10 Works

Data from: The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes

Ricardo Betancur-R., Adela Roa-Varon, Nancy I. Holcroft, W. Calvin Borden, Terry Grande, Kent Carpenter, Millicent Sanciangco, Chenhong Li, Dahiana Arcila, Jesus A Ballesteros, Guillermo Ortí, J. Andrés López, Matthew A. Campbell, Edward O. Wiley, Gloria Arratia, Guoqing Lu, Stuart Willis, Richard E. Broughton, Cureton II, James C, Feifei Zhang & Daniel J. Hough
The tree of life of fishes is in a state of flux because we still lack a comprehensive phylogeny that includes all major groups. The situation is most critical for a large clade of spiny-finned fishes, traditionally referred to as percomorphs, whose uncertain relationships have plagued ichthyologists for over a century. Most of what we know about the higher-level relationships among fish lineages has been based on morphology, but rapid influx of molecular studies is...

Data from: Evolution of woody life form on tropical mountains in the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae)

Suman Neupane, Paul O. Lewis, Steven Dessein, Hunter Lee Shanks, Sushil Paudyal, Frederic Lens & Hunter Shanks
Spermacoceae are mainly an herbaceous group in the Rubiaceae. However, a few lineages are woody, and are found in a diverse range of habitat types. Three of the largest woody lineages (Arcytophyllum, Hedyotis, and Kadua) are characterized by their distribution in the moist tropical mountains, and have disjunct distribution patterns with respect to their closest relatives. In this study, we explore the cases of derived woodiness in these three lineages and their diversification dynamics in...

Data from: Synthesis and characterization of azo-guanidine based alcoholic media naked eye DNA sensor

Ataf Ali Altaf, Uzma Hashmat, Muhammad Yousaf, Bhajan Lal, Shafiq Ullah, Alvin A. Holder & Amin Badshah
DNA sensing always has an open meadow of curiosity for biotechnologists and other researchers. Recently, in this field, we have introduced an emerging class of molecules containing azo and guanidine functionalities. In this study, we have synthesized three new compounds (UA1, UA6 and UA7) for potential application in DNA sensing in alcoholic medium. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Their DNA sensing potential were investigated...

Data from: Supplementing small farms with native mason bees increases strawberry size and growth rate

Lisa Horth & Laura A. Campbell
Pollination services, especially those of bees, play a vital role in agriculture. Declining honeybee populations require us to find alternative solutions for sustainable agriculture. Native bees are proving to be efficient pollinators. Mason bees (Osmia lignaria) provide valuable pollinator services for some woody orchard species, but their value as pollinators for herbaceous crops is largely untested. We assessed the effectiveness of O. lignaria supplementation on nine strawberry farms over two growing seasons. We specifically selected...

Data from: Experimental demonstration of an Allee effect in microbial populations

RajReni B. Kaul, Andrew M. Kramer, Fred C. Dobbs & John M. Drake
Microbial populations can be dispersal limited. However, microorganisms that successfully disperse into physiologically ideal environments are not guaranteed to establish. This observation contradicts the Baas-Becking tenet: ‘Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects’. Allee effects, which manifest in the relationship between initial population density and probability of establishment, could explain this observation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that small populations of Vibrio fischeri are subject to an intrinsic demographic Allee effect. Populations subjected to predation by...

Data from: Wild acorn woodpeckers recognize associations between individuals in other groups

Michael A. Pardo, Emilee A. Sparks, Tejal S. Kuray, Natasha D. Hagemeyer, Eric L. Walters & Walter D. Koenig
According to the social intelligence hypothesis, understanding the cognitive demands of the social environment is key to understanding the evolution of intelligence. Many important socio-cognitive abilities, however, have primarily been studied in a narrow subset of the social environment—within-group social interactions—despite the fact that between-group social interactions often have a substantial effect on fitness. In particular, triadic awareness (knowledge about the relationships and associations between others) is critical for navigating many types of complex social...

Data from: Causes of seasonal decline in reproduction of the cooperatively-breeding acorn woodpecker

Walter D. Koenig & Eric L. Walters
Clutch size and reproductive success decline seasonally in a wide range of temperate avian taxa. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain such declines: the “timing” hypothesis, which states that conditions affecting reproduction decline intrinsically with date, and the “quality” hypothesis, which proposes that high-quality individuals or individuals in high-quality situations breed earlier. We contrasted the relative importance of these two hypotheses using a long-term dataset of the cooperatively-breeding acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in...

Data from: Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

James D. McLaren, Jeffrey J. Buler, Tim Schreckengost, Jaclyn A. Smolinsky, Matthew Boone, E. Emiel Van Loon, Deanna K. Dawson, Eric L. Walters & E. Emiel Van Loon
With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern...

Data from: The contribution of marine aggregate-associated bacteria to the accumulation of pathogenic bacteria in oysters: an agent-based model

Andrew M. Kramer, J. Evan Ward, Fred C. Dobbs, Melissa L. Pierce & John M. Drake
Bivalves process large volumes of water, leading to their accumulation of bacteria, including potential human pathogens (e.g., vibrios). These bacteria are captured at low efficiencies when freely suspended in the water column, but they also attach to marine aggregates, which are captured with near 100% efficiency. For this reason, and because they are often enriched with heterotrophic bacteria, marine aggregates have been hypothesized to function as important transporters of bacteria into bivalves. The relative contribution...

Data from: Gain-of-function experiments in bacteriophage lambda uncover residues under diversifying selection in nature

Rohan Maddamsetti, Daniel T. Johnson, Stephanie J. Spielman, Katherine L. Petrie, Debora S. Marks & Justin R. Meyer
Viral gain-of-function mutations frequently evolve during laboratory experiments. Whether the specific mutations that evolve in the lab also evolve in nature and whether they have the same impact on evolution in the real world is unknown. We studied a model virus, bacteriophage λ, that repeatedly evolves to exploit a new host receptor under typical laboratory conditions. Here we demonstrate that two residues of λ’s J protein are required for the new function. In natural λ...

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