Functional niche constraints on carnivore assemblages (mammalia: carnivora) in the Americas: What facilitates coexistence through space and time?Andrés Arias-Alzate, Felber J. Arroyave, Oscar Y. Romero Goyeneche, Rafael Hurtado Heredia, José F. Gonzalez-Maya, Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales, A. Townsend Peterson & Enrique Martínez-Meyer
Aim: Mammalian carnivores are among the best studied groups in terms of evolutionary history. However, the effects of species interactions in shaping community assemblages remain poorly understood. We hypothesize that indirect interactions via ecological trait filtering play a key role in structuring carnivoran assemblages, mediate coexistence, and thus should show high functional diversity in space and time at continental scales. Location: Americas. Taxon: Mammalian carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora). Methods: We followed a macroecological perspective via ecological...
Climatic refugia and reduced extinction correlate with underdispersion in mammals and birds in AfricaJacob C. Cooper, Nicholas M. A. Crouch, Adam W. Ferguson & John M. Bates
Macroevolutionary patterns, often inferred from metrics of community relatedness, are often used to ascertain major evolutionary processes shaping communities. These patterns have been shown to be informative of biogeographic barriers, of habitat suitability and invasibility (especially with regards to environmental filtering), and of regions that function as evolutionary cradles (i.e., sources of diversification) or museums (i.e., regions of reduced extinction). Here, we analysed continental datasets of mammal and bird distributions to identify primary drivers of...
Pollinator loss causes rapid adaptive evolution of selfing and dramatically reduces genome-wide genetic variabilityJeremiah Busch, Sarah Bodbyl-Roels, Sharif Tusuubira & John Kelly
While selfing populations harbor little genetic variation limiting evolutionary potential, the causes are unclear. We experimentally evolved large, replicate populations of Mimulus guttatus for nine generations in greenhouses with or without pollinating bees and studied DNA polymorphism in descendants. Populations without bees adapted to produce more selfed seed yet exhibited striking reductions in DNA polymorphism despite large population sizes. Importantly, the genome-wide pattern of variation cannot be explained by a simple reduction in effective population...
Data for Native mycorrhizal fungi improve milkweed growth, latex, and establishment while some commercial fungi may inhibit themElizabeth Koziol
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can facilitate plant growth and influence plant communities by altering plant interactions with herbivores. Therefore, AM fungi could be critical for the conservation of certain rare plants and herbivores. For example, North American milkweed species are crucial hosts for monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). Understanding how mycorrhizal composition affects milkweeds will have direct impacts on the conservation and restoration of both increasingly threatened guilds. We present data from...
Combining species delimitation, species trees, and tests for gene flow illuminates complex speciation in scrub-jaysDevon DeRaad
Complex speciation, involving rapid divergence and multiple bouts of post-divergence gene flow, can obfuscate phylogenetic relationships and species limits. In North America, cases of complex speciation are common, due at least in part to the cyclical Pleistocene glacial history of the continent. Scrub-jays in the genus Aphelocoma provide a useful case study in complex speciation because their range throughout North America is structured by phylogeographic barriers with multiple cases of secondary contact between divergent lineages....
Data from: Cretaceous lophocoronids with short proboscis and retractable female genitalia provide the earliest evidence for their feeding and oviposition habitsWeiting Zhang, Chungkun Shih, Michael Engel & Dong Ren
We describe two new species of Lophocoronidae: Acanthocorona hedida Zhang, Shih and Engel sp. n. and Acanthocorona venulosa Zhang, Shih and Engel sp. n., and an undetermined specimen from mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber. Phylogenetic analysis of basal lepidopteran lineages, including three extinct families, was undertaken. The analysis supported monophyly of Glossata although internal relationships remain controversial. Acanthocorona and Lophocorona form a monophyletic group. It is likely that short and simply structured proboscides of Acanthocorona were used...
Spatial structure within root systems moderates stability of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal mutualism and plant-soil feedbacksJacob Hopkins, Sarah Richardson & James Bever
The persistence of mutualisms is paradoxical, as there are fitness incentives for exploitation. This is particularly true for plant-microbe mutualisms like arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), which are promiscuously, horizontally-transmitted. Preferential allocation by hosts to the best mutualist can stabilize horizontal mutualisms, however preferential allocation is imperfect, with its fidelity likely depending upon the spatial structure of symbionts in plant roots. In this study, we tested AM mutualisms’ dependence on two dimensions of spatial structure: the initial...
Wallacean and Melanesian islands promote higher rates of diversification within the global passerine radiation Corvides: Supplementary informationJenna McCullough, Carl Oliveros, Brett Benz, Rosana Zenil-Ferguson, Joel Cracraft, Robert Moyle & Michael Andersen
The complex island archipelagoes of Wallacea and Melanesia have provided empirical data behind integral theories in evolutionary biology, including allopatric speciation and island biogeography. Yet, questions regarding the relative impact of the layered biogeographic barriers, such as deep-water trenches and isolated island systems, on faunal diversification remain underexplored. One such barrier is Wallace’s Line, a significant biogeographic boundary that largely separates Australian and Asian biodiversity. To assess the relative roles of biogeographic barriers—specifically isolated island...
Manipulating plant microbiomes in the field: native mycorrhizae advance plant succession and improve native plant restorationLiz Koziol, Jonathan Bauer, Eric Duell, Karen Hickman, Geoffrey House, Peggy Schultz, Alice Tipton, Gail Wilson & James Bever
The plant microbiome is critical to plant health and is degraded with anthropogenic disturbance. However, the value of re-establishing the native microbiome is rarely considered in ecological restoration. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are particularly important microbiome components, as they associate with most plants, and later successional grassland plants are strongly responsive to native AM fungi. With five separate sites across the United States, we inoculated mid- and late successional plant seedlings with one of three...
Data from: Fixation and preservation contribute to distortion in vertebrate museum specimens: a ten-year study with the lizard Anolis sagreiR. Graham Reynolds, Inbar Maayan, Rachel M. Goodman, Paul M. Hime, Ryan Bickel, E. Allen Luck & Jonathan B. Losos
Preservation of museum specimens depends on chemical fixation and preservation, processes that might distort the original material. Relatively few studies have examined preservation effects in potentially susceptible soft-bodied taxa like herpetofauna, and those that have rarely extend over more than a few months. We collected six common morphological measurements from the same set of radiographed specimens of the Neotropical lizard Anolis sagrei over nearly ten years to investigate whether morphometric changes result from fixation in...
Abstract for publication titled: Intraspecific variation in migration timing of green sturgeon in the Sacramento River system Understanding movement patterns of anadromous fishes is critical to conservation management of declining wild populations and preservation of habitats. Yet, the duration of observations for individual animals can constrain accurate descriptions of movements. In this study, we synthesized over a decade (2006-2018) of acoustic telemetry tracking observations of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) in the Sacramento River system to...
University of Kansas11
Capital Normal University1
University of California, Merced1
Field Museum of Natural History1
The Ohio State University1
Hebei GEO University1
University of Virginia1
University of North Carolina at Asheville1
University of Michigan–Flint1
Los Alamos National Laboratory1