69 Works

Research data supporting 'Zinc complexes for PLA formation and chemical recycling: towards a circular economy'

, , , & Joseph Wood
Conversion, selectivity and yield data for three Zn catalysts

Data from: Genomic Signature of an Avian Lilliput Effect across the K-PG Extinction

Jacob S. Berv & Daniel J. Field
Survivorship following major mass extinctions may be associated with a decrease in body size—a phenomenon called the Lilliput Effect. Body size is a strong predictor of many life history traits (LHTs), and is known to influence demography and intrinsic biological processes. Pronounced changes in organismal size throughout Earth history are therefore likely to be associated with concomitant genome-wide changes in evolutionary rates. Here, we report pronounced heterogeneity in rates of molecular evolution (varying up to...

Data from: The constrained maximal expression level owing to haploidy shapes gene content on the mammalian X chromosome

Laurence D. Hurst, Avazeh T. Ghanbarian, Alistair R. R. Forrest, Fantom Consortium & Lukasz Huminiecki
X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if...

Data from: Heterozygosity-fitness correlations of conserved microsatellite markers in Kentish plovers Charadrius alexandrinus

Clemens Küpper, Jakob Augustin, Deborah A. Dawson, Terry Burke, András Kosztolányi & Tamás Székely
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) are frequently used to examine the relationship between genetic diversity and fitness. Most studies have reported positive HFCs, although there is a strong bias towards investigating HFCs in genetically impoverished populations. We investigated HFCs in a large genetically diverse breeding population of Kentish plovers Charadrius alexandrinus in Southern Turkey. This small shorebird exhibits highly variable mating and care systems and it is becoming an ecological model species to understand breeding system evolution....

Data from: Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees

Ross C. P. Mounce, Robert Sansom & Matthew A. Wills
Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that...

Data from: The impact of hotspot-targeted interventions on malaria transmission in Rachuonyo south district in the western Kenyan highlands: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Teun Bousema, Gillian Stresman, Amrish Y. Baidjoe, John Bradley, Philip Knight, William Stone, Victor Osoti, Euniah Makori, Chrispin Owaga, Wycliffe Odongo, Pauline China, Shehu Shagari, Ogobara K. Doumbo, Robert W. Sauerwein, Simon Kariuki, Chris Drakeley, Jennifer Stevenson & Jonathan Cox
Background: Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both inside hotspots and in surrounding communities. Methods and Findings: Twenty-seven serologically defined malaria hotspots were detected in a survey conducted from 24 June to 31 July 2011 that included 17,503...

Data from: Evolutionary rates for multivariate traits: the role of selection and genetic variation

William Pitchers, Jason Wolf, Tom Tregenza, John Hunt & Ian Dworkin
A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is the relative importance of selection and genetic architecture in determining evolutionary rates. Adaptive evolution can be described by the multivariate breeders' equation, which predicts evolutionary change for a suite of phenotypic traits as a product of directional selection acting on them (β) and the genetic variance–covariance matrix for those traits (G). Despite being empirically challenging to estimate, there are enough published estimates of G and β to allow...

Anisogamy is unrelated to the intensity of sexual selection

Judit Mokos, István Scheuring, András Liker, Robert P. Freckelton & Tamás Székely
Males and females often display different behaviours and, in the context of reproduction, these behaviours are labelled sex roles. The Darwin–Bateman paradigm argues that the root of these differences is anisogamy (i.e., differences in size and/or function of gametes between the sexes) that leads to biased sexual selection, and sex differences in parental care and body size. This evolutionary cascade, however, is contentious since some of the underpinning assumptions have been questioned. Here we investigate...

Data from: Mate fidelity in a polygamous shorebird, the snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus)

Naerhulan Halimubieke, José Valdebenito, Philippa Harding, Medardo Cruz-López, Martín Serrano-Meneses, Richard James, Krisztina Kupán & Tamas Szekely
Social monogamy has evolved multiple times and is particularly common in birds. However, it is not well understood why some species live in long-lasting monogamous partnerships while others change mates between breeding attempts. Here, we investigate mate fidelity in a sequential polygamous shorebird, the snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus), a species in which both males and females may have several breeding attempts within a breeding season with the same or different mates. Using six years of...

Building deformation caused by tunnelling: centrifuge modelling

Stefan Ritter, Giorgia Giardina, Andrea Franza & Matthew DeJong
This paper investigates the deformation of buildings due to tunnelling-induced soil displacements. Centrifuge model tests of 3D printed building models subject to a plane-strain tunnel excavation in dense, dry sand are discussed. The small-scale structures replicate important building characteristics including brittle material properties similar to masonry, a realistic building layout, façade openings, strip footings and a rough soil-structure interface. Digital images were captured during the experiments, enabling image-based measurements of the building response. Results demonstrate...

Exceptionally high apparent adult survival in three tropical species of plovers in Madagascar

William Jones, Luke Eberhart-Hertel, Robert Freckleton, Joseph Hoffmann, Oliver Krüger, Brett Sandercock, Orsolya Vincze, Sama Zefania & Tamás Székely
Adult survival is a key component of population dynamics and understanding variation in and the drivers of adult survival rates and longevity is critical for ecological and evolutionary studies, as well as for conservation biology and practice. Tropical species of landbirds are often selected to have higher adult survival due to high nest predation rates, but it is unclear if the same patterns occur in other avian lineages with different life history strategies. Here, we...

Structure and in silico simulations of a cold-active esterase reveals its prime cold-adaptation mechanism - data

Nehad Noby, Husam Sabah Auhim, Samuel Winter, Harley L Worthy, Pierre J Rizkallah, Stephen A Wells & Darran Dafydd Jones
The structure was detmined of a cold active family IV esterase (EstN7) cloned from Bacillus cohnii strain N1. EstN7 is a dimer with a classical α/β hydrolase fold. It has an acidic surface that is thought to play a role in cold-adaption by retaining solvation under changed water solvent entropy at lower temperatures. The conformation of the functionally important cap region is significantly different to EstN7's closest relatives, forming a bridge-like structure with reduced helical...

Quasielastic Neutron Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study on the Molecular Behaviour of Catechol in Zeolite Beta - data

Carlos Hernandez-Tamargo, Ian P Silverwood, Alexander J O'Malley & Nora H De LeeuW
The dynamics of catechol in zeolite Beta was studied using quesielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments and molecular dynamics simulations at 393 K, to understand the behaviour of phenolic monomers relevant in the catalytic conversion of lignin via metal nanoparticles supported on zeolites. Compared to previous work studying phenol, both methods observe that the presence of the second OH group in catechol can hinder mobility significantly, as explained by stronger hydrogen-bonding interactions between catechol and the...

Social organization in ungulates: revisiting Jarman's hypotheses

Karola Szemán, András Liker & Tamás Székely
Ungulates (antelopes, deer and relatives) have some of the most diverse social systems among mammals. To understand the evolution of ungulate social organisation, Jarman (1974) proposed an ecological scenario of how distribution of resources, habitat and feeding style may have influenced social organisation. Although Jarman’s scenario makes intuitive sense and remain a textbook example of social evolution, it has not been scrutinised using modern phylogenetic comparative methods. Here we use 230 ungulate species from 10...

Data from: High fidelity: extra-pair fertilisations in eight Charadrius plover species are not associated with parental relatedness or social mating system

Kathryn H. Maher, Luke J. Eberhart-Phillips, András Kosztolányi, Natalie Dos Remedios, María Cristina Carmona-Isunza, Medardo Cruz-López, Sama Zefania, James J. H. St Clair, Monif AlRashidi, Michael A. Weston, Martín A. Serrano-Meneses, Oliver Krüger, Joseph I. Hoffmann, Tamás Székely, Terry Burke, Clemens Küpper & Joseph I. Hoffman
Extra-pair paternity is a common reproductive strategy in many bird species. However, it remains unclear why extra-pair paternity occurs and why it varies among species and populations. Plovers (Charadrius spp.) exhibit considerable variation in reproductive behaviour and ecology, making them excellent models to investigate the evolution of social and genetic mating systems. We investigated inter- and intra-specific patterns of extra-pair parentage and evaluated three major hypotheses explaining extra-pair paternity using a comparative approach based on...

Data from: Sex differences in parental care: gametic investment, sexual selection and social environment

András Liker, Robert P. Freckleton, Vladimir Remes & Tamás Székely
Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (i) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (ii) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (iii) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here we provide the most comprehensive assessment of...

Data from: Using the Mus musculus hybrid zone to assess covariation and genetic architecture of limb bone lengths

Neva Skrabar, Leslie M. Turner, Luisa F. Pallares, Bettina Harr & Diethard Tautz
Two subspecies of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus, meet in a narrow contact zone across Europe. Mice in the hybrid zone are highly admixed, representing the full range of mixed ancestry from the two subspecies. Given the distinct morphologies of these subspecies, these natural hybrids can be used for genome-wide association mapping at sufficiently high resolution to directly infer candidate genes. We focus here on limb bone length differences, which...

Data from: Lineage-specific sequence evolution and exon edge conservation partially explain the relationship of evolutionary rate and expression level in A. thaliana

Stephen J. Bush, Paula X. Kover & Araxi O. Urrutia
Rapidly evolving proteins can aid the identification of genes underlying phenotypic adaptation across taxa, but functional and structural elements of genes can also affect evolutionary rates. In plants, the ‘edges’ of exons, flanking intron junctions, are known to contain splice enhancers and to have a higher degree of conservation compared to the remainder of the coding region. However, the extent to which these regions may be masking indicators of positive selection or account for the...

Data from: Adult sex ratio and operational sex ratio exhibit different temporal dynamics in the wild

María Cristina Carmona-Isunza, Sergio Ancona, Tamás Székely, Alfonso P. Ramallo-González, Medardo Cruz-López, Martín Alejandro Serrano-Meneses & Clemens Küpper
Adult sex ratio (ASR, the proportion of adult males in the adult population) and operational sex ratio (OSR, the proportion of sexually active males in the mating pool) are fundamental properties of breeding populations and they are often linked to mating systems and sexual selection. However, ASR and OSR emerge via different routes in a population and may exhibit different temporal patterns. Here, we use data from a well-monitored polygamous snowy plover Charadrius nivosus population...

Data from: Social interactions predict genetic diversification: an experimental manipulation in shorebirds

Charles Cunningham, Jorge E. Parra, Lucy Coals, Marcela Beltrán, Sama Zefania & Tamás Székely
Mating strategy and social behaviour influence gene flow and thus affect levels of genetic differentiation and potentially speciation. Previous genetic analyses of closely related plovers Charadrius spp. found strikingly different population genetic structure in Madagascar: Kittlitz’s plovers are spatially homogenous whereas white-fronted plovers have well segregated and geographically distinct populations. Here we test the hypotheses that Kittlitz’s plovers are spatially interconnected and have extensive social interactions that facilitate gene flow, whereas white-fronted plovers are spatially...

Data from: Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds

Vladimír Remeš & Tamás Székely
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e., the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits....

Data from: Evolution of non-kin cooperation: social assortment by cooperative phenotype in guppies

Josefine Brask, Darren Croft, Matthew Edenbrow, Richard James, Heather Bleakley, Indar Ramnarine, Robert Heathcote, Charles Tyler, Patrick Hamilton, Torben Dabelsteen & Safi Darden
Cooperation among non-kin constitutes a conundrum for evolutionary biology. Theory suggests that non-kin cooperation can evolve if individuals differ consistently in their cooperative phenotypes and assort socially by these, such that cooperative individuals interact predominantly with one another. However, our knowledge of the role of cooperative phenotypes in the social structuring of real-world animal populations is minimal. In this study, we investigated cooperative phenotypes and their link to social structure in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia...

Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism

Brock Bastian, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Steve Loughnan, Paul Bain, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Maja Becker, Michal Bilewicz, Emma Collier-Baker, Carla Crespo, Paul W. Eastwick, Ronald Fischer, Malte Friese, Ángel Gómez, Valeschka M. Guerra, Jose Luis Castellanos Guevara, Katja Hanke, Nic Hooper, Li-Li Huang, Shi Junqi, Minoru Karasawa, Peter Kuppens, Siri Leknes, Müjde Peker, Cesar Pelay, Afoditi Pina … & William B. Swann
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...

Data from: Contrasting genetic diversity and population structure among three sympatric Madagascan shorebirds: parallels with rarity, endemism, and dispersal

Luke Eberhart-Phillips, Joseph I. Hoffman, Edward G. Brede, Sama Zefania, Martina J. Kamrad, Tamas Szekely, Michael W. Bruford & Luke J. Eberhart-Phillips
Understanding the relative contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to population structure and genetic diversity is a central goal of conservation and evolutionary genetics. One way to achieve this is through comparative population genetic analysis of sympatric sister taxa, which allows evaluation of intrinsic factors such as population demography and life history while controlling for phylogenetic relatedness and geography. We used ten conserved microsatellites to explore the population structure and genetic diversity of three sympatric...

Data from: Genotype-dependent responses to levels of sibling competition over maternal resources in mice

Reinmar Hager, James M. Cheverud & Jason B. Wolf
Research on phenotypic plasticity has often focused on how a given genotype responds to changing physical environments. However, for many species the social environment plays an equally important role due to competition for resources. During early development, the level of competition for limited resources will often depend critically on the number of siblings. Therefore, competition among siblings should drive the evolution of genes that allow flexible responses to realized levels of competition and maternal resource...

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