the tropical Atlantic region. Turtlegrass has...

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