22 Works

Data from: Genetic population structure of U.S. Atlantic coastal striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

David T. Gauthier, Corinne A. Audemard, Jeanette E. L. Carlsson, Tanya L. Darden, Michael R. Denson, Kimberly S. Reece & Jens Carlsson
Genetic population structure of anadromous striped bass along the US Atlantic coast was analyzed using 14 neutral nuclear DNA microsatellites. Young-of-the-year and adult striped bass (n = 1114) were sampled from Hudson River, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Analyses indicated clear population structure with significant genetic differentiation between all regions. Global multilocus F ST was estimated at 0.028 (P < 0.001). Population structure followed an isolation-by-distance model and temporal sampling indicated...

Data from: Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker

Walter D. Koenig & Eric L. Walters
Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous...

Data from: Gain-of-function experiments in bacteriophage lambda uncover residues under diversifying selection in nature

Rohan Maddamsetti, Daniel T. Johnson, Stephanie J. Spielman, Katherine L. Petrie, Debora S. Marks & Justin R. Meyer
Viral gain-of-function mutations frequently evolve during laboratory experiments. Whether the specific mutations that evolve in the lab also evolve in nature and whether they have the same impact on evolution in the real world is unknown. We studied a model virus, bacteriophage λ, that repeatedly evolves to exploit a new host receptor under typical laboratory conditions. Here we demonstrate that two residues of λ’s J protein are required for the new function. In natural λ...

Are you my baby? Testing whether paternity affects behavior of cobreeder male acorn woodpeckers

Walter Koenig, Joseph Haydock, Hannah Dugdale & Eric Walters
Natural selection is expected to favor males that invest more in offspring they sire. We investigated the relationship between paternity and male behavior in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), cooperative breeders that live in family groups including offspring that remain on their natal territory, sometimes for years, and cobreeders of both sexes. Regardless of group composition, only one communal nest is attended at a time. Whereas cobreeding females share maternity equally, one male often sires...

Quantifying capital vs. income breeding: new promise with stable isotope measurements of individual amino acids

John Whiteman
1. Capital breeders accumulate nutrients prior to egg development, then use these stores to support offspring. In contrast, income breeders rely on local nutrients consumed contemporaneously with offspring development. Understanding such nutrient allocations is critical to assessing wildlife reliance on different habitats. 2. Despite the contrast between these strategies, it remains challenging to trace nutrients from endogenous stores or exogenous food intake into offspring. Here, we tested a new solution to this problem. 3. Using...

Comparative analysis of genetic and morphological variation within the Platanthera hyperborea complex (Orchidaceae)

Lisa Wallace, Eranga Wettewa & Nicholas Bailey
Species complexes present considerable problems for a working taxonomy due to the presence of intraspecific variation, hybridization, polyploidy, and phenotypic plasticity. Understanding evolutionary patterns using molecular markers can allow for a more thorough assessment of evolutionary lineages than traditional morphological markers. In this study, we evaluated genetic diversity and phylogenetic patterns among taxa of the Platanthera hyperborea (Orchidaceae) complex, which includes diploid (Platanthera aquilonis) and polyploid (Platanthera hyperborea, P. huronensis, P. convallariifolia) taxa spanning North...

Testing the utility of alternative metrics of branch support to address the ancient evolutionary radiation of tunas, stromateoids, and allies (Teleostei: Pelagiaria)

Dahiana Arcila, Lily C. Hughes, Fernando Meléndez-Vazquez, Carole C. Baldwin, William T. White, Kent E. Carpenter, Jeffrey T. Williams, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, John J. Pogonoski, Masaki Miya, Guillermo Ortí & Ricardo Betancur-R.
The use of high-throughput sequencing technologies to produce genome-scale datasets was expected to settle some long-standing controversies across the Tree of Life, particularly in areas where short branches occur at deep timescales. Instead, these datasets have often yielded many well-supported but conflicting topologies, and highly variable gene-tree distributions. A variety of branch-support metrics beyond the nonparametric bootstrap are now available to assess how robust a phylogenetic hypothesis may be, as well as new methods to...

Data from: The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes

Ricardo Betancur-R., Adela Roa-Varon, Nancy I. Holcroft, W. Calvin Borden, Terry Grande, Kent Carpenter, Millicent Sanciangco, Chenhong Li, Dahiana Arcila, Jesus A Ballesteros, Guillermo Ortí, J. Andrés López, Matthew A. Campbell, Edward O. Wiley, Gloria Arratia, Guoqing Lu, Stuart Willis, Richard E. Broughton, , Feifei Zhang & Daniel J. Hough
The tree of life of fishes is in a state of flux because we still lack a comprehensive phylogeny that includes all major groups. The situation is most critical for a large clade of spiny-finned fishes, traditionally referred to as percomorphs, whose uncertain relationships have plagued ichthyologists for over a century. Most of what we know about the higher-level relationships among fish lineages has been based on morphology, but rapid influx of molecular studies is...

Data from: Synthesis and characterization of azo-guanidine based alcoholic media naked eye DNA sensor

Ataf Ali Altaf, Uzma Hashmat, Muhammad Yousaf, Bhajan Lal, Shafiq Ullah, Alvin A. Holder & Amin Badshah
DNA sensing always has an open meadow of curiosity for biotechnologists and other researchers. Recently, in this field, we have introduced an emerging class of molecules containing azo and guanidine functionalities. In this study, we have synthesized three new compounds (UA1, UA6 and UA7) for potential application in DNA sensing in alcoholic medium. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Their DNA sensing potential were investigated...

Data from: Wild acorn woodpeckers recognize associations between individuals in other groups

Michael A. Pardo, Emilee A. Sparks, Tejal S. Kuray, Natasha D. Hagemeyer, Eric L. Walters & Walter D. Koenig
According to the social intelligence hypothesis, understanding the cognitive demands of the social environment is key to understanding the evolution of intelligence. Many important socio-cognitive abilities, however, have primarily been studied in a narrow subset of the social environment—within-group social interactions—despite the fact that between-group social interactions often have a substantial effect on fitness. In particular, triadic awareness (knowledge about the relationships and associations between others) is critical for navigating many types of complex social...

Data from: Patterns of genomic divergence and signals of selection in sympatric and allopatric northeastern Pacific and Sea of Cortez populations of the sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii) and longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis)

Eric Garcia, Brian Simison & Giacomo Bernardi
Studying how isolation can impact population divergence and adaptation in co-distributed species can bring us closer to understanding how landscapes affect biodiversity. The Sargo, Anisotremus davidsonii (Haemulidae), and the Longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis (Gobiidae), offer a notable framework to study such mechanisms as their Pacific populations cross phylogeographic breaks at Point Conception, California, USA, and Punta Eugenia, Mexico, and are separated to those in the Sea of Cortez by the Baja California peninsula. Here, thousands...

Data from: Spatial structuring and life history connectivity of Antarctic silverfish along the southern continental shelf of the Weddell Sea

Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Julian R. Ashford, Svenja Ryan, Chiara Papetti, Michael Schröder & Lorenzo Zane
A multidisciplinary approach was employed to examine a physical-biological population hypothesis for a critical forage species, the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica). A previous study had shown strong gene flow along the westward Antarctic Slope Current, in addition to spatially recurring length modes that provided evidence for episodic connectivity. In this paper, otolith nucleus chemistry from a subset of fish collected in the southern Weddell Sea as part of a hydrographic survey of the Filchner Trough...

Vertical Land Displacement Rates and Uncertainty in Hampton Roads, VA [Dataset]

Brett Buzzanga, David P. S. Bekaert, Ben D. Hamlington & Simran S. Sangha
These data contain vertical rates (mm/yr) of surface land displacements and their associated uncertainties from 2015-03-15 to 2019-06-01. They are associated with Buzzanga, B. A., Bekaert, D. P. S., Hamlington, B. D., and Sanga, S. (2020), "Towards Sustained Monitoring of Subsidence at the Coast Using InSAR and GNSS: An Application in Hampton Roads, Virginia submitted to Geophysical Research Letters.

Along-shelf connectivity and circumpolar gene flow in Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica)

Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Chiara Papetti, , Rainer Knust, Julian R. Ashford & Lorenzo Zane
The Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica) is a critically important forage species with a circumpolar distribution and is unique among other notothenioid species for its wholly pelagic life cycle. Previous studies have provided mixed evidence of population structure over regional and circumpolar scales. The aim of the present study was to test the recent population hypothesis for Antarctic silverfish, which emphasizes the interplay between life history and hydrography in shaping connectivity. A total of 1067 individuals...

Data from: The contribution of marine aggregate-associated bacteria to the accumulation of pathogenic bacteria in oysters: an agent-based model

Andrew M. Kramer, J. Evan Ward, Fred C. Dobbs, Melissa L. Pierce & John M. Drake
Bivalves process large volumes of water, leading to their accumulation of bacteria, including potential human pathogens (e.g., vibrios). These bacteria are captured at low efficiencies when freely suspended in the water column, but they also attach to marine aggregates, which are captured with near 100% efficiency. For this reason, and because they are often enriched with heterotrophic bacteria, marine aggregates have been hypothesized to function as important transporters of bacteria into bivalves. The relative contribution...

A comparison of tick collection materials and methods in Southeastern Virginia

Christina Espada, Hannah Cummins, Aaron Gonzalez & Holly Gaff
In field studies of tick ecology, observed patterns may be biased by sampling methods. Results can vary by species, life stage, and habitat, and understanding these biases will improve comparisons of data across studies as well as assessment of human disease risk. A direct comparison of flagging versus dragging was conducted in southeastern Virginia. Transects were surveyed over a six-week period to identify differences in species and life stage collected, as well as differences between...

Experimental evidence that acorn woodpeckers recognize relationships among third parties no longer living together

Michael Pardo, Eric Walters & Walter Koenig
Triadic awareness, or knowledge of the relationships between others, is essential to navigating many complex social interactions. While some animals maintain relationships with former group members post-dispersal, recognizing cross-group relationships between others may be more cognitively challenging than simply recognizing relationships between members of a single group because there is typically much less opportunity to observe interactions between individuals that do not live together. We presented acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), a highly social species, with...

Data from: Experimental demonstration of an Allee effect in microbial populations

RajReni B. Kaul, Andrew M. Kramer, Fred C. Dobbs & John M. Drake
Microbial populations can be dispersal limited. However, microorganisms that successfully disperse into physiologically ideal environments are not guaranteed to establish. This observation contradicts the Baas-Becking tenet: ‘Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects’. Allee effects, which manifest in the relationship between initial population density and probability of establishment, could explain this observation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that small populations of Vibrio fischeri are subject to an intrinsic demographic Allee effect. Populations subjected to predation by...

Data from: Supplementing small farms with native mason bees increases strawberry size and growth rate

Lisa Horth & Laura A. Campbell
Pollination services, especially those of bees, play a vital role in agriculture. Declining honeybee populations require us to find alternative solutions for sustainable agriculture. Native bees are proving to be efficient pollinators. Mason bees (Osmia lignaria) provide valuable pollinator services for some woody orchard species, but their value as pollinators for herbaceous crops is largely untested. We assessed the effectiveness of O. lignaria supplementation on nine strawberry farms over two growing seasons. We specifically selected...

Data from: Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

James D. McLaren, Jeffrey J. Buler, Tim Schreckengost, Jaclyn A. Smolinsky, Matthew Boone, E. Emiel Van Loon, Deanna K. Dawson & Eric L. Walters
With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern...

Data from: Evolution of woody life form on tropical mountains in the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae)

Suman Neupane, Paul O. Lewis, Steven Dessein, Hunter Lee Shanks, Sushil Paudyal, Frederic Lens & Hunter Shanks
Spermacoceae are mainly an herbaceous group in the Rubiaceae. However, a few lineages are woody, and are found in a diverse range of habitat types. Three of the largest woody lineages (Arcytophyllum, Hedyotis, and Kadua) are characterized by their distribution in the moist tropical mountains, and have disjunct distribution patterns with respect to their closest relatives. In this study, we explore the cases of derived woodiness in these three lineages and their diversification dynamics in...

Data from: Causes of seasonal decline in reproduction of the cooperatively-breeding acorn woodpecker

Walter D. Koenig & Eric L. Walters
Clutch size and reproductive success decline seasonally in a wide range of temperate avian taxa. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain such declines: the “timing” hypothesis, which states that conditions affecting reproduction decline intrinsically with date, and the “quality” hypothesis, which proposes that high-quality individuals or individuals in high-quality situations breed earlier. We contrasted the relative importance of these two hypotheses using a long-term dataset of the cooperatively-breeding acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in...

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