49 Works

Scale-dependent shifts in functional and phylogenetic structure of Mediterranean island plant communities over two centuries

Chunhui Zhang, Marc William Cadotte, Alessandro Chiarucci, Michel Loreau, Charles Willis, Xingfeng Si, Lanping Li & Marcus Cianciaruso
1. Since the Industrial Revolution, the rapid global population and economic expansion has had tremendous impacts on biodiversity across spatial scales, especially for islands. While changes in species richness are easily inferred, the impact of human activity on the underlying community assembly processes has been difficult to ascertain because of lack of long-term community data. 2. Here, we document how the manifestations of plant community assembly have changed over time and space in a Mediterranean...

Data from - A new tale of lost tails: correlates of tail breakage in the worm lizard Amphisbaena vermicularis

Mario R. Moura, Jhonny J. M. Guedes & Henrique C. Costa
Predator-prey interactions are important evolutionary drivers of defensive behaviours, but they are usually difficult to record. This lack of data on natural history and ecological interactions of species can be overcome through museum specimens, at least for some reptiles. When facing aggressive interactions, reptile species may exhibit the defensive behaviour of autotomy by losing the tail, which is also known as ‘urotomy’. The inspection of preserved specimens for scars of tail breakage can reveal possible...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Humidity levels drive reproductive modes and phylogenetic diversity of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

Fernando Rodrigues Silva, Mário Almeida-Neto, Vitor Hugo Mendonça Do Prado, Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad & Denise De Cerqueira Rossa-Feres
AIM: The diversity of reproductive modes among amphibians provides a striking example of how differences in the biology of species furnish can provide important explanations for species distribution patterns on a broad scale. We hypothesized that sites with a higher humidity level will support more different modes of reproduction than drier sites and will consequently exhibit a higher phylogenetic diversity. Furthermore, we predict that if there is a gradient in the tolerance of reproductive modes...

Data from: Fatty acid profiles of five farmed Brazilian freshwater fish species from different families

Bruna Leal Rodrigues, Anna Carolina Vilhena Da Cruz Silva Canto, Marion Pereira Da Costa, Flávio Alves Da Silva, Eliane Teixeira Mársico & Carlos Adam Conte-Junior
The proximate composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of five Brazilian freshwater fish species, namely Brycon cephalus (BC), Cichla ocellaris (CO), Prochilodus lineatus (PL), Leporinus friderici (LF) and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (PCO), were investigated. CO and LF exhibited the highest (p < 0.05) moisture content, as well as one of the lowest (p < 0.05) lipid values, whereas BC presented the lowest (p < 0.05) moisture and, alongside PL, the highest (p < 0.05) lipid content....

Data from: Manifold influences of phylogenetic structure on a plant-herbivore network

Leonardo Lima Bergamini, Thomas M. Lewinsohn, Leonardo R. Jorge & Mário Almeida-Neto
Ecologists are increasingly aware of the interplay between evolutionary history and ecological processes in shaping current species interaction patterns. The inclusion of phylogenetic relationships in studies of species interaction networks has shown that closely related species commonly interact with sets of similar species. Notably, the degree of phylogenetic conservatism in antagonistic ecological interactions is frequently stronger among species at lower trophic levels than among those at higher trophic levels. One hypothesis that accounts for this...

Data from: Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar

Lilian Patricia Sales, Bruno R. Ribeiro, Matt Warrington Hayward, Adriano P. Paglia, Marcelo Passamani & Rafael Loyola
1.Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species’ fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unraveling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. 2.Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We...

Exceptions to the rule: Relative roles of time, diversification rates and regional energy in shaping the inverse latitudinal diversity gradient

Felipe Cerezer, Antonin Machac, Thiago Rangel & Cristian Dambros
Aim: Inverse latitudinal diversity gradients (i-LDG), whereby regional richness peaks outside the tropics, have rarely been investigated and their causes remain unclear. Here, we investigate three prominent explanations, postulating that species-rich regions have had (1) longer time to accumulate species, (2) faster diversification, and (3) more energy to support more diverse communities. These mechanisms have been shown to explain the tropical megadiversity, and we examine whether they can also explain i-LDG. Location: Global Time period:...

Data from: Unwrapping broken tails: Biological and environmental correlates of predation pressure in limbless reptiles

Mario R. Moura, Henrique C. Costa, Arthur D. Abegg, Esmeralda Alaminos, Teddy Angarita-Sierra, Weverton S. Azevedo, Hugo Cabral, Priscila Carvalho, Sonia Cechin, Nathalie Citeli, Ângelo C. M. Dourado, André F. V. Duarte, Frederico G. R. França, Eliza M. X Freire, Paulo C. A. Garcia, Rafael Mol, Ricardo Montero, Antônio Moraes-Da-Silva, Daniel C. Passos, Paulo Passos, Renata Perez, Juan M. Pleguezuelos, Pedro Prado, Ana Lúcia C. Prudente, Raul F. D. Sales … & Jhonny J. M. Guedes
Studying species interactions in nature often requires elaborate logistics and intense fieldwork. The difficulties in such task might hinder our ability to answer questions on how biotic interactions change with the environment. Fortunately, a workaround to this problem lies within scientific collections. For some animals, the inspection of preserved specimens can reveal the scars of past antagonistic encounters, such as predation attempts. A common defensive behaviour that leaves scars on animals is autotomy, the loss...

Data from: Is there a correlation between abundance and environmental suitability derived from ecological niche modelling? A meta-analysis

Marcelo M. Weber, Richard D. Stevens, José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho & Carlos Eduardo V. Grelle
It is thought that species abundance is correlated with environmental suitability and that environmental variables, scale, and type of model fitting can confound this relationship. We performed a meta-analysis to (i) test whether species abundance is positively correlated with environmental suitability derived from correlative ecological niche models (ENM), (ii) test whether studies encompassing large areas within a species range (>50%) exhibited higher AS correlations than studies encompassing small areas within a species range (<50%), (iii)...

Risk factors for mild depression in older women with overactive bladder syndrome: a cross sectional study

Raquel Jacomo, Aline Alves, Marianne Silva, Liana Matheus, Patricia Garcia, Dayanne Lorena & João De Sousa
Background: Studies demonstrate an association between severe depression and overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). However, mild depression is constantly overlooked. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with mild depression in women with OAB. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 241 women over 60 years old in Brasilia, Brazil. All patients were subjected to an interview followed by questionnaires and physical examination. The clinical and sociodemographic variables analyzed were age, body...

Negative effect of turbidity on prey capture for both visual and non-visual aquatic predators

Jean Ortega, Bruno Figueiredo, Weferson Da Graça, Angelo Agostinho & Luis Bini
1. Turbidity plays an important role in aquatic predator-prey interactions. Increases in turbidity are expected to reduce prey capture rates, especially for visually oriented predators. However, there is also evidence indicating that turbidity may have little or no effect on predation rates. 2. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between turbidity and capture rate. We explored possible sources of heterogeneity in the effect sizes (capture strategy, predator’s body size, relative...

Data from: You don’t belong here: explaining the excess of rare species in terms of habitat, space and time

Luciano F. Sgarbi & Adriano S. Melo
Ecological communities are composed of a few common and several rare species. Many studies have evaluated the shape of abundance distribution curves, but few studies have assessed the causes of rarity. Using a dataset of stream macroinvertebrates, we investigated whether the excess of rare species in three focal communities of stones in riffles were common i) in other habitats at the same stream site and period of sampling (Environment), ii) in other stream sites in...

Data from: Biotransformation of labdane and halimane diterpenoids by two filamentous fungi strains

Afif F. Monteiro, Cláudia Seidl, Vanessa G.P. Severino, Carmen Lúcia Cardoso & Ian Castro-Gamboa
Biotransformation of natural products by filamentous fungi is a powerful and effective approach to achieve derivatives with valuable new chemical and biological properties. Despite diterpenoid substrates exhibit good susceptibility towards fungi enzymes, there have been no studies concerning the microbiological transformation of halimane-type diterpenoids up to now. In this work, we investigated the capability of Fusarium oxysporum (a fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of Senna spectabilis) and Myrothecium verrucaria (an endophyte) to transform halimane (1)...

Data from: Phylogenetic eigenvectors and non-stationarity in the evolution of theropod dinosaur skulls

Jose A. F. Diniz-Filho, Davi M. C. C. Alves, Fabricio Villalobos, Manabu Sakamoto, Steve L. Brusatte & Luis M. Bini
Despite the longstanding interest in non-stationarity of both phenotypic evolution and diversification rates, only recently have methods been developed to study this property. Here, we propose a methodological expansion of the Phylogenetic Signal Representation (PSR) curve based on phylogenetic eigenvectors to test for non-stationarity. The PSR is built by plotting the coefficients of determination R2 from Phylogenetic Eigenvector Regression (PVR) models increasing the number of phylogenetic eigenvectors against the accumulated eigenvalues. The PSR curve is...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Where are the bats? An environmental complementarity analysis in a megadiverse country

Ludmilla Aguiar, Maria João Ramos Pereira, Marlon Zortea, Ricardo Machado, Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar, Maria João R. Pereira, Marlon Zortéa & Ricardo B. Machado
Aim: Field surveys are necessary to overcome Wallacean shortfalls. The task is even more important when human pressure on tropical – megadiverse – ecosystems is considered. However, due to financial constraints, spatial and temporal prioritization is required. Here we used the concept of environmental complementarity to identify non-surveyed regions for bats that are environmentally different from other already surveyed regions. We highlighted regions in Brazil where field inventories could be conducted to locate new occurrences...

Holocene climate changes explain the spatial pattern in genetic diversity in populations of Cyperus papyrus from Southeast Africa wetlands

Elias Luís Maxombe, Lucas Vieira & Rosane Collevatti
Wetlands are one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world because more than 70% of the area worldwide has been lost since 1900. Wetland plant species rely greatly on water for seeds and propagules, which may lead to a downstream unidirectional dispersal and accumulation of genetic diversity downstream. However, several species show no support for unidirectional genetic diversity, revealing the complexity of population dynamics and gene flow in wetlands. Here, we used microsatellite loci...

Data from: The circular nature of recurrent life-cycle events: a test comparing tropical and temperate phenology

Vanessa Staggemeier, Maria Gabriela Gutierrez Camargo, José Alexandre Diniz-Filho, Robert Freckleton, Lucas Jardim & Patricia Morellato
1. The high diversity of plant species in the tropics has revealed complex phenological patterns and reproductive strategies occurring throughout the year. Describing and analysing tropical plant phenology, and detecting triggers, demands to consider the circular nature of recurrent life-cycle events and the use of appropriated statistical metrics. 2. Here we explore analytical pitfalls potentially affecting results of studies that do not consider the circular nature of phenology data when comparing resting and non-resting systems,...

Data from Soil chemistry turned upside down: a meta-analysis of invasive earthworm effects on soil chemical properties

Olga Ferlian, Madhav P. Thakur, Alejandra Castañeda González, Layla M. San Emeterio, Susanne Marr, Barbbara Da Silva Rocha & Nico Eisenhauer
Recent studies have shown that invasive earthworms can dramatically reduce native biodiversity, both above and below the ground. However, we still lack a synthetic understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind these changes, such as whether earthworm effects on soil chemical properties drive such relationships. Here, we investigated the effects of invasive earthworms on soil chemical properties (pH, water content, and the stocks and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) by conducting a meta-analysis. Invasive earthworms...

Acaulescence promotes speciation and shapes the distribution patterns of palms in Neotropical seasonally dry habitats

Cibele Cássia-Silva, Rafael Silva Oliveira, Lílian P. Sales, Cíntia G. Freitas, Lucas Jardim, Thaíse Emilio, Christine D. Bacon & Rosane G. Collevatti
Rainforests have been a source of lineages to open and seasonally dry habitats throughout Angiosperm evolution, especially in the Neotropics. However, the underlying mechanisms that allow such shifts remain poorly understood at large spatial scales. Here, we test whether acaulescence (an underground stem or a very short stem concealed in the ground) has affected the colonization and speciation in Neotropical seasonally dry habitats by cocosoid palms (Cocoseae). Acaulescent species maintain their growth underground, which increases...

Data from: Defaunation and fragmentation erode small mammal diversity dimensions in tropical forests

Ricardo S. Bovendorp, Fernanda T. Brum, Robert A. McCleery, Benjamin Baiser, Rafael Loyola, Marcus V. Cianciaruso & Mauro Galetti
Forest fragmentation and defaunation are considered the main drivers of biodiversity loss, yet the synergistic effects of landscape changes and biotic interactions on assemblage structure have been poorly investigated. Here, we use an extensive dataset of 283 assemblages and 105 species of small mammals to understand how defaunation of medium and large mammals and forest fragmentation change the community composition and diversity of rodents and marsupials in tropical forests of South America. We used structured...

Data from: Ancestral reconstruction of reproductive traits shows no tendency toward terrestriality in Leptodactyline frogs

Elisa Barreto Pereira, Rosane Garcia Collevatti, Marcelo Nogueira De Carvalho Kokubum, Núbia Esther De Oliveira Miranda & Natan Medeiros Maciel
Background:Traditionally, the evolution of terrestrial reproduction in anurans from ancestors that bred in water has been accepted in the literature. Still, the existence of intermediate stages of water dependency, such as species that lay eggs close to water (e.g., in burrows) instead of in bodies of water, supports the hypothesis of an ordered and gradual evolution in the direction of a more terrestrial form of reproduction. However, this conventional view has recently been challenged for...

Data from: Contemporary and historic factors influence differently genetic differentiation and diversity in a tropical palm

Carolina C. Carvalho, Milton C. Ribeiro, Mauro Galetti & Rosane G. Collevatti
Population genetics theory predicts loss in genetic variability because of drift and inbreeding in isolated plant populations; however, it has been argued that long-distance pollination and seed dispersal may be able to maintain gene flow, even in highly fragmented landscapes. We tested how historical effective population size, historical migration and contemporary landscape structure, such as forest cover, patch isolation and matrix resistance, affect genetic variability and differentiation of seedlings in a tropical palm (Euterpe edulis)...

Data from: Demographic history and the low genetic diversity in Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae) from Brazilian Neotropical savannas

Roseane G. Collevatti, Mariana P. C. Telles, J. C. Nabout, Lazaro J. Chaves & Thannya N. Soares
Genetic effects of habitat fragmentation may be undetectable because they are generally a recent event in evolutionary time or because of confounding effects such as historical bottlenecks and historical changes in species' distribution. To assess the effects of demographic history on the genetic diversity and population structure in the Neotropical tree Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae) we used coalescence analyses coupled with species distribution modeling to hindcast its distribution over the last 21,000 yr. Twenty five populations...

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