54 Works

Data from: A preliminary range-wide distribution model for the Sacramento Valley red fox

Benjamin N. Sacks, Mark J. Statham & Heiko U. Wittmer
The Sacramento Valley red fox Vulpes vulpes patwin of California is a newly named subspecies recently found to be distinct both from other native red foxes and nearby introduced populations. The Sacramento Valley red fox experienced a historical demographic bottleneck resulting in a critically small genetic effective population size, causing concern over its current status and management requirements, yet little is known about its contemporary abundance, demographic trajectory, or habitat use. The hot, arid Sacramento...

Data from: Parasite-offspring competition for female resources can explain male-biased parasitism in plants

Kirsty J. Yule & Kevin C. Burns
Male-biased susceptibility to parasites is common in dioecous plants. However, why males have higher parasite loads than females is unclear. Unlike males, females have to subsidize post-fertilization costs of reproduction (e.g. seed and fruit development). As a result, females may have smaller pools of resources potentially available to parasites, thus leading to lower parasite loads. We tested this prediction in New Zealand’s largest native moth (Aenetus virescens: Lepidoptera), whose larvae parasitize Aristotelia serrata (Elaeocarpaceae), an...

Data from: Isolation by resistance across a complex coral reef seascape

Luke Thomas, W. Jason Kennington, Michael Stat, Shaun P. Wilkinson, Jonathan T. Kool & Gary A. Kendrick
A detailed understanding of the genetic structure of populations and an accurate interpretation of processes driving contemporary patterns of gene flow are fundamental to successful spatial conservation management. The field of seascape genetics seeks to incorporate environmental variables and processes into analyses of population genetic data to improve our understanding of forces driving genetic divergence in the marine environment. Information about barriers to gene flow (such as ocean currents) is used to define a resistance...

Data from: A metatranscriptomic analysis of diseased social wasps (Vespula vulgaris) for pathogens, with an experimental infection of larvae and nests

Oliver Quinn, Monica A.M. Gruber, Robert L. Brown, James W. Baty, Mariana Bulgarella, Phil J. Lester, Monica A. M. Gruber & Philip J. Lester
Social wasps are a major pest in many countries around the world. Pathogens may influence wasp populations and could provide an option for population management via biological control. We investigated the pathology of nests of apparently healthy common wasps, Vespula vulgaris, with nests apparently suffering disease. First, next-generation sequencing and metatranscriptomic analysis were used to examine pathogen presence. The transcriptome of healthy and diseased V. vulgaris showed 27 known microbial phylotypes. Four of these were...

Data from: Disruption of foraging by a dominant invasive species to decrease its competitive ability

Fabian Ludwig Westermann, David Maxwell Suckling & Philip John Lester
Invasive species are a major threat to biodiversity when dominant within their newly established habitat. The globally distributed Argentine ant Linepithema humile has been reported to break the trade-off between interference and exploitative competition, achieve high population densities, and overpower nests of many endemic ant species. We have used the sensitivity of the Argentine ant to the synthetic trail pheromone (Z)-9-hexadecanal to investigate species interactions for the first time. We predicted that disrupting Argentine ant...

Data from: Functional innovation through vestigialisation in a modular marine invertebrate

Michelle C. Carter, Scott Lidgard, Dennis P. Gordon & Jonathan P. A. Gardner
Few studies show how morphological vestigialisation may facilitate functional innovation. Fewer still describe the co-occurrence of the derived and more ancestral structures in the same genetic individual. Here we explore that rare instance in a modular (colonial) marine invertebrate. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy with fluorescent staining and behavioural observations, we describe homologous structures in polymorphic modules (zooids) in the bryozoan Bugula flabellata and document the occurrence of previously unreported retractor and circular muscles in...

Brown bear population vital rates

Michelle McLellan
Identifying mechanisms of population change is fundamental for conserving small and declining populations and determining effective management strategies. Few studies, however, have measured the demographic components of population change for small populations of mammals (< 50 individuals). We estimated vital rates and trends in two adjacent but genetically distinct, threatened brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations in British Columbia, Canada, following the cessation of hunting. One population had approximately 45 resident bears but had some genetic...

Rapid multi-generational acclimation of coralline algal reproductive structures to ocean acidification

Billy Moore, Steeve Comeau, Matthieu Bekaert, Amelie Cossias, Ashley Purdy, Ellis Larcombe, Frankie Puerzer, Malcolm McCulloch & Christopher Cornwall
The future of coral reef ecosystems is under threat because vital reef-accreting species such as coralline algae are highly susceptible to ocean acidification. Although ocean acidification is known to reduce coralline algal growth rates, its direct effects on the development of coralline algal reproductive structures (conceptacles) is largely unknown. Furthermore, the long-term, multi-generational response of coralline algae to ocean acidification is extremely understudied. Here, we investigate how mean pH, pH variability and the pH regime...

Repeated measure plant community data after fire in boreal forest, Taiga Shield, Northwest Territories, Canada, 1998-2018

Nicola Day, Jennifer Baltzer & Suzanne Carriere
10 transects were established in the years following fire in boreal forest stands on the Taiga Shield, Northwest Territories, Canada in 1998-1999. These were remeasured annually. Six transects were returned to on 2018 for another measurement. At each measurement, we recorded ground covers, species identities, and counted tree stems (seedlings).

Data from: Anchors and snorkels: heterochrony, development and form in functionally-constrained fossil crassatellid bivalves

Katie S. Collins, James S. Crampton, Helen L. Neil, Euan G. C. Smith, Michael F. Gazley & Michael Hannah
New growth-rate estimates for nine species from three genera of New Zealand Crassatellidae (Mollusca; Bivalvia), combined with existing morphometric ontogenetic descriptions, allow identification of heterochronic processes in the evolution of these genera. Both paedomorphosis (progenesis and neoteny) and peramorphosis (hypermorphosis and acceleration) have occurred within the clade. Overall, morphological variability and response to environmental pressure in this non-siphonate group is restricted by the interplay of anatomical and life-habit constraints. Stability in the substrate, predator avoidance,...

Data from: Identification and independence morphometrics of Cenozoic New Zealand Spissatella and Eucrassatella (Bivalvia, Crassatellidae)

Katie S. Collins, James S. Crampton & Michael Hannah
Fossil bivalve shells are well-suited for landmark/semilandmark morphometric analysis because they preserve both traces of the internal anatomy and the whole shell outline. Utilizing landmarks and semilandmarks, we have characterized internal and external shape variation in a monophyletic clade of Cenozoic New Zealand and Australian crassatellid bivalves, to test the contiguity in morphospace of species-level taxa and to quantitatively examine the "Concept of Independent Entities" of Yonge (1953). Thirteen species from two genera (Spissatella Finlay...

Data from: Testing the consistency of connectivity patterns for a widely dispersing marine species

Luke Thomas & James J. Bell
Connectivity is widely recognised as an important component in developing effective management and conservation strategies. While managers are generally most interested in demographic, rather than genetic connectivity, new analytic approaches are able to provide estimates of both demographic and genetic connectivity measures from genetic data. Combining such genetic data with mathematical models represents a powerful approach for accurately determining patterns of population connectivity. Here, we use microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic population structure of...

Data from: Outlier SNPs enable food traceability of the southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii

Cecilia Villacorta-Rath, Irina Ilyushkina, Jan M. Strugnell, Bridget S. Green, Nicholas P. Murphy, Stephen R. Doyle, Nathan E. Hall, Andrew J. Robinson & James J. Bell
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have enhanced the resolution of population genetic studies of non-model organisms through increased marker generation and sample throughput. Using double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), we investigated the population structure of the commercially important southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, in Australia and New Zealand with the aim of identifying a panel of SNP markers that could be used to trace country of origin. Four ddRADseq libraries comprising a total...

Data from: Dermal denticle assemblages in coral reef sediments correlate with conventional shark surveys

Erin Dillon, Kevin Lafferty, Douglas McCauley, Darcy Bradley, Richard Norris, Jennifer Caselle, Graziella DiRenzo, Jonathan Gardner & Aaron O'Dea
It is challenging to assess long-term trends in mobile, long-lived, and relatively rare species such as sharks. Despite ongoing declines in many coastal shark populations, conventional surveys might be too fleeting and too recent to describe population trends over decades to millennia. Placing recent shark declines into historical context should improve management efforts as well as our understanding of past ecosystem dynamics. A new paleoecological approach for surveying shark abundance on coral reefs is to...

Wavelet filters for automated recognition of birdsong in long-time field recordings

Nirosha Priyadarshani, Stephen Marsland, Julius Juodakis, Isabel Castro & Virginia Listanti
1. Ecoacoustics has the potential to provide a large amount of information about the abundance of many animal species at a relatively low cost. Acoustic recording units are widely used in field data collection, but the facilities to reliably process the data recorded -- recognising calls that are relatively infrequent, and often significantly degraded by noise and distance to the microphone -- are not well developed yet. 2. We propose a call detection method for...

How functionally diverse are fish in the deep? A comparison of fish communities in deep and shallow‐water systems

Victoria Grace Carrington, Yvan Papa, Jessica Hall, Monique A. Ladds, Alice Rogers, Peter Horn, Raphaël Covain & Chelsey M. Beese
Aim: Functional diversity metrics inform how species’ traits relate to ecosystem functions, useful for quantifying how exploitation and disturbance impact ecosystems. We compare the functional diversity of entire fish communities in a shallow-water region with a deep-sea region for further insight into the differences between these ecosystem types. Location: The regions compared in this study were selected to represent a shallow-water coastal region, Tasman and Golden Bays (TBGB), and a deep-sea region, Chatham Rise (CR),...

Data from: Ocean acidification during pre-fertilization chemical communication affects sperm success

Rowan Lymbery, Jason Kennington, Christopher Cornwall & Jonathan Evans
Ocean acidification (OA) poses a major threat to marine organisms, particularly during reproduction when externally shed gametes are vulnerable to changes in seawater pH. Accordingly, several studies on OA have focused on how changes in seawater pH influence sperm behaviour and/or rates of in vitro fertilization. By contrast, few studies have examined how pH influences pre-fertilization gamete interactions, which are crucial during natural spawning events in most externally fertilizing taxa. One mechanism of gamete interaction...

Data from: Koe: Web-based software to classify acoustic units and analyse sequence structure in animal vocalisations

Yukio Fukuzawa, Wesley H. Webb, Michelle M. Roper, Stephen Marsland, Dianne H. Brunton, Andrew Gilman & Matthew D. M. Pawley
1. Classifying acoustic units is often a key step in studying repertoires and sequence structure in animal communication. Manual classification by eye and ear remains the primary method, but new tools and techniques are urgently needed to expedite the process for large, diverse datasets. 2. Here we introduce Koe, an application for classifying and analysing animal vocalisations. Koe offers bulk-labelling of units via interactive ordination plots and unit tables, as well as visualisation and playback,...

Data from: Emerging patterns of genetic variation in the New Zealand endemic scallop Pecten novaezelandiae

Catarina N. S. Silva & Jonathan P. A. Gardner
Both historical and contemporary processes influence the genetic structure of species, but the relative roles of such processes are still difficult to access. Population genetic studies of species with recent evolutionary histories such as the New Zealand endemic scallop Pecten novaezelandiae (<1 Ma) permit testing of the effects of recent processes affecting gene flow and shaping genetic structure. In addition, studies encompassing the entire distributional range of species can provide insight into colonization processes. Analyses...

Data from: Outlier SNPs detect weak regional structure against a background of genetic homogeneity in the Eastern Rock Lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi

Laura N. Woodings, Nicholas P. Murphy, Stephen R. Doyle, Nathan E. Hall, Andrew J. Robinson, Geoffrey W. Liggins, Bridget S. Green, Ira R. Cooke, James J. Bell & Jan M. Strugnell
Genetic differentiation is characteristically weak in marine species making assessments of population connectivity and structure difficult. However the advent of genomic methods have increased genetic resolution, enabling studies to detect weak, but significant population differentiation within marine species. With an increasing number of studies employing high resolution genome-wide techniques, we are realising the connectivity of marine populations is often complex and quantifying this complexity can provide an understanding of the processes shaping marine species genetic...

Data from: Patterns of niche filling and expansion across the invaded ranges of an Australian lizard

Reid Tingley, Michael B. Thompson, Stephen Hartley & David G. Chapple
Studies of realized niche shifts in alien species typically ignore the potential effects of intraspecific niche variation and different invaded-range environments on niche lability. We incorporate our detailed knowledge of the native-range source populations and global introduction history of the delicate skink Lampropholis delicata to examine intraspecific variation in realized niche expansion and unfilling, and investigate how alternative niche modelling approaches are affected by that variation. We analyzed the realized niche dynamics of L. delicata...

Data from: Implications of fidelity and philopatry for the population structure of female black-tailed deer

Samhita Bose, Tavis D. Forrester, Jennifer L. Brazeal, Benjamin N. Sacks, David S. Casady & Heiko U. Wittmer
Site fidelity and philopatry are behavioral adaptations found in many species and their fitness benefits are well documented. The combined population level consequences of site fidelity and philopatry, however, have received little attention despite their importance for understanding spatial patterns in connectivity and population dynamics. We used an integrative approach to explore consequences of fidelity and philopatry on the fine-scale genetic structure of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). We assessed fidelity to seasonal home ranges...

Data from: Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem

Jolanda Jetten, Nyla R. Branscombe, S. Alexander Haslam, Catherine Haslam, Tegan Cruwys, Janelle M. Jones, Lijuan Cui, Genevieve Dingle, James Liu, Sean Murphy, Anh Thai, Zoe Walter & Airong Zhang
Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to...

Data from: Fitness in invasive social wasps: the role of variation in viral load, immune response and paternity in predicting nest size and reproductive output

Jana Dobelmann, Kevin J. Loope, Erin Wilson-Rankin, Oliver Quinn, James W. Baty, Monica A. M. Gruber & Philip J. Lester
Within any one habitat, the relative fitness of organisms in a population can vary substantially. Social insects like the common wasp are among the most successful invasive animals, but show enormous variation in nest size and other fitness-related traits. Some of this variation may be caused by pathogens such as viruses that can have serious consequences in social insects, which range from reduced productivity to colony death. Both individual immune responses and colony-level traits such...

Data from: The ability of North Island robins to discriminate between humans is related to their behavioural type

Craig A. Barnett, Matt Salter, Clément Chevallier, Nicola Robertson, Otis Berard, Kevin C. Burns & Craig Barnett
Animals are able to learn to identify persistent threats to themselves and their offspring. For example, birds are able to quickly learn to discriminate between humans that have previously threatened their nests from humans with whom they have had no prior experience. However, no study has yet examined whether a bird's ability to discriminate between humans is related to the bird's underlying behavioural type. In this study, we examined whether there were differences among North...

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