63 Works

Data from: Selection on multiple sexual signals in two Central- and Eastern-European populations of the barn swallow

Peter Laszlo Pap, Attila Fülöp, Marie Adamkova-Kotasova, Jaroslav Cepak, Romana Michalkova, Rebecca J. Safran, Alexandru N. Stermin, Oldrich Tomasek, Csongor I. Vágási, Orsolya Vincze, Matthew R. Wilkins & Tomas Albrecht
Variation in intensity and targets of sexual selection on multiple traits has been suggested to play a major role in promoting phenotypic differentiation between populations, although the divergence in selection may depend on year, local conditions or age. In this study, we quantified sexual selection for two putative sexual signals across two Central and East European barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica) populations from Czech Republic and Romania over multiple years. We then related these differences...

Data from: Phylogeny and systematics of the bee genus Osmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) with emphasis on North American Melanosmia: subgenera, synonymies, and nesting biology revisited

Molly G. Rightmyer, Terry Griswold & Seán G. Brady
The predominantly Holarctic bee genus Osmia Panzer is species-rich and behaviourally diverse. A robust phylogeny of this genus is important for understanding the evolution of the immense variety of morphological and behavioural traits exhibited by this group. We infer a phylogeny of Osmia using DNA sequence data obtained from three nuclear genes (elongation factor 1-α, LW-rhodopsin and CAD) and the mitochondrial gene COI. Our taxon sampling places special attention on North American members of the...

Data from: Endemic species may have complex histories: within-refugium phylogeography of an endangered Iberian vole

Soraia Barbosa, Joana Paupério, Jeremy S. Herman, Clara M. Ferreira, Ricardo Pita, Hélia M. Vale-Gonçalves, João A. Cabral, José A. Garrido-García, Ramón C. Soriguer, Pedro Beja, António Mira, Paulo C. Alves & Jeremy B. Searle
Glacial refugia protected and promoted biodiversity during the Pleistocene, not only at a broader scale, but also for many endemics that contracted and expanded their ranges within refugial areas. Understanding the evolutionary history of refugial endemics is especially important in the case of endangered species to recognise the origins of their genetic structure and thus produce better informed conservation practices. The Iberian Peninsula is an important European glacial refugium, rich in endemics of conservation concern,...

Data from: An adaptive radiation of frogs in a Southeast Asian island archipelago

David C. Blackburn, Cameron D. Siler, Arvin C. Diesmos, Jimmy A. McGuire, David C. Cannatella & Rafe M. Brown
Living amphibians exhibit a diversity of ecologies, life histories, and species-rich lineages that offers opportunities for studies of adaptive radiation. We characterize a diverse clade of frogs (Kaloula, Microhylidae) in the Philippine island archipelago as an example of an adaptive radiation into three primary habitat specialists or ecotypes. We use a novel phylogenetic estimate for this clade to evaluate the tempo of lineage accumulation and morphological diversification. Because species-level phylogenetic estimates for Philippine Kaloula are...

Data from: At least some meiofaunal species are not everywhere. Indication of geographic, ecological and geological barriers affecting the dispersion of species of Ototyphlonemertes (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea)

Francesca Leasi, S.C. Andrade & Jon Norenburg
Most meiofaunal species are known to have a broad distribution with no apparent barriers to their dispersion. However, different morphological and/or molecular methods supported patterns of diversity and distribution that may be different among taxa while also conflicting within the same group. We accurately assessed the patterns of geographic distribution in actual genetic species of a marine meiofaunal animal model: Ototyphlonemertes. Specimens were collected from several sites around Europe, Northern and Central America, Southern America,...

Data from: A new Mississippian tetrapod from Fife, Scotland, and its environmental context

Timothy R. Smithson, Michael A. E. Browne, Sarah J. Davies, John E. A. Marshall, David Millward, Stig A. Walsh & Jennifer A. Clack
The Visean stage of the Mississippian was a time of rapid tetrapod diversification which marks the earliest appearance of temnospondyls, microsaurs and the limbless aïstopods. Tetrapod finds from this stage are very rare and only a dozen sites are known worldwide. Here we announce the discovery of a new Visean site in Fife, Scotland, of Asbian age, and from it describe a new species of the baphetoid Spathicephalus. These specimens represent the oldest known baphetoid...

Data from: Cooperative breeding shapes post-fledging survival in an Afrotropical forest bird

Dries Van De Loock, Diederik Strubbe, Liesbeth De Neve, Mwangi Githiru, Erik Matthysen & Luc Lens
While avian group living typically accrues multiple benefits, it is yet unknown how these benefits manifest post- fledging. Here, by using an indirect radio- telemetry approach, we found that cooperation increases fledgling survival in an Afrotropical forest bird. This result indicates the importance of considering the full breeding cycle in cooperative breeding research, which may ultimately lead to a better understanding of evolutionary drivers of cooperation.

Data from: Tree circumference dynamics in four forests characterized using automated dendrometer bands

Valentine Herrmann, Sean M. McMahon, Matteo Detto, James A. Lutz, Stuart J. Davies, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang & Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira
Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12–40 trees at four...

Data from: Limited role of character displacement in the coexistence of congeneric Anelosimus spiders in a Madagascan montane forest

Ingi Agnarsson, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Diego Agostini & Matjaž Kuntner
Evolutionary and ecological theory predicts that closely related and similar species should coexist infrequently because speciation is more likely to occur allopatrically than sympatrically, and because co-occurring species with similar traits may compete for limited resources, leading to competitive exclusion or character displacement. Here we study the unusual coexistence of 10 similar congeneric species of Anelosimus spiders within a small forest fragment in Madagascar. We asked if these species radiated in sympatry or allopatry, and...

Data from: Phylogeny of the island archipelago frog genus Sanguirana: another endemic Philippine radiation that diversified 'Out-of-Palawan'

Rafe M. Brown, Yong-Chao Su, Brenna Barger, Cameron D. Siler, Marites B. Sanguila, Arvin C. Diesmos & David C. Blackburn
Recent higher-level frog phylogenetic analyses have included a few members of the endemic Philippine frog genus Sanguirana. Although the monophyly of the group has never been disputed, the recent phylogenetically-supported inclusion of the Palawan Wood Frog (Sanguirana sanguinea) in this clade was highly unexpected. In addition, species boundaries and relationships remain unclear and new species continue to be discovered. We estimate the phylogeny for this endemic Philippine genus using two mitochondrial gene regions and six...

Data from: Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds

Roger B. J. Benson, Ethan Starmer-Jones, Roger A. Close & Stig A. Walsh
The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form–function relationships for the vestibular system...

Data from: Dragons in our midst: phyloforensics of illegally traded Southeast Asian monitor lizards

Welton J. Luke, Cameron D. Siler, Charles W. Linkem, Arvin C. Diesmos, Mae L. Diesmos, Emerson Sy, Rafe M. Brown & Luke J. Welton
We provide a phylogenetic and population genetic evaluation of the illegal pet and bush meat trade of monitor lizards in the Philippines. We use a molecular dataset assembled from vouchered samples with known localities throughout the country, as a reference for statistical phylogenetic, population genetic, and DNA barcoding analyses of genetic material obtained during a three year survey of the Manila pet trade. Our results provide the first genetic evaluation of a major Southeast Asian...

Data from: Multilocus phylogeny and a new classification for Southeast Asian and Melanesian forest frogs (family Ceratobatrachidae)

Rafe M. Brown, Cameron D. Siler, Stephen J. Richards, Arvin C. Diesmos & David C. Cannatella
We present a near comprehensive, densely sampled, multilocus phylogenetic estimate of species relationships within the anuran family Ceratobatrachidae, a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of frogs from the island archipelagos of Southeast Asia and the South-West Pacific. Ceratobatrachid frogs consist of three clades: a small clade of enigmatic, primarily high-elevation, semi-aquatic Sundaland species currently assigned to Ingerana (for which we erect a new genus), which is the sister taxon of two large, monophyletic radiations, each...

Data from: The evolution of canaliculate rudists in the light of a new canaliculate polyconitid rudist from the Albian of the Central Pacific

Shin-Ichi Sano, Yasuhiro Iba, Peter W. Skelton, Jean-Pierre Masse, Yolanda M. Aguilar & Tomoki Kase
A new polyconitid rudist, Magallanesia canaliculata gen. et sp. nov., of probably late Albian age, is described from the Pulangbato area, central Cebu Island, the Philippines in the western Central Pacific and Takuyo Daini Seamount, now located in the Northwest Pacific. It is similar to Praecaprotina Yabe and Nagao, 1926, a Japanese – Central Pacific endemic genus of late Aptian – early Albian age, but differs in having canals that developed by partitioning of the...

Data from: High specialization and limited structural change in plant‐herbivore networks along a successional chronosequence in tropical montane forest

Conor M. Redmond, John Auga, Bradley Gewa, Simon T. Segar, Scott E. Miller, Kenneth Molem, George D. Weiblen, Phillip T. Butterill, Gibson Maiyah, Amelia S.C. Hood, Martin Volf, Leonardo R. Jorge, Yves Basset, Vojtech Novotny, Philip T. Butterill & Amelia S. C. Hood
Secondary succession is well‐understood, to the point of being predictable for plant communities, but the successional changes in plant‐herbivore interactions remains poorly explored. This is particularly true for tropical forests, despite the increasing importance of early successional stages in tropical landscapes. Deriving expectations from successional theory, we examine properties of plant‐herbivore interaction networks while accounting for host phylogenetic structure along a succession chronosequence in montane rainforest in Papua New Guinea. We present one of the...

Data from: Mosaicism in a new Eocene pufferfish highlights rapid morphological innovation near the origin of crown tetraodontiforms

Roger A. Close, Zerina Johanson, James C. Tyler, Richard C. Harrington & Matt Friedman
Tetraodontiformes (pufferfishes and kin) is a taxonomically and structurally diverse, widely-distributed clade of acanthomorphs, whose members often serve as models for genomics and, increasingly, macroevolutionary studies. Morphologically disparate Palaeogene fossils suggest considerable early experimentation, but these flattened specimens often preserve limited information. We present a three-dimensionally preserved beaked tetraodontiform from the early Eocene (c. 53 Ma) London Clay Formation, UK. Approximately coeval with the oldest crown tetraodontiforms, †Ctenoplectus williamsi gen. et sp. nov. presents an...

Data from: A lower jaw of Palaeoxonodon from the Middle Jurassic of the Isle of Skye, Scotland, sheds new light on the diversity of British stem therians

Roger A. Close, Brian M. Davis, Stig Walsh, Andrzej S. Wolniewicz, Matt Friedman & Roger B. J. Benson
The Middle Jurassic was a key interval of mammalian evolutionary history that witnessed the diversification of the therian stem-group. Great Britain has yielded a significant record of mammalian fossils from this interval, represented by numerous isolated jaws and teeth from the Bathonian of Oxfordshire and the Isle of Skye. This record captures a key period in early cladotherian evolution, with amphitheriids, peramurans and “stem zatherians” displaying intermediate talonid morphologies that document the evolutionary assembly of...

Data from: An evaluation of fossil tip-dating versus node-age calibrations in tetraodontiform fishes (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae)

Dahiana Arcila, R. Alexander Pyron, James C. Tyler, Guillermo Ortí & Ricardo Betancur-R.
Time-calibrated phylogenies based on molecular data provide a framework for comparative studies. Calibration methods to combine fossil information with molecular phylogenies are, however, under active development, often generating disagreement about the best way to incorporate paleontological data into these analyses. This study provides an empirical comparison of the most widely used approach based on node-dating priors for relaxed clocks implemented in the programs BEAST and MrBayes, with two recently proposed improvements: one using a new...

Data from: Ornament size and colour as alternative strategies for effective communication in gliding lizards

Danielle A. Klomp, Terry Ord, Indraneil Das, Arvin Diesmos, Norhayati Ahmad, Devi Stuart-Fox & T. J. Ord
Sexual ornamentation needs to be conspicuous to be effective in attracting potential mates and defending territories and indeed, a multitude of ways exists to achieve this. Two principal mechanisms for increasing conspicuousness are to increase the ornament's colour or brightness contrast against the background and to increase the size of the ornament. We assessed the relationship between the colour and size of the dewlap, a large extendible throat-fan, across a range of species of gliding...

Data from: An empirical comparison of a character-based and a coalescent-based approach to species delimitation in a young avian complex

Bailey D. McKay, , Yuchun Wu, Hui Li, Cheng-Te Yao, Isao Nishiumi, Fasheng Zou & Herman L. Mays
The process of discovering species is a fundamental responsibility of systematics. Recently, there has been a growing interest in coalescent-based methods of species delimitation aimed at objectively identifying species early in the divergence process. However, few empirical studies have compared these new methods with character-based approaches for discovering species. In this study, we applied both a character-based and a coalescent-based approaches to delimit species in a closely related avian complex, the light-vented/Taiwan bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis/Pycnonotus...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in the Mediterranean Biodiversity Hotspot affects barcoding accuracy of its freshwater fishes

Matthias F. Geiger, Fabian Herder, Michael T. Monaghan, Vitor Almada, Roberta Barbieri, Michel Bariche, Patrick Berrebi, Jörg Bohlen, Miriam Casal-Lopez, Gaël P. J. Denys, Agnès Dettai, Ignacio Doadrio, Elena Kalogianni, Heiko Kärst, Maurice Kottelat, Marcelo Kovačić, Martin Laporte, Massimo Lorenzoni, Zoran Marčić, Müfit Özuluğ, Anabel Perdices, Silvia Perea, Henri Persat, Stefano Porcellotti, Cesare Puzzi … & G. B. Delmastro
Incomplete knowledge of biodiversity remains a stumbling block for conservation planning, and even occurs within globally important Biodiversity Hotspots. Although technical advances have boosted the power of molecular biodiversity assessments, the link between DNA sequences and species and the analytics to discriminate entities, remain crucial. Here, we present an analysis of the first DNA barcode library for the freshwater fish fauna of the Mediterranean Biodiversity Hotspot (526 spp.), with virtually complete species coverage (498 spp.,...

Data from: Cenozoic dynamics of shallow-marine biodiversity in the Western Pacific

Moriaki Yasuhara, Hokuto Iwatani, Gene Hunt, Hisayo Okahashi, Tomoki Kase, Hiroki Hayashi, Toshiaki Irizuki, Yolanda M. Aguilar, Allan Gil S. Fernando & Willem Renema
Aim: Cenozoic dynamics of large-scale species diversity patterns remain poorly understood, especially for the Western Pacific, in part, because of the paucity of well-dated fossil records from the tropics. This article aims to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of species diversity in the Western Pacific through the Cenozoic, focusing on the tropical Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) biodiversity hotspot. Location: Tropical and north-western Pacific Ocean. Methods: We analysed well-preserved fossil ostracodes from the tropical Western Pacific and combined...

Data from: Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Jürgen Schmidl, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jonathan R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H.C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan, Andreas Floren, Roger L. Kitching … & Jacques H. C. Delabie
Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14...

Data from: The importance of standardization for biodiversity comparisons: a case study using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) and metabarcoding to measure cryptic diversity on Mo'orea coral reefs, French Polynesia

Emma Ransome, Jonathan B. Geller, Molly Timmers, Matthieu Leray, Angka Mahardini, Andrianus Sembiring, Allen G. Collins & Christopher P. Meyer
The advancement of metabarcoding techniques, declining costs of high-throughput sequencing and development of systematic sampling devices, such as autonomous reef monitoring structures (ARMS), have provided the means to gather a vast amount of diversity data from cryptic marine communities. However, such increased capability could also lead to analytical challenges if the methods used to examine these communities across local and global scales are not standardized. Here we compare and assess the underlying biases of four...

Data from: Niche divergence promotes rapid diversification of East African sky island white-eyes (Aves: Zosteropidae)

Siobhan C. Cox, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Jan C. Habel, Bernard A. Amakobe & Julia J. Day
The Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot composed of highly fragmented forested highlands (sky islands) harbours exceptional diversity and endemicity, particularly within birds. To explain their elevated diversity within this region, models founded on niche conservatism have been offered, although detailed phylogeographic studies are limited to a few avian lineages. Here we focus on the recent songbird genus Zosterops, represented by montane and lowland members, to test the roles of niche conservatism versus niche divergence in the...

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