170 Works

Local adaptation to biotic interactions: a meta-analysis across latitudes

Anna Hargreaves, Rachel Germain, Megan Bontrager, Joshua Persi & Amy Angert
Adaptation to local conditions can increase species’ geographic distributions and rates of diversification, but which components of the environment commonly drive local adaptation—particularly the importance of biotic interactions—is unclear. Biotic interactions should drive local adaptation when they impose consistent divergent selection; if this is common we expect transplant experiments to detect more frequent and stronger local adaptation when biotic interactions are left intact. We tested this hypothesis using a meta-analysis of transplant experiments from >125...

Communities that thrive in extreme conditions captured from a freshwater lake

Etienne Low-Decarie, Gregor F. Fussmann, Alex J. Dumbrell & Graham Bell
Organisms that can grow in extreme conditions would be expected to be confined to extreme environments. However, we were able to capture highly productive communities of algae and bacteria capable of growing in acidic (pH 2), basic (pH 12) and saline (40 ppt) conditions from an ordinary freshwater lake. Microbial communities may thus include taxa that are highly productive in conditions that are far outside the range of conditions experienced in their host ecosystem. The...

High-resolution global topographic index values

T.R. Marthews, S.J. Dadson, B. Lehner, S. Abele & N. Gedney
The topographic index is a hydrological quantity describing the propensity of the soil at landscape points to become saturated with water as a result of topographic position (i.e. not accounting for other factors such as climate that also affect soil moisture but are accounted for separately). Modern land surface models require a characterisation of the land surface hydrological regime and this parameter allows the use of the TOPMODEL hydrological model to achieve this .This Geographic...

Patient burden and clinical advances associated with post-approval monotherapy cancer drug trials: a systematic review

Benjamin Gregory Carlisle, Adélaïde Doussau & Jonathan Kimmelman
Objectives: After regulatory approval, drug companies, public funding agencies and academic researchers often pursue trials aimed at extending the uses of a new drug by testing it in new non-approved indications. Patient burden and clinical impact of such research is not well understood. Design/setting: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of post-approval clinical trials launched within five years after the drug's first approval, testing anticancer drugs in monotherapy in indications that were first pursued after...

Data from: Pollination by wild bees yields larger strawberries than pollination by honey bees

Gail MacInnis & Jessica R.K. Forrest
1. A diverse array of wild bee species may provide more effective pollination than the widely employed European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). High species richness within crop pollinator assemblages has been linked to enhanced fruit and seed yields, but species richness is often confounded with abundance in studies of pollinator communities. 2. We investigated the effects of bee diversity and species identity on pollen deposition and crop yield in the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)...

Data from: The ecology and evolution of seed predation by Darwin's finches on Tribulus cistoides on the Galápagos Islands

Sofía Carvajal-Endara, Andrew P. Hendry, Nancy C. Emery, Corey P. Neu, Diego Carmona, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, T. Jonathan Davies, Jaime A. Chaves & Marc T. J Johnson
Predator-prey interactions play a key role in the evolution of species traits through antagonistic coevolutionary arms-races. The evolution of beak morphology in the Darwin’s finches in response to competition for seed resources is a classic example of evolution by natural selection. The seeds of Tribulus cistoides are an important food source for the largest ground finch species (Geospiza fortis, G. magnirostris, and G. conirostris) in dry months, and the hard spiny morphology of the fruits...

The evolution of reproductive isolation in Daphnia

Tiffany Chin, Carla E. Cáceres & Melania E. Cristescu
Background The process by which populations evolve to become new species involves the emergence of various reproductive isolating barriers (RIB). Despite major advancements in understanding this complex process, very little is known about the order in which RIBs evolve or their relative contribution to the total restriction of gene flow during various stages of speciation. This is mainly due to the difficulties of studying reproductive isolation during the early stages of species formation. This study...

Upstream ORF-Encoded ASDURF Is a Novel Prefoldin-like Subunit of the PAQosome

Philippe Cloutier, Christian Poitras, Denis Faubert, Annie Bouchard, Mathieu Blanchette, Marie-Soleil Gauthier & Benoit Coulombe
The PAQosome is an eleven-subunit chaperone involved in the biogenesis of several human protein complexes. We show that ASDURF, a recently discovered upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the 5’ UTR of ASNSD1 mRNA, encodes the twelfth subunit of the PAQosome. ASDURF, displays significant structural homology to beta-prefoldins and assembles with the five known subunits of the prefoldin-like module of the PAQosome to form a heterohexameric prefoldin-like complex. A model of the PAQosome prefoldin-like module...

Temporally varying disruptive selection in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis).

Marc-Olivier Beausoleil, Luke Frishkoff, Leithen M'Gonigle, Joost Raeymaekers, Sarah Knutie, Luis De León, Sarah Huber, Jaime Chaves, Dale Clayton, Jennifer Koop, Jeffrey Podos, Diana Sharpe, Andrew Hendry & Rowan Barrett
Disruptive natural selection within populations exploiting different resources is considered to be a major driver of adaptive radiation and the production of biodiversity. Fitness functions, which describe the relationships between trait variation and fitness, can help to illuminate how this disruptive selection leads to population differentiation. However, a single fitness function represents only a particular selection regime over a single specified time period (often a single season or a year), and therefore might not capture...

Global meta-analysis of how marine upwelling affects herbivory

Andrew Sellers, Brian Leung & Mark Torchin
Aim: Nutrient subsidies support high primary productivity, increasing herbivore abundance and influencing their top-down control of producers. Wind-driven upwelling events deliver cold nutrient-rich water to coastlines, supporting highly productive marine environments. Results from studies comparing ecological processes across upwelling regimes are mixed: some reveal weaker herbivory in upwelling regions, while others report a positive relationship between upwelling and herbivory. In this synthesis we examine the influence of upwelling on top-down control of producers across the...

Factors influencing fall departure phenology in migratory birds that bred in northeastern North America

Pascal Côté, Émile Brisson-Curadeau & Kyle Elliott
The phenology of migrating birds is shifting with climate change. For instance, short-distance migrants wintering in temperate regions tend to delay their migration in fall during spells of warmer temperature. However, some species do not show strong shifts, and the factors determining which species will react to temperature changes by delaying their migration are poorly known. In addition, it is not known whether a slower migration or a postponed departure creates the observed delays in...

Data from: Unveiling the food webs of tetrapods across Europe through the prism of the Eltonian niche

Louise O'Connor, Laura J. Pollock, João Braga, Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Alessandro Montemaggiori, Luigi Maiorano, Wilfried Thuiller, Marc Ohlmann & Camille Martinez-Almoyna
Aim Despite the recent calls on integrating the interaction networks into the study of large‐scale biodiversity patterns, we still lack a basic understanding of the functional characteristics of large interaction networks and how they are structured across environments. Here, building on recent advances in network science around the Eltonian niche concept, we aim to characterize the trophic groups in a large food web, and understand how these trophic groups vary across space. Location Europe and...

Data from: Repeatability of adaptive radiation depends on spatial scale: regional versus global replicates of stickleback in lake versus stream habitats

Antoine Paccard, Dieta Hanson, Yoel E Stuart, Frank A Von Hippel, Martin Kalbe, Tom Klepaker, Skúli Skúlason, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Daniel I Bolnick, Andrew P Hendry & Rowan D H Barrett
The repeatability of adaptive radiation is expected to be scale dependent, with determinism decreasing as greater spatial separation among “replicates” leads to their increased genetic and ecological independence. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) provide an opportunity to test whether this expectation holds for the early stages of adaptive radiation -their diversification in freshwater ecosystems has been replicated many times. To better understand the repeatability of that adaptive radiation, we examined the influence of geographic scale on...

Data from: No consistent effects of humans on animal genetic diversity worldwide

Katie Millette, Vincent Fugère, Chloé Debyser, Ariel Greiner, Frédéric Chain & Andrew Gonzalez
Human impacts on genetic diversity are poorly understood yet critical to biodiversity conservation. We used 175,247 COI sequences collected between 1980 and 2016 to assess the global effects of land use and human density on the intraspecific genetic diversity of 17,082 species of birds, fishes, insects, and mammals. Human impacts on mtDNA diversity were taxon and scale-dependent, and were generally weak or non-significant. Spatial analyses identified weak latitudinal diversity gradients as well as negative effects...

Data from: Pyramids of species richness: the determinants and distribution of species diversity across trophic levels

Shaun Turney, Christoper M. Buddle & Christopher M. Buddle
How species richness is distributed across trophic levels determines several dimensions of ecosystem functioning, including herbivory, predation, and decomposition rates. We perform a meta-analysis of 72 large published food webs to investigate their trophic diversity structure and possible endogenous, exogenous, and methodological causal variables. Consistent with classic theory, we found that published food webs can generally be described as ‘pyramids of species richness’. The food webs were more predator-poor, prey-rich and hierarchical than is expected...

Data from: Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology

T. Jonathan Davies, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Nicolas Salamin, Jenica M. Allen, Toby R. Ault, Julio L. Betancourt, Kjell Bolmgren, Elsa E. Cleland, Benjamin I. Cook, Theresa M. Crimmins, Susan J. Mazer, Gregory J. McCabe, Stephanie Pau, Jim Regetz, Mark D. Schwartz & Steven E. Travers
Phenological events – defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal – have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism – the tendency...

Data from: Multi-purpose habitat networks for short-range and long-range connectivity: a new method combining graph and circuit connectivity

Bronwyn Rayfield, David Pelletier, Maria Dumitru, Jeffrey A. Cardille & Andrew Gonzalez
Biodiversity conservation in landscapes undergoing climate and land-use changes requires designing multipurpose habitat networks that connect the movements of organisms at multiple spatial scales. Short-range connectivity within habitat networks provides organisms access to spatially distributed resources, reduces local extinctions and increases recolonization of habitat fragments. Long-range connectivity across habitat networks facilitates annual migrations and climate-driven range shifts. We present a method for identifying a multipurpose network of forest patches that promotes both short- and long-range...

Data from: High-throughput screening for ligands of the HEPN domain of sacsin

Xinlu Li, Marie Ménade, Guennadi Kozlov, Zheping Hu, Zheng Dai, Peter S. McPherson, Bernard Brais & Kalle Gehring
Sacsin is a large protein implicated in the neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS), which features the loss of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum. Although the domain architecture of sacsin suggests that it is a neuronal chaperone assisting in protein quality control, the precise function of sacsin remains elusive. Using fluorescence polarization (FP) assays, we confirmed that the HEPN domain of sacsin binds to nucleotides with low micromolar affinities. FP...

Data from: Effects of spatial scale of sampling on food web structure

Spencer A. Wood, Roly Russell, Dieta Hanson, Richard J. Williams & Jennifer A. Dunne
This study asks whether the spatial scale of sampling alters structural properties of food webs and whether any differences are attributable to changes in species richness and connectance with scale. Understanding how different aspects of sampling effort affect ecological network structure is important for both fundamental ecological knowledge and the application of network analysis in conservation and management. Using a highly resolved food web for the marine intertidal ecosystem of the Sanak Archipelago in the...

Data from: Predicting the outcome of competition when fitness inequality is variable

Michael T. Pedruski, Gregor F. Fussmann & Andrew Gonzalez
Traditional niche theory predicts that when species compete for one limiting resource in simple ecological settings the more fit competitor should exclude the less fit competitor. Since the advent of neutral theory ecologists have increasingly become interested both in how the magnitude of fitness inequality between competitors and stochasticity may affect this prediction. We used numerical simulations to investigate the outcome of two-species resource competition along gradients of fitness inequality (inequality in R*) and initial...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & T. C. Munyai
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Among-character rate variation distributions in phylogenetic analysis of discrete morphological characters

Luke B. Harrison & Hans C. E. Larsson
Likelihood-based methods are commonplace in phylogenetic systematics. Although much effort has been directed toward likelihood-based models for molecular data, comparatively less work has addressed models for discrete morphological character data. Among-character rate variation may confound phylogenetic analysis, but there have been few analyses of the magnitude and distribution of rate heterogeneity among discrete morphological characters. Using seventy-six data sets covering a range of plants, invertebrate, and vertebrate animals, we used a modified version of MrBayes...

Data from: A tale of two morphs: modeling pollen transfer, magic traits, and reproductive isolation in parapatry

Benjamin C. Haller, Jurriaan M. De Vos, Barbara Keller, Andrew P. Hendry & Elena Conti
The evolution of the flower is commonly thought to have spurred angiosperm diversification. Similarly, particular floral traits might have promoted diversification within specific angiosperm clades. We hypothesize that traits promoting the precise positional transfer of pollen between flowers might promote diversification. In particular, precise pollen transfer might produce partial reproductive isolation that facilitates adaptive divergence between parapatric populations differing in their reproductive-organ positions. We investigate this hypothesis with an individual-based model of pollen transfer dynamics...

Data from: The founding of Mauritian endemic coffee trees by a synchronous long-distance dispersal event

Michael D. Nowak, Benjamin C. Haller, Anne D. Yoder, B. C. Haller, A. D. Yoder & M. D. Nowak
The stochastic process of long-distance dispersal is the exclusive means by which plants colonize oceanic islands. Baker's rule posits that self-incompatible plant lineages are unlikely to successfully colonize oceanic islands because they must achieve a coordinated long-distance dispersal of sufficiently numerous individuals to establish an outcrossing founder population. Here, we show for the first time that Mauritian Coffea species are self-incompatible and thus represent an exception to Baker's rule. The genus Coffea (Rubiaceae) is composed...

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