59 Works

Midsea - Mantle Investigation of the Deep Suture between Eurasia and Africa

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Four institutions decided to populate the Mediterranean region with more BB instruments in the same time period and call our collective experiments MIDSEA. ETH put out 12 stations in 5 countries, UNSA/CNRS put 6 stations in France and italy, CIW put 5 stations in the Azores, and INGV put 2 stations in Italy. Two of the ETH stations are available at Geofon (MELI) and Inst. of Catalan Studies (POBL, autodrm) data centers, respectively. The other...

Supplementary data 2: Disparities in COVID-19 related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours by health literacy

Kirsten McCaffery, Rachael Dodd, Erin Cvejic, Julie Ayre, Carys Batcup, Jennifer Isautier, Tessa Copp, Carissa Bonner, Kristen Pickles, Brooke Nickel, Thomas Dakin, Samuel Cornell & Michael S Wolf
Supplementary data for Disparities in COVID-19 related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours by health literacy. Table S1. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours related to COVID-19 in full analysis sample.

Social Interaction and Pain Threshold in Virtual Reality

Andrea Stevenson Won, Swati Pandita & Kaylee Payne Kruzan
This experiment examined the effects of social presence and perceived location of a virtual environment on participants’ pain thresholds in a pre-registered, within-subjects experiment. First, we examined the effects of social interaction vs being alone in a virtual environment. Second, we compared a virtual environment representing a remote location to a replication of the lab environment. While the "location" of the virtual environment did affect social presence, such that participants reported greater social presence with...

Data from: Network-targeted stimulation engages neurobehavioral hallmarks of age-related memory decline

Aneesha S. Nilakantan, M.-Marsel Mesulam, Sandra Weintraub, Erica L. Karp, Stephen VanHaerents & Joel L. Voss
Objective: To test whether targeting hippocampal-cortical brain networks with high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in older adults influences behavioral and neural measures characteristic of age-related memory impairment. Methods: Fifteen adults aged 64 – 80 years (mean = 72 years) completed a single-blind, sham-controlled experiment. Stimulation targets in parietal cortex were determined based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) connectivity with the hippocampus. Recollection and recognition memory were assessed after five consecutive daily sessions of full-intensity...

Data from: Delimitation of the new tribe Parartocarpeae (Moraceae) is supported by a 333- gene phylogeny and resolves tribal level Moraceae taxonomy

Nyree J. C. Zerega & Elliot M. Gardner
Here we describe the new tribe, Parartocarpeae, within the Moraceae (mulberry family). The tribe comprises two small Malesian genera, Parartocarpus and Hullettia, and brings the total number of Moraceae tribes to seven. Evidence for this new designation comes from a phylogeny based on 333 nuclear genes sequenced using target enrichment via hybridization (hybseq). Morphological characters that set Parartocarpeae apart from other Moraceae tribes include the combination of the following characters: lateral nonamplexicaul stipules, spirally arranged...

Data from: Social and ecological factors alter stress physiology of Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

Winnie Eckardt, Tara S. Stoinski, Stacy Rosenbaum & Rachel Santymie
Living in a rapidly changing environment can alter stress physiology at the population level, with negative impacts on health, reproductive rates, and mortality that may ultimately result in species decline. Small, isolated animal populations where genetic diversity is low are at particular risks, such as endangered Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Along with climate change‐associated environmental shifts that are affecting the entire population, subpopulations of the Virunga gorillas have recently experienced extreme changes in...

Data from: Aversion to playing God predicts negative moral judgments of technology and science

Adam Waytz & Liane Young
This research provides, to our knowledge, the first systematic empirical investigation of people's aversion to playing God. Seven studies validate this construct and show its association with negative moral judgements of science and technology. Motivated by three nationally representative archival datasets that demonstrate this relationship, studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that people condemn scientific procedures they perceive to involve playing God. Studies 3–5 demonstrate that dispositional aversion to playing God corresponds to decreased willingness to...

Neural, functional, and aesthetic impacts of spatially heterogeneous flicker: a potential role of natural flicker

Satoru Suzuki
Spatially heterogeneous flicker, characterized by probabilistic and locally independent luminance modulations, abounds in nature. It is generated by flames, water surfaces, rustling leaves, and so on, and it is pleasant to the senses. It affords spatiotemporal multistability that allows sensory activation conforming to the biases of the visual system, thereby generating the perception of spontaneous motion and likely facilitating the calibration of motion detectors. One may thus hypothesize that spatially heterogeneous flicker might potentially provide...

ExBox: A Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Scavenger

Jonathan C. Barnes, Michal Juríček, Nathan L. Strutt, Marco Frasconi, Srinivasan Sampath, Marc A. Giesener, Psaras L. McGrier, Carson J. Bruns, Charlotte L. Stern, Amy A. Sarjeant & J. Fraser Stoddart
A template-directed protocol, which capitalizes on donor–acceptor interactions, is employed to synthesize a semi-rigid cyclophane (ExBox4+) that adopts a box-like geometry and is comprised of π-electron-poor 1,4-phenylene-bridged (“extended”) bipyridinium units (ExBIPY2+). ExBox4+ functions as a high-affinity scavenger of an array of different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ranging from two to seven fused rings, as a result of its large, accommodating cavity (approximately 3.5 Å in width and 11.2 Å in length when considering the van...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Data from: Diverse and complex muscle spindle afferent firing properties emerge from multiscale muscle mechanics

Kyle Blum, Brian Horslen, Kenneth Campbell, Brian Horslen, Paul Nardelli, Stephen Housley, Timothy Cope & Lena Ting
Despite decades of research, we lack a mechanistic framework capable of predicting how movement-related signals are transformed into the diversity of muscle spindle afferent firing patterns observed experimentally, particularly in naturalistic behaviors. Here, a biophysical model demonstrates that well-known firing characteristics of mammalian muscle spindle Ia afferents – including movement history dependence, and nonlinear scaling with muscle stretch velocity – emerge from first principles of muscle contractile mechanics. Further, mechanical interactions of the muscle spindle...

Data from: Persistent firing in LEC III neurons is differentially modulated by learning and aging

Carmen Lin, Venus Sherathiya, M Matthew Oh & John Disterhoft
Whether and how persistent firing in lateral entorhinal cortex layer III (LEC III) supports temporal associative learning is still unknown. In this study, persistent firing was evoked in vitro from LEC III neurons from young and aged rats that were behaviorally naïve or trained on trace eyeblink conditioning. Persistent firing ability from neurons from behaviorally naïve aged rats was lower compared to neurons from young rats. Neurons from learning impaired aged animals also exhibited reduced...

Supplemental materials for: Peri- and post-pubertal estrogen exposures of female mice optimize uterine responses later in life

Sylvia Hewitt, Marleny Carmona, Grace Foley, Lauren Donoghue, Sydney Lierz, Wipawee Winuthayanon & Kenneth Korach
At birth, all female mice, including those that either lack estrogen receptor α (ERα-knockout) or that express mutated forms of ERα (AF2ERKI), have a hypoplastic uterus. However, uterine growth and development that normally accompanies pubertal maturation does not occur in ERα-knockout or AF2ERKI mice, indicating ERα mediated estrogen signaling is essential for this process. Mice that lack Cyp19 (aromatase, ArKO mice), an enzyme critical for estrogen (E2) synthesis, are unable to make E2, and lack...

The invasion paradox dissolves when using phylogenetic and temporal perspectives

Adrienne Ernst, Rebecca Barak, Andrew Hipp, Andrea Kramer, Hannah Marx & Daniel Larkin
1. Elton’s prediction that higher biodiversity leads to denser niche-packing and thus higher community resistance to invasion has long been studied, with species richness as the predominant measure of diversity. However, few studies have explored how phylogenetic and functional diversity, which should represent niche space more faithfully than taxonomic diversity, influence community invasibility, especially across longer time frames and over larger spatial extents. 2. We used a 15-year, 150-site grassland dataset to assess relationships between...

Data from: Head-to-head comparison of three experimental methods of quantifying competitive fitness in C. elegans

Timothy A. Crombie, Sayran Saber, Ayush Shekhar Saxena, Robyn Egan & Charles F. Baer
Organismal fitness is relevant in many contexts in biology. The most meaningful experimental measure of fitness is competitive fitness, when two or more entities (e.g., genotypes) are allowed to compete directly. In theory, competitive fitness is simple to measure: an experimental population is initiated with the different types in known proportions and allowed to evolve under experimental conditions to a predefined endpoint. In practice, there are several obstacles to obtaining robust estimates of competitive fitness...

Data from: Bee communities along a prairie restoration chronosequence: similar abundance and diversity, distinct composition

Rebecca K. Tonietto, John S. Ascher & Daniel J. Larkin
Recognition of the importance of bee conservation has grown in response to declines of managed honey bees and some wild bee species. Habitat loss has been implicated as a leading cause of declines, suggesting that ecological restoration is likely to play an increasing role in bee conservation efforts. In the Midwestern USA, restoration of tallgrass prairie has traditionally targeted plant community objectives without explicit consideration for bees. However, restoration of prairie vegetation is likely to...

Data from: A transcriptome screen for positive selection in domesticated breadfruit and its wild relatives (Artocarpus spp.)

Kristen M. Laricchia, Matthew G. Johnson, Diane Ragone, Evelyn W. Williams, Nyree J.C. Zerega, Norman J. Wickett & Nyree J. C. Zerega
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Underutilized crops, such as breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) have the potential to improve global food security. Humans have artificially selected many cultivars of breadfruit since its domestication began approximately 3,500 years ago. The goal of this research is to identify transcriptomic signals of positive selection and to develop genomic resources that may facilitate the development of improved breadfruit cultivars in the future. METHODS: A reference transcriptome of breadfruit was assembled de...

Data from: Experimental warming in the field delays phenology and reduces body mass and survival: implications for the persistence of a pollinator under climate change

Paul J. CaraDonna, James L. Cunningham & Amy M. Iler
1. Climate change is rapidly altering thermal environments across the globe. The effects of increased temperatures in already warm environments may be particularly strong because organisms are likely to be near their thermal safety margins, with limited tolerance to additional heat stress. 2. We conduct an in situ field experiment over two years to investigate the direct effects of temperature on an early-season solitary bee in a warm, arid region of the Southwestern USA. Our...

Reproductive hormones mediate changes in the gut microbiome during pregnancy and lactation in Phayre’s leaf monkeys

Elizabeth Mallott, Carola Borries, Andreas Koenig, Amy Lu & Katherine R. Amato
Studies in multiple host species have shown that gut microbial diversity and composition change during pregnancy and lactation. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these shifts are not well understood. Here, we use longitudinal data from wild Phayre’s leaf monkeys to test the hypothesis that fluctuations in reproductive hormone concentrations contribute to gut microbial shifts during pregnancy. We described the microbial taxonomic composition of 91 fecal samples from 15 females (n=16 cycling, n=36 pregnant, n=39 lactating)...

Data from: Random heteropolymers preserve protein function in foreign environments

Brian Panganiban, Baofu Qiao, Tao Jiang, Christopher DelRe, Mona M. Obadia, Trung Dac Nguyen, Anton A. A. Smith, Aaron Hall, Izaac Sit, Marquise G. Crosby, Patrick B. Dennis, Eric Drockenmuller, Monica Olvera De La Cruz & Ting Xu
The successful incorporation of active proteins into synthetic polymers could lead to a new class of materials with functions found only in living systems. However, proteins rarely function under the conditions suitable for polymer processing. On the basis of an analysis of trends in protein sequences and characteristic chemical patterns on protein surfaces, we designed four-monomer random heteropolymers to mimic intrinsically disordered proteins for protein solubilization and stabilization in non-native environments. The heteropolymers, with optimized...

Development and application of a hybrid implementation research framework to understand success in reducing under-5 mortality in Rwanda

Lisa Hirschhorn, Miriam Frisch, Jovial Thomas Ntawukuriryayo, Amelia VanderZanden, Kateri Donahoe, Kedest Mathewos, Felix Sayinzoga & Agnes Binagwaho
Exemplars U5M Interview Guide: This is an example of the semi-structured interview guide used for key informant interviews described in the article, "Development and application of a hybrid implementation research framework to understand success in reducing under-5 mortality in Rwanda." Extended data (supplemental) tables and figures: These are the supplemental tables and figures to accompany the article, "Development and application of a hybrid implementation research framework to understand success in reducing under-5 mortality in Rwanda."...

Seed size and capitulum position drive germination and dormancy responses to projected warming for the threatened dune endemic Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

Finote Gijsman & Pati Vitt
Among coastal plant species at risk from rapid environmental changes is the North American Great Lakes dune endemic Cirsium pitcheri. Despite being listed as federally threatened, little is known about how C. pitcheri seed attributes influence germination and dormancy-break patterns in the context of climate change. Following a previous work where we found differences in the number and weight of C. pitcheri seeds among capitulum positions and study sites, here we examine the effects of...

Variations in the Intensity and Spatial Extent of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation

Danielle Touma, Samantha Stevenson, Suzana Camargo, Daniel Horton & Noah Diffenbaugh
The intensity and spatial extent of tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) often shapes the risk posed by landfalling storms. Here we provide a comprehensive climatology of landfalling TCP characteristics as a function of tropical cyclone strength, using daily precipitation station data and Atlantic US landfalling tropical cyclone tracks from 1900-2017. We analyze the intensity and spatial extent of ≥ 1 mm/day TCP (Z1) and ≥ 50 mm/day TCP (Z50). We show that the highest median intensity...

Neurological deterioration in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

Tai Hwan Park, Jeong-Kon Lee, Moo-Seok Park, Sang-Soon Park, Keun-Sik Hong, Wi-Sun Ryu, Dong-Eog Kim, Man Seok Park, Kang-Ho Choi, Joon-Tae Kim, Jihoon Kang, Beom Joon Kim, Moon-Ku Han, Jun Lee, Jae-Kwan Cha, Dae-Hyun Kim, Jae Guk Kim, Soo Joo Lee, Yong-Jin Cho, Jee-Hyun Kwon, Dong-Ick Shin, Min-Ju Yeo, Sung Il Sohn, Jeong-Ho Hong, Ji Sung Lee … & Hee-Joon Bae
Objective: To improve epidemiological knowledge of neurological deterioration (ND) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods: In this prospective observational study, we captured ND prospectively in 29,446 AIS patients admitted to 15 hospitals in Korea within 7 days of stroke onset. ND was defined as an increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥2 (total), or ≥1 (motor or consciousness), or any new neurological symptoms. Change of incidence rate after stroke...

Data from: Absolute axial growth and trunk segmentation in the early Cambrian trilobite Oryctocarella duyunensis

Tao Dia, Nigel Hughes, Xingliang Zhang, Giuseppe Fusco & Nigel Hughes
A short stratigraphic interval near Bulin in western Hunan (China) yields multiple specimens of the ~514 Ma old oryctocarine trilobite Oryctocarella duyunensis. Size data obtained from these specimens indicates that, from meraspid degree 1 onwards, degrees represent successive instars. Meraspid growth persisted until a terminal stage was reached, providing the first example of determinate growth in trilobites and, notably, in an early Cambrian species. The sample contains three varieties of such terminal stages, recognized as...

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