Quantifying heritability and estimating evolutionary potential in the wild when individuals that share genes also share environmentsLaura Gervais, Nicolas Morellet, Ingrid David, Mark Hewison, Denis Reale, Michel Goulard, Yannick Chaval, Bruno Lourtet, Bruno Cargnelutti, Joel Merlet, Erwan Quéméré & Benoit Pujol
Accurate heritability estimates for fitness-related traits are required to predict an organism’s ability to respond to global change. Heritability estimates are theoretically expected to be inflated if, due to limited dispersal, individuals that share genes are also likely to share similar environments. However, if relatives occupy similar environments due, at least partly, to genetic variation for habitat selection, then accounting for environmental similarity in quantitative genetic models may result in diminished heritability estimates in wild...
Lepidoptera is a highly diverse, predominantly herbivorous insect order, with species transported to outside their native range largely facilitated by the global trade of plants and plant-based goods. Analogous to island disharmony, we examine invasion disharmony, where species filtering during invasions increases systematic compositional differences between native and non-native species assemblages, and test whether some families are more successful at establishing in non-native regions than others. We compared numbers of non-native, unintentionally introduced Lepidoptera species...
Data from: Variations in bark structural properties affect both water loss and carbon economics in neotropical savanna trees in the Cerrado region of BrazilPaulo Eduardo Menezes-Silva, Lucas Loram-Lourenço, Fernanda Santos Farnese, Bruno Matheus Mendes Dario, Ana Claudia Martins, Marina Alves Aun, Priscila Ferreira Batista, Fabiano Guimarães Silva, Hervé Cochard & Augusto Cesar Franco
Even after complete stomatal closure, plants lose water through the leaf cuticles and bark. This residual water conductance of leaves (gleaf-res) and stems (gbark) can negatively impact plant water balance and affect plant survival in seasonally dry environments. However, little is known about the costs and benefits associated with such water leaks, especially on stem level. Here, we characterized the structural and functional determinants of the variability in gbark across tropical savanna species to elucidate...
Unique and shared effects of local and catchment predictors over distribution of hyporheic organisms: does the valley rule the stream?Samuel Mouron, David Eme, Arnaud Bellec, Mélanie Bertrand, Stefano Mammola, Fréderic Liébault, Christophe J. Douady & Florian Malard
This dataset describe the distribution of two hyporheic crustacean taxa (Bogidiellidae, Amphipoda and Anthuridae, Isopoda) in streams of New Caledonia. We sampled the two taxa at 228 sites. At each site, we quantified nine local predictors related to habitat area and stability, sediment metabolism and water origin, and eight catchment predictors related to geology, area, primary productivity, land use and specific discharge.
Detecting selection using extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH)-based statistics in unphased or unpolarized dataAlexander Klassmann & Mathieu Gautier
Analysis of population genetic data often includes the search for genomic regions with signs of recent positive selection. One of the approaches involves the concept of Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH) and its associated statistics. These statistics typically need phased haplotypes and, some of them, polarized variants. Here, we unify and extend previously proposed modifications to loosen these requirements. We compare the modified versions with the original ones by measuring the False Discovery Rate in simulated...
How to quantify factors degrading DNA in the environment and predict degradation for effective sampling designThomas Naef, Anne-Laure Besnard, Lisa Lehnen, Eric J. Petit, Jaap Van Schaik & Sebastien J. Puechmaille
Extra-organismal DNA (eoDNA) from material left behind by organisms (non-invasive DNA: e.g., faeces, hair) or from environmental samples (eDNA: e.g., water, soil) is a valuable source of genetic information. However, the relatively low quality and quantity of eoDNA, which can be further degraded by environmental factors, results in reduced amplification and sequencing success. This is often compensated for through cost- and time-intensive replications of genotyping/sequencing procedures. Therefore, system- and site-specific quantifications of environmental degradation are...
Plant root growth against a mechanical obstacle: The early growth response of a maize root facing an axial resistance is consistent with the Lockhart modelEvelyne Kolb, Manon Quiros, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot & Etienne Couturier
Plant root growth is dramatically reduced in compacted soils, affecting the growth of the whole plant. Through a model experiment coupling force and kinematics measurements, we probed the force-growth relationship of a primary root contacting a stiff resisting obstacle, that mimics the strongest soil impedance variation encountered by a growing root. The growth of maize roots just emerging from a corseting agarose gel and contacting a force sensor (acting as an obstacle) was monitored by...
Understanding complex spatial dynamics from mechanistic models through spatio-temporal point processesPatrizia Zamberletti, Julien Papaîx, Edith Gabriel & Thomas Opitz
Landscape heterogeneity affects population dynamics, which determine species persistence, diversity and interactions. These relationships can be accurately represented by advanced spatially-explicit models (SEMs) allowing for high levels of detail and precision. However, such approaches are characterised by high computational complexity, high amount of data and memory requirements, and spatio-temporal outputs may be difficult to analyse. A possibility to deal with this complexity is to aggregate outputs over time or space, but then interesting information may...
Thermal plasticity and evolution shape predator-prey interactions differently in clear and turbid waterYing-Jie Wang, Nedim Tüzün, Arnaud Sentis & Robby Stoks
Warming and eutrophication negatively affect freshwater ecosystems by modifying trophic interactions and increasing water turbidity. We need to consider their joint effects on predator-prey interactions, and how these depend on the thermal evolution of both predator and prey. We quantified how 4°C warming and algae-induced turbidity (that integrates turbidity per se and increased food for zooplankton prey) affect functional response parameters and prey population parameters in a common-garden experiment. We did so for all combinations...
To meet the 1.5°C target, methane (CH4) from ruminants must be reduced by 11 to 30% of the 2010 level by 2030 and by 24 to 47% by 2050. A meta-analysis identified strategies to decrease product-based [PB; CH4 per unit meat or milk (CH4I)] and absolute (ABS) enteric CH4 emissions while maintaining or increasing animal productivity (AP; weight gain and milk yield). Next the potential of different adoption rates of one PB and/or ABS strategies...
We sampled 16 wild lake char (Salvelinus umbla) and used their gametes to investigate the genetic consequences of different mating scenarios. A full-factorial breeding was used to separate additive genetic from maternal environmental effects, and embryos were raised singly after sublethal exposures to a pathogen, a common pollutant, or water only. In all treatment groups, embryo development was strongly reduced with increased genetic relatedness between the parents. Contrary to predictions of ‘good genes’ sexual selection,...
Searching for genetic evidence of demographic decline in an arctic seabird: beware of overlapping generationsEmeline Charbonnel, Claire Daguin, Lucille Caradec, Eléonore Moittié, Olivier Gilg, Maria Gavrilo, Hallvard Strom, Mark L Mallory, Grant Gilchrist, R. I. Guy Morrisson, Raphael Leblois, Camille Roux, Jonathan M Yearsley, Glenn Yannic & Thomas Broquet
Genetic data are useful for detecting sudden population declines in species that are difficult to study in the field. Yet this indirect approach has its own drawbacks, including population structure, mutation patterns, and generation overlap. The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), a long-lived Arctic seabird, is currently suffering from rapid alteration of its primary habitat (i.e., sea ice), and dramatic climatic events affecting reproduction and recruitment. However, ivory gulls live in remote areas, and it is...
Compensatory dynamics, during which community composition shifts despite a near-constant total community size, are usually rare: synchronous dynamics prevail in natural communities. This is a puzzle for ecologists, because of the key role of compensation in explaining the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. However, most studies so far have considered compensation in either plants or planktonic organisms, so that evidence for the generality of such synchrony is limited. Here, we extend analyses of community-level...
Cattle grazing profoundly affects abiotic and biotic characteristics of ecosystems. While most research has been performed on grasslands, the effect of large managed ungulates on forest ecosystems has largely been neglected. Compared to a baseline semi-natural state, we investigated how long-term cattle grazing of birch forest patches affected the abiotic state and the ecological community (microbes and invertebrates) of the soil subsystem. Grazing strongly modified the soil abiotic environment by increasing phosphorus content, pH and...
National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment14
University of Lausanne2
French National Centre for Scientific Research2
Université Savoie Mont Blanc2
University of Quebec at Montreal1
Instituto Federal Goiano1
Centre national de la recherche scientifique1
Estación Experimental del Zaidín1
UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology1