67 Works

Reproductive maturity in boreal trees, Northwest Territories, Canada

Raquel Alfaro Sánchez, Jill F Johnstone, Steve G Cumming, Nicola Day, Michelle C Mack, Xanthe J Walker & Jennifer L Baltzer
In boreal North America, much of the landscape is covered by fire-adapted forests dominated by serotinous conifers. For these forests, reductions in fire return interval could limit reproductive success, owing to insufficient time for stands to reach reproductive maturity i.e., to initiate cone production. Improved understanding of the drivers of reproductive maturity can provide important information about the capacity of these forests to self-replace following fire. Here, we assessed the drivers of reproductive maturity in...

Data from: Connectivity, small islands and large distances: the Cellana strigilis limpet complex in the Southern Ocean.

Céline M O Reisser, Ann R Wood, J J Bell & Jonathan P A Gardner
The Southern Ocean contains some of the most isolated islands on Earth and fundamental questions remain regarding their colonisation and the connectivity of their coastal biotas. Here we conduct a genetic investigation of the Cellana strigilis (limpet) complex that was originally classified based on morphological characters into six subspecies, five of which are endemic to the New Zealand (NZ) subantarctic and Chatham islands (44° to 52° S). Previous genetic analyses of C. strigilis from six...

Data from:Corruption, development and governance indicators predict invasive species risk from trade

Evan C. Brenton-Rule, Rafael F. Barbieri & Philip J. Lester
Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can predict exotic species interceptions. For import pathways associated with vegetable material,...

Data from: Evidence for Bergmann's rule and not allopatric subspeciation in the threatened kaka (Nestor meridionalis)

Nic Dussex, James Sainsbury, Ron Moorhouse, Ian G. Jamieson & Bruce C. Robertson
Species of conservation concern characterized by small and declining populations greatly benefit from proactive management approaches such as population translocations. Because they often show intra-specific genetic and phenotypic variation, which can result from drift or differential selective pressures between habitats, understanding the distribution of such variation and its underlying processes is a prerequisite to develop effective management guidelines. Indeed, translocations among genetically differentiated populations potentially locally adapted are discouraged in order to avoid outbreeding depression,...

Data from: The genetic architecture of hybridisation between two lineages of greenshell mussels

Jonathan P. A. Gardner & Kai-Jian Wei
A multidisciplinary approach has identified sigmoidal genetic clines on the east and west coasts in central New Zealand where low-density ecological interactions occur between northern and southern lineages of the endemic greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus. The sigmoidal clines indicate the existence of a mussel hybrid zone in a region of genetic discontinuities for many continuously distributed coastal taxa, in particular marine invertebrates. Examination of the genetic architecture of the hybrid zone revealed the differential contribution...

Data from: Does my posterior look big in this? The effect of photographic distortion on morphometric analyses

Katie S. Collins & Michael F. Gazley
Most geometric morphometric studies are underpinned by sets of photographs of specimens. The camera lens distorts the images it takes, and the extent of the distortion will depend on factors such as the make and model of the lens and camera and user-controlled variation such as the zoom of the lens. Any study that uses populations of geometric data digitized from photographs will have shape variation introduced into the data set simply by the photographic...

Data from: Cryptic inbreeding depression in a growing population of a long-lived species

Helen R. Taylor, Rogan M. Colbourne, Hugh A. Robertson, Nicola J. Nelson, Fred W. Allendorf & Kristina M. Ramstad
Genetic effects are often overlooked in endangered species monitoring, and populations showing positive growth are often assumed to be secure. However, the continued reproductive success of a few individuals may mask issues such as inbreeding depression, especially in long-lived species. Here, we test for inbreeding depression in little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii) by comparing a population founded with two birds to one founded with 40 birds, both from the same source population and both showing...

Data from: Population genetic structure and connectivity of deep-sea stony corals (Order Scleractinia) in the New Zealand region: implications for the conservation and management of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

Cong Zeng, Ashley A. Rowden, Malcolm R. Clark, Jonathan P.A. Gardner & Jonathan P. A. Gardner
Deep-sea stony corals, which can be fragile, long-lived, late to mature and habitat-forming, are defined as vulnerable marine ecosystem indicator taxa. Under United Nations resolutions these corals require protection from human disturbance such as fishing. To better understand the vulnerability of stony corals (Goniocorella dumosa, Madrepora oculata, Solenosmilia variabilis) to disturbance within the New Zealand region, and to guide marine protected area design, genetic structure and connectivity were determined using microsatellite loci and DNA sequencing....

Data from: From cacti to carnivores: improved phylotranscriptomic sampling and hierarchical homology inference provide further insight into the evolution of Caryophyllales

Joseph Frederic Walker, Ya Yang, Tao Feng, Alfonso Timoneda, Jessica Mikenas, Vera Hutchison, Caroline Edwards, Ning Wang, Sonia Ahluwalia, Julia Olivieri, Nathanael Walker-Hale, Lucas C. Majure, Raúl Puente, Gudrun Kadereit, Maximillian Lauterbach, Urs Eggli, Hilda Flores-Olvera, Helga Ochoterena, Samuel F. Brockington, Michael J. Moore & Stephen A. Smith
Premise of the Study— The Caryophyllales contains ~12,500 species and is known for its cosmopolitan distribution, convergence of trait evolution, and extreme adaptations. Some relationships within the Caryophyllales, like those of many large plant clades, remain unclear and phylogenetic studies often recover alternative hypotheses. We explore the utility of broad and dense transcriptome sampling across the order for resolving evolutionary relationships in Caryophyllales. Methods— We generated 84 transcriptomes and combined these with 224 publicly available...

Data from: Environmental context shapes the long‐term role of nutrients in driving producer community trajectories in a top‐down dominated marine ecosystem

Rachel Clausing, Nicole E. Phillips & Peggy Fong
1. Two predominant anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems, nutrient enrichment and the removal of consumers, are predicted to interact in their effects on producer diversity. Yet, measures of diversity alone may not capture changes occurring in the underlying mechanisms structuring communities. Furthermore, evidence for these interactions in rocky intertidal systems is mixed and may be confounded by variable baseline productivity or short experimental durations that do not capture seasonality, environmental heterogeneity or successional processes. 2. We...

Data from: Spatial scaling of beta diversity in the shallow marine fossil record

Tom Womack
Beta diversity quantifies the spatial structuring of ecological communities and is a fundamental partition of biodiversity, central to understanding many macroecological phenomena in modern biology and paleobiology. Despite its common application in ecology, studies of beta diversity in the fossil record are limited, particularly at regional spatial scales that are important for understanding macroevolutionary processes. The spatial scaling of beta diversity in the fossil record is poorly understood, but has significant implications due to temporal...

Environmental DNA can act as a biodiversity barometer of anthropogenic pressures in coastal ecosystems

Joseph DiBattista, James Reimer, Michael Stat, Giovanni Masucci, Piera Biondi, Maarten De Brauwer, Shaun Wilkinson, Anthony Chariton & Michael Bunce
Loss of biodiversity from lower to upper trophic levels reduces overall productivity and stability of coastal ecosystems in our oceans, but rarely are these changes documented across both time and space. The characterisation of environmental DNA (eDNA) from sediment and seawater using metabarcoding offers a powerful molecular lens to observe marine biota and provides a series of ‘snapshots’ across a broad spectrum of eukaryotic organisms. Using these next-generation tools and downstream analytical innovations including machine...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

Hydrogen peroxide signaling mediates fertilization and post-fertilization development in the red alga Bostrychia moritziana

Eunyoung Shim, Ji Woong Lee, Hana Park, Giuseppe C. Zuccarello & Gwang Hoon Kim
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling has a multitude of roles in cellular processes throughout biology. We hypothesized that red algal fertilization may offer an interesting model to study ROS-mediated signaling as the stages of fertilization are complex and unique. We microscopically localized ROS production and monitored the expression of three homologues of NADPH-oxidase in reproductive cells during fertilization. ROS were instantaneously produced by spermatia (sperm) when they attached to female trichogynes, diffused across the cell...

Standardizing protocols for determining the cause of mortality in wildlife studies

Bogdan Cristescu, Mark Elbroch, Tavis Forrester, Maximilian Allen, Derek Spitz, Christopher Wilmers & Heiko Wittmer
Mortality site investigations of telemetered wildlife are important for cause-specific survival analyses and understanding underlying causes of observed population dynamics. Yet eroding ecoliteracy and a lack of quality control in data collection can lead researchers to make incorrect conclusions, which may negatively impact management decisions for wildlife populations. We reviewed a random sample of 50 peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 and 2019 on survival and cause-specific mortality of ungulates monitored with telemetry devices. This concise...

Impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on terrestrial leeches in

Swapna Nelaballi, Benjamin J. Finkel, Andrew B. Bernard, Gene R. Estrada, Endro Setiawan, Tatang Mitra Setia, Tri Wahyu Susanto, Raden Rhanda, Surya N/A, Jakaria N/A, Dika Andika, Sylvain Lemoine, Sarah M. Jaffe, Elizabeth J. Barrow, Živa Justinek, Heiko U. Wittmer & Andrew J. Marshall
Haemadipsid leeches are ubiquitous inhabitants of tropical and sub-tropical forests in the Indo-Pacific region. They are increasingly used as indicator taxa for biomonitoring, yet very little is known about their basic ecology. For example, to date no study has assessed the occurrence and distribution of haemadipsid leeches across naturally occurring gradients within intact habitats. We analysed a long-term data set (2012-2020) on the closely related tiger (Haemadipsa picta) and brown (Haemadipsa spp.) leech species to...

Tolerance of coralline algae to ocean warming and marine heatwaves

Erik Krieger, Aleluia Taise, Wendy A. Nelson, Johan Grand, Eric Le Ru, Simon K. Davy & Christopher E. Cornwall
Ocean warming (OW) and marine heatwaves (MHWs) rapidly transform marine ecosystems, especially when they impact keystone or foundation species. Foundation species such as kelps, fucoids and corals are highly sensitive to heat stress, which threatens the future of temperate seaweed forests and tropical reefs. However, functioning and resilience of these systems also rely on the less conspicuous coralline algae, whose thermal tolerances have gone largely untested. Here, we examined the sensitivity of four temperate coralline...

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