131 Works

Data from: Intertemporal choice in lemurs

Jeffrey R. Stevens & Nelly Mühlhoff
Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur...

Data from: Extensive sex-specific nonadditivity of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster

Greg Gibson, Rebecca Riley-Berger, Larry Harshman, Artyom Kopp, Scott Vacha, Sergey Nuzhdin & Marta Wayne
Assessment of the degree to which gene expression is additive and heritable has important implications for understanding the maintenance of variation, adaptation, phenotypic divergence, and the mapping of genotype onto phenotype. We used whole-genome transcript profiling using Agilent long-oligonucleotide microarrays representing 12,017 genes to demonstrate that gene transcription is pervasively nonadditive in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of adults of two isogenic lines and their reciprocal F1 hybrids revealed 5820 genes as significantly different between at least...

Data from: Genetic variation in the Yolk protein expression network of Drosophila melanogaster: sex-biased negative correlations with longevity

Aaron M. Tarone, Lauren M. Mcintyre, Lawrence G. Harshman & Sergey V. Nuzhdin
One of the persistent problems in biology is understanding how genetic variation contributes to phenotypic variation. Associations at many levels have been reported, and yet causal inference has remained elusive. We propose to rely on the knowledge of causal relationships established by molecular biology approaches. The existing molecular knowledge forms a firm backbone upon which hypotheses connecting genetic variation, transcriptional variation and phenotypic variation can be built. The sex determination pathway is a well-established molecular...

Data from: The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes

Ricardo Betancur-R., Adela Roa-Varon, Nancy I. Holcroft, W. Calvin Borden, Terry Grande, Kent Carpenter, Millicent Sanciangco, Chenhong Li, Dahiana Arcila, Jesus A Ballesteros, Guillermo Ortí, J. Andrés López, Matthew A. Campbell, Edward O. Wiley, Gloria Arratia, Guoqing Lu, Stuart Willis, Richard E. Broughton, , Feifei Zhang & Daniel J. Hough
The tree of life of fishes is in a state of flux because we still lack a comprehensive phylogeny that includes all major groups. The situation is most critical for a large clade of spiny-finned fishes, traditionally referred to as percomorphs, whose uncertain relationships have plagued ichthyologists for over a century. Most of what we know about the higher-level relationships among fish lineages has been based on morphology, but rapid influx of molecular studies is...

Data from: Tropical nematode diversity: vertical stratification of nematode communities in a Costa Rican humid lowland rainforest

Thomas O. Powers, Deborah A. Neher, Peter Mullin, Alejandro Esquivel, Robin M. Giblin-Davis, Natsumi Kanzaki, Patricia P. Stock, Morielos M. Mora & Lorena Uribe-Lorio
Comparisons of nematode communities among ecosystems have indicated that, unlike many organisms, nematode communities have less diversity in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. There are, however, few studies of tropical nematode diversity on which to base conclusions of global patterns of diversity. This study reports an attempt to estimate nematode diversity in the lowland tropical rainforest of La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica. We suggest that one reason previous estimates of tropical...

Sister-Species Diverge in Modality-Specific Courtship Signal Form and Function

Eileen Hebets, Rowan McGinley, Mitch Bern, Andrew Roberts, Arik Kershenbaum, James Starrett & Jason Bond
Understanding the relative importance of different sources of selection (e.g. the environment, social/sexual selection) on the divergence or convergence of reproductive communication can shed light on the origin, maintenance, or even disappearance of species boundaries. Using a multi-step approach, we tested the hypothesis that two presumed sister-species of wolf spider with overlapping ranges and microhabitat use, yet differing degrees of sexual dimorphism, have diverged in their reliance on modality-specific courtship signaling. We predicted that male...

Data from: A high-throughput method to quantify feeding rates in aquatic organisms: a case study with Daphnia

Jessica Hite, Alaina Pfenning-Butterworth, Rachel Vetter & Clayton Cressler
Food ingestion is one of the most basic features of all organisms. However, obtaining precise — and high-throughput — estimates of feeding rates remains challenging, particularly for small, aquatic herbivores such as zooplankton, snails, and tadpoles. These animals typically consume low volumes of food that are time consuming to accurately measure. We extend a standard high-throughput fluorometry technique, which uses a microplate reader and 96-well plates, as a practical tool for studies in ecology, evolution,...

Data from: Fire, grazing, and climate shape plant-grasshopper interactions in a tallgrass prairie

Ellen A.R. Welti, Fan Qiu, Hannah M. Tetreault, Mark Ungerer, John Blair, Anthony Joern & Ellen A. R. Welti
1. Species interactions are integral to ecological community function and the structure of species interactions has repercussions for the consequences of species extinctions. Few studies have examined the role of environmental factors in controlling species interaction networks across time. 2. We examined variation in plant-grasshopper network structural properties in response to three major grassland drivers: periodic fire, ungulate grazing and climate. 3. We sequenced a plant barcoding gene from extracted grasshopper gut contents to characterize...

A new method to reconstruct quantitative food webs and nutrient flows from isotope tracer addition experiments

Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Matthieu Bruneaux, Sarah Michelle Collins, Rana El-Sabaawi, Alexander S Flecker & Steven A Thomas
Understanding how nutrients flow through food webs is central in ecosystem ecology. Tracer addition experiments are powerful tools to reconstruct nutrient flows by adding an isotopically enriched element into an ecosystem, and tracking its fate through time. Historically, the design and analysis of tracer studies have varied widely, ranging from descriptive studies to modeling approaches of varying complexity. Increasingly, isotope tracer data is being used being used to compare ecosystems and analyze experimental manipulations. Currently,...

Data from: Meta-analysis of yield response of foliar fungicide-treated hybrid corn in the United States and Ontario, Canada

Kiersten A. Wise, Damon L. Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price, Alison Robertson & Albert Tenuta
Background: Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return...

Data from: Use of opportunistic sightings and expert knowledge to predict and compare Whooping Crane stopover habitat

Trevor J. Hefley, David M. Baasch, Andrew J. Tyre & Erin E. Blankenship
Predicting a species’ distribution can be helpful for evaluating management actions such as critical habitat designations under the U.S. Endangered Species Act or habitat acquisition and rehabilitation. Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) are one of the rarest birds in the world, and conservation and management of habitat is required to ensure their survival. We developed a species distribution model (SDM) that could be used to inform habitat management actions for Whooping Cranes within the state of...

Data from: High-yielding corn response to applied phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in Nebraska

C. S. Wortmann, A. R. Dobermann, R. B. Ferguson, G. W. Hergert, C. A. Shapiro, D. D. Tarkalson & D. T. Walters
Nutrient management recommendations may change as yield levels and efficiency of crop production increase. Recommendations for P, K, and S were evaluated using results from 34 irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) trials conducted in diverse situations across Nebraska. The mean yield was 14.7 Mg ha−1 with adequate fertilizer applied. The median harvest index values were 0.52, 0.89, 0.15, and 0.56 for biomass, P, K, and S, respectively. Median grain yields were 372, 49, and 613...

Data from: Geo-climatic factors drive diatom community distribution in tropical South American freshwaters

Xavier Benito, Sherilyn Fritz, Miriam Steinitz-Kannan, Pedro M. Tapia, Meredith A. Kelly, Thomas V. Lowell & Sherilyn C. Fritz
1.Patterns that maintain and generate biodiversity of macro-organisms in the Neotropics are widely discussed in the scientific literature, yet the spatial ecology of microorganisms is largely unknown. The unique character of the tropical Andes and adjacent Amazon lowlands generates a wide gradient of environmental conditions to advance our understanding of what drives community assembly and diversity processes. 2.We analyzed the distribution patterns of benthic diatoms (unicellular siliceous algae) as a model group of microbial passive...

Data from: Does perceived predation risk affect patterns of extra-pair paternity? A field experiment in a passerine bird

Robin N. Abbey-Lee, Yimen Gerardo Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet, Maria Moiron, Erica F. Stuber, Bart Kempenaers & Niels J. Dingemanse
1. Non-consumptive predator effects have been shown to influence a wide range of behavioural, life history, and morphological traits. Extra-pair reproduction is widespread among socially monogamous birds and may incur predation costs. Consequently, altered rates of extra-pair reproduction are expected in circumstances characterized by increased adult perceived predation risk. 2. Additionally, extra-pair reproduction is expected to be most affected for birds with phenotypes that generally increase predation risk (such as more active individuals). 3. In...

Data from: The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems

Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Antje Biermann, Elizabeth T. Borer, Miguel A. Cebrian-Piqueras, Steven A. J. Declerck, Luc De Meester, Ellen Van Donk, Lars Gamfeldt, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Kevin P. Kirkman, Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michael Kleyer, Johannes M. H. Knops, Pieter Lemmens, Eric M. Lind, Elena Litchman, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Koen Martens, Sandra Meier, Vanessa Minden, Joslin L. Moore, Harry Olde Venterink, Eric W. Seabloom … & Helmut Hillebrand
Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns...

Data from: Mitotic recombination and rapid genome evolution in the invasive forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorumm

Angela L. Dale, Nicolas Feau, Sydney E. Everhart, Braham Dhillon, Barbara Wong, Julie Sheppard, Guillaume J. Bilodeau, Avneet Brar, Javier F. Tabima, Danyu Shen, Clive M. Brasier, Brett M. Tyler, Niklaus J. Grünwald & Richard C. Hamelin
Invasive alien species often have reduced genetic diversity and must adapt to new environments. Given the success of many invasions, this is sometimes called the genetic paradox of invasion. Phytophthora ramorum is invasive, limited to asexual reproduction within four lineages, and presumed clonal. NA1 is responsible for sudden oak death in the USA, NA1, NA2 and EU1 are responsible for ramorum blight in the USA and Canada and EU1 and EU2 are responsible for sudden...

Data from: Species limits and phylogenomic relationships of Darwin’s finches remain unresolved: potential consequences of a volatile ecological setting

Robert M. Zink & Hernán Vázquez-Miranda
Island biotas have become paradigms for illustrating many evolutionary processes. The fauna of the Galapagos Islands includes several taxa that have been focal points for evolutionary studies. Perhaps their most famous inhabitants, Darwin’s finches, represent a go-to icon when thinking about how species originate and adapt to the environment. However, unlike other adaptive radiations, past morphological and molecular studies of Darwin’s finches have yielded inconsistent hypotheses of species limits and phylogenetic relationships. Expecting that idiosyncrasies...

Data from: A field-based analysis of genetic improvement for grain yield in winter wheat cultivars developed in the us central plains from 1992 to 2014

Jesse A. Poland, Trevor W. Rife & Robert A. Graybosch
rpn_wheat_phenotypesThis file includes height, yield, and heading date phenotypic data for the entries evaluated in this study. Everest and TAM 112 were the two check cultivars used in the experimental design. Additional entries are identified in the line_num column by the designation assigned upon entry into the Regional Performance Nursery. Experimental names, when available, are included in the line_name column.

Data from: The network motif architecture of dominance hierarchies

Daizaburo Shizuka & David B. McDonald
The widespread existence of dominance hierarchies has been a central puzzle in social evolution, yet we lack a framework for synthesizing the vast empirical data on hierarchy structure in animal groups. We applied network motif analysis to compare the structures of dominance networks from data published over the past 80 years. Overall patterns of dominance relations, including some aspects of non-interactions, were strikingly similar across disparate group types. For example, nearly all groups exhibited high...

Data from: Intertemporal similarity: discounting as a last resort

Jeffrey R. Stevens
Standard models of intertemporal choice assume that individuals discount future payoffs by integrating reward amounts and time delays to generate a discounted value. Alternative models propose that, rather than integrate across them, individuals compare within attributes (amounts and delays) to determine if differences in one attribute outweigh differences in another attribute. For instance, the similarity model 1) compares the two reward amounts to determine whether they are similar, 2) compares the similarity of the two...

Data from: Parasite resource manipulation drives bimodal variation in infection duration

Anieke Van Leeuwen, Sarah A. Budischak, Andrea L. Graham & Clayton E. Cressler
Over a billion people on earth are infected with helminth parasites and show remarkable variation in parasite burden and chronicity. These parasite distributions are captured well by classic statistics, such as the negative binomial distribution. But the within-host processes underlying this variation are not well understood. In this study, we explain variation in macroparasite infection outcomes on the basis of resource flows within hosts. Resource flows realize the interactions between parasites and host immunity and...

Data from: Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

Niaz Ali, J. S. Heslop-Harrison, Habib Ahmad, Robert A. Graybosch, Gary L. Hein & Trude Schwarzacher
Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while,...

Trophic cascades alter eco-evolutionary dynamics and body size evolution

Thomas Luhring & John DeLong
Trait evolution in predator-prey systems can feed back to the dynamics of interacting species as well as cascade to impact the dynamics of indirectly linked species (eco-evolutionary trophic cascades; EETC). A key mediator of trophic cascades is body mass, as it both strongly influences and evolves in response to predator-prey interactions. Here we use Gillespie Eco-Evolutionary Models to explore EETCs resulting from top predator loss and mediated by body mass evolution. Our four trophic level...

Using patterns in prey DNA digestion rates to quantify predator diets

Stella Uiterwaal & John DeLong
Dietary metabarcoding – the process of taxonomic identification of food species from DNA in consumer guts or feces – has been rapidly adopted by ecologists to gain insights into biocontrol, invasive species, and the structure of food webs. However, an outstanding issue with metabarcoding is the semi-quantitative nature of the data it provides: because metabarcoding is likely to produce false positives for some prey more often than for other prey, we cannot infer relative frequencies...

Data from: Metabolic rate is canalized in the face of variable life history and nutritional environment

Rebecca M. Clark, Anthony J. Zera & Spencer T. Behmer
Despite its central importance in organismal physiology, we have poor understanding of how metabolic rate is influenced by two key factors – food nutritional content and an organism's physiological characteristics. We examined how variation in nutrients and physiological aspects of life history affect standard metabolic rate in Gryllus firmus cricket morphs that differ dramatically in flight capability and early-age fecundity. Newly moulted female morphs were fed one of 13 diets that differed in concentrations of...

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