9 Works

Data from: Beyond animals and plants: dynamic maternal effects in the fungus Neurospora crassa

Kolea C. K. Zimmerman, Daniel A. Levitis & Anne Pringle
Maternal effects are widely documented in animals and plants, but not in fungi or other eukaryotes. A principal cause of maternal effects is asymmetrical parental investment in a zygote, creating greater maternal versus paternal influence on offspring phenotypes. Asymmetrical investments are not limited to animals and plants, but are also prevalent in fungi and groups including apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and red algae. Evidence suggesting maternal effects among fungi is sparse and anecdotal. In an experiment designed...

Data from: Fog as a source of nitrogen for redwood trees: evidence from fluxes and stable isotopes

Pamela H. Templer, Kathleen C. Weathers, Holly A. Ewing, Todd E. Dawson, Stefania Mambelli, Amanda M. Lindsey, Jeramy Webb, Vanessa K. Boukili & Mary K. Firestone
A defining feature of the redwood forest in coastal California is the presence of fog in the summer months, a time when there is typically little rainfall. Our goal was to determine the role of summer fog in canopy transformation of nitrogen, nitrogen uptake by trees and photosynthesis within a coastal redwood forest ecosystem. We measured horizontal and vertical inputs of nitrogen, the isotopic composition of nitrogen in a variety of atmospheric sources (summer fog,...

Data from: Gene duplication and divergence produce divergent MHC genotypes without disassortative mating

Donald C. Dearborn, Andrea B. Gager, Andrew G. McArthur, Morgan E. Gilmour, Elena Mandzhukova & Robert A. Mauck
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exhibit heterozygote advantage in immune defence, which in turn can select for MHC-disassortative mate choice. However, many species lack this expected pattern of MHC-disassortative mating. A possible explanation lies in evolutionary processes following gene duplication: if two duplicated MHC genes become functionally diverged from each other, offspring will inherit diverse multilocus genotypes even under random mating. We used locus-specific primers for high-throughput sequencing of two expressed MHC Class...

It's a wormy world: Meta-analysis reveals several decades of change in the global abundance of the parasitic nematodes Anisakis spp. and Pseudoterranova spp. in marine fishes and invertebrates

Evan Fiorenza, Catrin Wendt, Katie Dobkowski, Teri King, Marguerite Pappaionou, Peter Rabinowitz, Jameal Samhouri & Chelsea Wood
The Anthropocene has brought substantial change to ocean ecosystems, but whether this age will bring more or less marine disease is unknown. In recent years, the accelerating tempo of epizootic and zoonotic disease events has made it seem as if disease is on the rise. Is this apparent increase in disease due to increased observation and sampling effort, or to an actual rise in the abundance of parasites and pathogens? We examined the literature to...

Dataset for: Intercontinental analysis of temperate steppe stream food webs reveals consistent autochthonous support of fishes

Emily Arsenault, James Thorp, Michael Polito, Mario Minder, Walter Dodds, Flavia Tromboni, Alain Maasri, Mark Pyron, Bud Mendsaikhan, Amarbat Otgonganbat, Solongo Altangerel, Sudeep Chandra, Robert Shields, Caleb Artz & Hayat Bennadji
Quantifying the trophic basis of production for freshwater metazoa at broad spatial scales is key to understanding ecosystem function and has been a research priority for decades. However, previous lotic food web studies have been limited by geographic coverage or methodological constraints. We used compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of amino acids to estimate basal resource contributions to fish consumers in streams spanning grassland, montane, and semi-arid ecoregions of the temperate steppe biome on two...

Data from: Selection of Pairings Reaching Evenly Across the Data (SPREAD): a simple algorithm to design maximally informative fully crossed mating experiments

Kolea Zimmerman, Daniel Levitis, Ethan Addicott & Anne Pringle
We present a novel algorithm for the design of crossing experiments. The algorithm identifies a set of individuals (a "crossing-set") from a larger pool of potential crossing-sets by maximizing the diversity of traits of interest, for example, maximizing the range of genetic and geographic distances between individuals included in the crossing-set. To calculate diversity, we use the mean nearest neighbor distance of crosses plotted in trait space. We implement our algorithm on a real dataset...

Data from: Dissolved organic carbon modulates mercury concentrations in insect subsidies from streams to terrestrial consumers

Ramsa Chaves-Ulloa, Brad W. Taylor, Hannah J. Broadley, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Nicholas A. Baer, Kathleen C. Weathers, Holly A. Ewing & Celia Y. Chen
Mercury (Hg) concentrations in aquatic environments have increased globally, exposing consumers of aquatic organisms to high Hg levels. For both aquatic and terrestrial consumers, exposure to Hg depends on their food sources as well as environmental factors influencing Hg bioavailability. The majority of the research on the transfer of methylmercury (MeHg), a toxic and bioaccumulating form of Hg, between aquatic and terrestrial food webs has focused on terrestrial piscivores. However, a gap exists in our...

Data from: A benefit to providing information? Flower size cues, plant attractiveness, and plant visit length

Carla J. Essenberg, Paige E. Guevarra, Hadley M. Moreau, Cody J. Jordan & Talia Zisman
In many plant species, flower size is correlated with the production of floral rewards such as nectar and pollen and therefore provides information to pollinators about flower quality. However, how relationships between flower size and rewards influence plant fitness is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether indicating to pollinators which flowers are unrewarding harms or benefits plants. We used a laboratory system with artificial flowers to examine bumblebees’ (Bombus impatiens) responses to...

Meta-analysis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA reveals polymorphism and positive selection in many vertebrate species

Donald Dearborn, Sophie Warren & Frank Hailer
Pathogen-mediated selection and sexual selection are important drivers of evolution. Both processes are known to target genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family encoding cell-surface proteins that display pathogen peptides to the immune system. The MHC is also a model for understanding processes such as gene duplication and trans-species allele sharing. The class II MHC protein is a heterodimer whose peptide-binding groove is encoded by an MHC-IIA gene and an MHC-IIB gene....

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