29 Works

Codes: A new approach to interspecific synchrony in population ecology using tail association

Shyamolina Ghosh, Lawrence W. Sheppard, Philip C. Reid & Daniel C. Reuman
Standard methods for studying the association between two ecologically important variables provide only a small slice of the information content of the association, but statistical approaches are available that provide comprehensive information. In particular, available approaches can reveal tail associations, i.e., accentuated or reduced associations between the more extreme values of variables. We here study the nature and causes of tail associations between phenological or population-density variables of co-located species, and their ecological importance. We...

A morphometric assessment of species boundaries in a widespread anole lizard (Squamata: Dactyloidae)

Tanner Myers, Pietro De Mello & Richard Glor
Cryptic species - genetically distinct species that are morphologically difficult to distinguish - present challenges to systematists. Operationally, cryptic species are very difficult to identify and sole usage of genetic data or morphological data can fail to recognize evolutionarily isolated lineages. We use morphometric data to test species boundaries hypothesized with genetic data in the North Caribbean Bark Anole (Anolis distichus), a suspected species complex. We use univariate and multivariate analyses to test if candidate...

Quantifying shell outline variability in extant and fossil Laqueus (Brachiopoda: Terebratulida): are outlines good proxies for long-looped brachidial morphology and can they help us characterize species?

Natalia Lopez Carranza & Sandra Carlson
Extant and extinct terebratulide brachiopod species have been defined primarily on the basis of morphology. What is the fidelity of morphological species to biological species? And how can we test this fidelity with fossils? Taxonomically and phylogenetically, the most informative internal feature in the brachiopod suborder Terebratellidina is the geometrically complex long-looped brachidium, which, given their fragile nature, are not commonly preserved in the fossil record. In their absence, it is essential to test other...

Supplementary information for: The effects of geographic range size and abundance on extinction during a time of ‘sluggish’ evolution

Michelle Casey, Erin Saupe & Bruce Lieberman
Geographic range size and abundance are important determinants of extinction risk in fossil and extant taxa. However, the relationship between these variables and extinction risk has not been tested extensively during evolutionarily ‘quiescent’ times of low extinction and speciation in the fossil record. Here we examine the influence of geographic range size and abundance on extinction risk during the late Paleozoic (Mississippian–Permian), a time of ‘sluggish’ evolution when global rates of origination and extinction were...

Image stack, PLY-files and a NEX-file accompanying: A new symmoriiform from the Late Devonian of Morocco: novel jaw function in ancient sharks

Linda Frey, Michael I. Coates, Kristen Tietjen, Martin Rücklin & Christian Klug
We describe the small chondrichthyan Ferromirum oukherbouchi n.gen. et sp. from the Famennian (Late Devonian) of the Maïder region in Morocco. This chondrichthyan is exceptionally well preserved and displays not only mineralized soft tissues but also undeformed cartilages of the head, gills, and shoulder girdle. A reconstruction of the head using 3D-prints revealed a previously unknown kind of jaw articulation. Here, we make the original cropped image stack and PLY-files of the single cartilaginous elements...

Data from: Synchronous effects produce cycles in deer populations and deer-vehicle collisions

Thomas Anderson, Lawrence Sheppard, Jon Walter, Robert Rolley & Dan Reuman
Population cycles are fundamentally linked with spatial synchrony, the prevailing paradigm being that populations with cyclic dynamics are easily synchronized. That is, population cycles help give rise to spatial synchrony. Here we demonstrate this process can work in reverse, with synchrony causing population cycles. We show that timescale-specific environmental effects, by synchronizing local population dynamics on certain timescales only, cause major population cycles over large areas in white-tailed deer. An important aspect of the new...

Phylogeographic and phenotypic outcomes of brown anole colonization across the Caribbean provide insight into the beginning stages of an adaptive radiation

Jason J. Kolbe, Richard E. Glor, Marta López‐Darias, C. Verónica Gómez Pourroy, Alexis S. Harrison, Kevin De Queiroz, Liam J. Revell, Jonathan B. Losos & Robert Graham Reynolds
Some of the most important insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes of diversification and speciation have come from studies of island adaptive radiations, yet relatively little research has examined how these radiations initiate. We suggest that Anolis sagrei is a candidate for understanding the origins of the Caribbean Anolis adaptive radiation and how a colonizing anole species begins to undergo allopatric diversification, phenotypic divergence and, potentially, speciation. We undertook a genomic and morphological analysis...

Dissecting the genetic basis of variation in Drosophila sleep using a multiparental QTL mapping resource

Stuart Macdonald & Brittny R. Smith
There is considerable variation in sleep duration, timing and quality in human populations, and sleep dysregulation has been implicated as a risk factor for a range of health problems. Human sleep traits are known to be regulated by genetic factors, but also by an array of environmental and social factors. These uncontrolled, non-genetic effects complicate powerful identification of the loci contributing to sleep directly in humans. The model system, Drosophila melanogaster, exhibits a behavior that...

Self-organising cicada choruses respond to the local sound and light environment

Lawrence Sheppard, Brandon Mechtley, Jonathan Walter & Daniel Reuman
1. Periodical cicadas exhibit an extraordinary capacity for self-organising spatially synchronous breeding behavior. The regular emergence of periodical cicada broods across the US is a phenomenon of longstanding public and scientific interest, as the cicadas of each brood emerge in huge numbers and briefly dominate their ecosystem. During the emergence, the 17-year periodical cicada species Magicicada cassini is found to form synchronised choruses, and we investigated their chorusing behavior from the standpoint of spatial synchrony....

An animal without a mitochondrial genome: the salmon parasite Henneguya salminicola (Cnidaria: Myxozoa)

Dorothée Huchon, Dayana Yahalomi, Stephen D. Atkinson, Moran Neuhof, E. Sally Chang, Hervé Philippe, Paulyn Cartwright & Jerri L. Bartholomew
Although aerobic respiration is a hallmark of eukaryotes, a few unicellular lineages, growing in hypoxic environments, have secondarily lost this ability. In the absence of oxygen, the mitochondria of these organisms have lost all or parts of their genomes and evolved into mitochondria related organelles (MROs). There has been debate regarding the presence of MROs in animals. Using deep sequencing approaches, we discovered that a member of the Cnidaria, the myxozoan Henneguya salminicola, has no...

Target-capture phylogenomics provide insights on gene and species tree discordances in Old World Treefrogs (Anura: Rhacophoridae)

Kin Onn Chan, Carl Hutter, Perry Wood, Lee Grismer & Rafe Brown
Genome-scale data have greatly facilitated the resolution of recalcitrant nodes that Sanger-based datasets have been unable to resolve. However, phylogenomic studies continue to utilize traditional methods such as bootstrapping to estimate branch support; and high bootstrap values are still interpreted as providing strong support for the correct topology. Furthermore, relatively little attention is given to assessing discordances between gene and species trees, and the underlying processes that produce phylogenetic conflict. We generated novel genomic datasets...

Soil microbial legacy drives crop diversity advantage: linking ecological plant-soil feedback with agricultural intercropping

Guangzhou Wang, Shuikuan Bei, Jianpeng Li, Xingguo Bao, Jiudong Zhang, Peggy Schultz, Haigang Li, Long Li, Fusuo Zhang, James Bever & Junling Zhang
Although the importance of the soil microbiome in mediating plant community structures and functions has been increasingly emphasized in ecological studies, the biological processes driving crop diversity overyielding remain unexplained in agriculture. Based on the plant-soil feedback (PSF) theory and method, we quantified how much soil microbes contributed to intercropping overyielding and detected which microbial groups mediated this effect. Soils were collected as inocula and sequenced from a unique 10-year field experiment, consisting of monoculture,...

Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements

Perry Wood, Xianguang Guo, Scott Travers, Yong-Chao Su, Karen Olson, Aaron Bauer, Lee Grismer, Cameron Siler, Robert Moyle, Michael Andersen & Rafe Brown
Recent phylogenetic studies of gekkonid lizards have revealed unexpected, widespread paraphyly and polyphyly among genera, unclear generic boundaries, and a tendency towards the nesting of taxa exhibiting specialized, apomorphic morphologies within geographically widespread “generalist” clades. This is especially true in Australasia, where monophyly of Gekko proper has been questioned with respect to phenotypically ornate flap-legged geckos of the genus Luperosaurus, the Philippine false geckos of the genus Pseudogekko, and even the elaborately “derived” parachute geckos...

A tale of four bears: Environmental signal on the phylogeographical patterns within the extant Ursus species

Ella Vázquez-Domínguez, Carlos Luna‐Aranguré & Jorge Soberón
Aim: Assessing the relevance of niche evolution in the diversification patterns and geographical distribution of species driven by climate remains a challenge. We apply an integrative approach to evaluate the role of the environment on the phylogeography of bear species, incorporating fossil data to characterize the changes in the ecological niche through time. We evaluate our approach with the four extant species of bears within Ursus, the best represented taxon in the fossil record of...

Data from: Adaptive genetic potential and plasticity of trait variation in the foundation prairie grass Andropogon gerardii across the US Great Plains’ climate gradient: Implications for climate change and restoration

Loretta C. Johnson, Matthew Galliart, Sofia Sabates, Hannah Tetreault, Angel DeLaCruz, Johnny Bryant, Jacob Alsdurf, Mary Knapp, Nora Bello, Sara Baer, Brian Maricle, David Gibson, Jesse Poland, Paul St. Amand, Natalie Unruh, Olivia Parrish & Loretta Johnson
Plant response to climate depends on a species’ adaptive potential. To address this, we used reciprocal gardens to detect genetic and environmental plasticity effects on phenotypic variation and combined with genetic analyses. Four reciprocal garden sites were planted with three regional ecotypes of Andropogon gerardii, a dominant Great Plains prairie grass, using dry, mesic, wet ecotypes originating from western KS to Illinois that span 500 to 1,200 mm rainfall year-1. We aimed to answer: (1)...

Data from: Effects of the soil microbiome on the demography of two annual prairie plants

Helen Alexander, Hannah Reynolds, Rebekah Wagner, Guangzhou Wang, Haley Burrill & James Bever
Both mutualistic and pathogenic soil microbes are known to play important roles in shaping the fitness of plants, likely affecting plants at different life cycle stages. In order to investigate the differential effects of native soil mutualists and pathogens on plant fitness, we compared survival and reproduction of two annual tallgrass prairie plant species (Chamaecrista fasciculata and Coreopsis tinctoria) in a field study using 3 soil inocula treatments containing different compositions of microbes. The soil...

New exceptionally-preserved panarthropods from the Drumian Wheeler Konservat-Lagerstätte of the House Range of Utah

Rudy Lerosey-Aubril, Julien Kimmig, Stephen Pates, Jacob Skabelund, Andries Weug & Javier Ortega-Hernández
The Drumian Wheeler Konservat-Lagerstätte of the House Range of Utah (Wheeler-HR) has yielded one of the most diverse exceptionally-preserved Cambrian biotas of North America. The discovery of soft-bodied fossils invariably provides precious insights on this remarkable Miaolingian biota, for most of its non-biomineralizing components are known from very few specimens. This contribution describes some 30 new exceptionally-preserved fossils of Wheeler panarthropods. Two new species are recognized, the radiodont Hurdia sp. nov. A and the megacheiran...

Repeated fire shifts carbon and nitrogen cycling by changing plant inputs and soil decomposition across ecosystems

Adam Francis Pellegrini, Sarah Hobbie, Peter Reich, Ari Jumpponen, Jack Brookshire, Anthony Caprio, Corli Coetsee & Robert Jackson
Fires shape the biogeochemistry and functioning of many ecosystems, and fire frequencies are changing across much of the globe. Frequent fires can change soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage by altering the quantity and chemistry of plant inputs through changes in plant biomass and composition as well as altering decomposition of soil organic matter. How decomposition rates change with shifting inputs remains uncertain because most studies focus on the effects of single fires, where...

Data from: Frequent fire slows microbial decomposition of newly deposited fine fuels in a pyrophilic ecosystem

Jacob Hopkins
Frequent fires maintain nearly 50% of terrestrial ecosystems, and drive ecosystem changes that govern future fires. Since fires are dependent on available plant or fine fuels, ecosystem processes that alter fine fuel loads like microbial decomposition are particularly important and could modify future fires. We hypothesized that variation in short-term fire history would influence fuel dynamics in such ecosystems. We predicted that frequent fires within a short-time period would slow microbial decomposition of new fine...

A test of island biogeographic theory applied to estimates of gene flow in a Fijian bird is largely consistent with neutral expectations

Ethan Gyllenhaal, Xena Mapel, Alivereti Naikatini, Robert Moyle & Michael Andersen
Islands were key to the development of allopatric speciation theory because they are a natural laboratory of repeated barriers to gene flow caused by open water gaps. Despite their proclivity for promoting divergence, little empirical work has quantified the extent of gene flow among island populations. Following classic island biogeographic theory, two metrics of interest are relative island size and distance. Fiji presents an ideal system for studying these dynamics, with four main islands that...

Gene flow creates a mirage of cryptic species in a Southeast Asian spotted stream frog complex

Kin Onn Chan, Carl Hutter, Perry Lee Wood, Lee Grismer, Indraneil Das & Rafe Brown
Most new cryptic species are described using conventional tree- and distance-based species delimitation methods (SDMs), which rely on phylogenetic arrangements and measures of genetic divergence. However, although numerous factors such as population structure and gene flow are known to confound phylogenetic and species delimitation inferences, the influence of these processes on species estimation is not frequently evaluated. Using large amounts of exons, introns, and ultraconserved elements obtained using the FrogCap sequence-capture protocol, we compared conventional...

Phylogeny and biogeography of some Cretaceous spatangoid echinoids with special emphasis on taxa from the Western Interior Seaway

Bruce Lieberman & Steven Byrum
Members of the echinoid order Spatangoida, a highly diverse and abundant marine invertebrate clade, were important denizens of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway (WIS), an epicontinental seaway that divided North America in two during an interval of greenhouse conditions between roughly 100 and 65 million years ago. A phylogenetic analysis of spatangoids was conducted using a character matrix of 32 characters from 21 species. Species that occur in the WIS were considered comprehensively, and species...

The role of evolutionary time, diversification rates and dispersal in determining the global diversity of a large radiation of passerine birds

Tianlong Cai, Shimiao Shao, Jonathan Kennedy, Per Alström, Robert Moyle, Yanhua Qu, Fumin Lei & Jon Fjeldså
Aim: Variation in species diversity among different geographic areas may result from differences in speciation and extinction rates, immigration and time for diversification. An area with high species diversity may be the result of a high net diversification rate, multiple immigration events from adjacent regions,anda long time available for the accumulation of species (know as the “time-for-speciation effect”). Here, we examine the relative importance of the three aforementionedprocesses in shaping the geographic diversity patterns of...

Fish abundance data in forest steppe and grassland river networks in Mongolia

Alain Maasri, Mark Pyron, Emily Arsenault, James Thorp, Bud Mendsaikhan, Flavia Tromboni, Mario Minder, Scott Kenner, John Costello, Sudeep Chandra, Amarbat Otgonganbat & Bazartseren Boldgiv
Fish abundance data (fish per m) collected during the MACRO project in Mongolia. We collected fish assemblages in river networks of two different ecoregions, the Forest Steppe (FS) and Grassland (G), in 2017 and 2019.

The names don’t matter but the numbers do: searching for stability in Carboniferous brachiopod paleocommunities from the North American Midcontinent

Luke Strotz & Bruce Lieberman
A key question in paleoecology and macroevolution is whether assemblages of species (paleocommunities) are persistent entities that endure over millions of years. Whilst community turnover in the face of abiotic change is the presumed norm, paleocommunities have been shown to persist for long time periods and regardless of environmental disruption. It remains an open question however, as to what processes allow for this. We investigate these questions by analyzing the Carboniferous brachiopod paleocommunities from the...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    29

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    29

Affiliations

  • University of Kansas
    29
  • Auburn University
    4
  • La Sierra University
    3
  • University of Virginia
    2
  • National University of Singapore
    2
  • University of Chicago
    2
  • University of Florida
    2
  • University of Copenhagen
    2
  • Harvard University
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2