63 Works

Data from: Cenozoic dynamics of shallow-marine biodiversity in the Western Pacific

Moriaki Yasuhara, Hokuto Iwatani, Gene Hunt, Hisayo Okahashi, Tomoki Kase, Hiroki Hayashi, Toshiaki Irizuki, Yolanda M. Aguilar, Allan Gil S. Fernando & Willem Renema
Aim: Cenozoic dynamics of large-scale species diversity patterns remain poorly understood, especially for the Western Pacific, in part, because of the paucity of well-dated fossil records from the tropics. This article aims to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of species diversity in the Western Pacific through the Cenozoic, focusing on the tropical Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) biodiversity hotspot. Location: Tropical and north-western Pacific Ocean. Methods: We analysed well-preserved fossil ostracodes from the tropical Western Pacific and combined...

Data from: Calibration uncertainty in molecular dating analyses: there is no substitute for the prior evaluation of time priors

Rachel C. M. Warnock, James F. Parham, Walter G. Joyce, Tyler R. Lyson & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Calibration is the rate-determining step in every molecular clock analysis and, hence, considerable effort has been expended in the development of approaches to distinguish good from bad calibrations. These can be categorized into a priori evaluation of the intrinsic fossil evidence, and a posteriori evaluation of congruence through cross-validation. We contrasted these competing approaches and explored the impact of different interpretations of the fossil evidence upon Bayesian divergence time estimation. The results demonstrate that a...

Data from: Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Jürgen Schmidl, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jonathan R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H.C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan, Andreas Floren, Roger L. Kitching … & Jacques H. C. Delabie
Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14...

Data from: A second New World hover fly, Toxomerus floralis (Fabricius) (Diptera: Syrphidae), recorded from the Old World, with description of larval pollen-feeding ecology

Kurt Jordaens, Georg Goergen, Ashley H. Kirk-Spriggs, Audrey Vokaer, Thierry Backeljau & Marc De Meyer
Recently (2013–2014), several hoverfly specimens from two localities in Benin and Cameroon (West and Central Africa) were caught from a species that we could not identify using existing identification keys for Afrotropical Syrphidae. Specific identification as Toxomerus floralis (Fabricius) was accomplished using morphology and various Neotropical identification keys. Corroboration of this identification was made by sequencing of the standard COI barcode region and a subsequent BLAST-IDS in BOLD that revealed a 100% sequence similarity with...

Data from: Oligocene–Neogene fossil history of Asian endemic conifer genera in Japan and Korea

Atsushi Yabe, Eunkyoung Jeong, Kyungsik Kim & Kazuhiko Uemura
Temporal and spatial changes of ten conifer genera that are endemic to East Asia were analyzed based on fossil data from humid temperate forests in the Japanese Islands and Korean Peninsula to elucidate the phytogeographic history, and to understand differences between those genera eliminated from the Japanese Islands and those remained extant. All these genera, except for Thujopsis, have existed in the area since the Paleogene and remained in the Japanese islands after initial separation...

Data from: Ageing and reproduction: antioxidant supplementation alleviates telomere loss in wild birds

Elisa P. Badas, Javier Martínez, Juan Rivero De Aguilar Cachafeiro, Francisco Miranda, Jordi Figuerola & Santiago Merino
Reproduction is inherently costly. Environmental stressors, such as infection and limited food resources, can compromise investment at each breeding attempt. For example, recent data on captive birds showed that increased reproductive effort accelerates ageing. However, the effects of nutritional status and infection on ageing remain unknown. Telomeres function as protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and changes in telomere length is a commonly used proxy for ageing. To partially address the mechanisms of...

Data from: Multilocus phylogeny and Bayesian estimates of species boundaries reveal hidden evolutionary relationships and cryptic diversity in Southeast Asian monitor lizards

Luke J. Welton, Cameron D. Siler, Jamie R. Oaks, Arvin C. Diesmos & Rafe M. Brown
Recent conceptual, technological, and methodological advances in phylogenetics have enabled increasingly robust statistical species delimitation in studies of biodiversity. As the variety of evidence purporting species diversity has increased, so too have the kinds of tools and inferential power of methods for delimiting species. Here we showcase an organismal system for a data-rich, comparative molecular approach to evaluating strategies of species delimitation among monitor lizards of the genus Varanus. The water monitors (Varanus salvator Complex),...

Data from: Does hunting or hiking affect wildlife communities in protected areas?

Roland Kays, Arielle W. Parsons, Megan C. Baker, Ellizabeth L. Kalies, Tavis Forrester, Robert Costello, Christopher T. Rota, Joshua J. Millspaugh & William J. McShea
Managed public wild areas have dual mandates to protect biodiversity and provide recreational opportunities for people. These goals could be at odds if recreation, ranging from hiking to legal hunting, disrupts wildlife enough to alter their space use or community structure. We evaluated the effect of managed hunting and recreation on 12 terrestrial wildlife species by employing a large citizen science camera trapping survey at 1947 sites stratified across different levels of human activities in...

Data from: Archipelago-wide survey of Philippine forest dragons (Agamidae: Gonocephalus): multilocus phylogeny uncovers unprecedented levels of genetic diversity in a biodiversity hotspot

Luke J. Welton, Cameron D. Siler, L. L. Grismer, Arvin C. Diesmos, Jack W. Sites & Rafe M. Brown
We utilize robust geographical genetic sampling, a multilocus dataset, and coalescent-based species delimitation statistics to provide the first phylogenetic inferences of relationships of Philippine Gonocephalus, combined with estimates of putative species diversity in this virtually unknown island radiation. Our results reveal startling levels of undocumented diversity, genetically partitioned at a number of geographic levels across the archipelago. In this paper we present the first survey of genetic lineage diversity, coupled with an archipelago-wide elucidation of...

Data from: Using phylogenomics to resolve mega-families: an example from Compositae

Jennifer R. Mandel, Rebecca B. Dikow & Vicki A. Funk
Next-generation sequencing and phylogenomics hold great promise for elucidating complex relationships among large plant families. Here we performed targeted capture of low copy sequences followed by next-generation sequencing on the Illumina platform in the large and diverse angiosperm family Compositae (Asteraceae). The family is monophyletic based on morphology and molecular data, yet many areas of the phylogeny have unresolved polytomies and interpreting phylogenetic patterns has been historically difficult. In order to outline a method and...

Data from: Polygyny does not explain the superior competitive ability of dominant ant associates in the African ant-plant, Acacia (Vachellia) drepanolobium

John H. Boyle, Dino J. Martins, Julianne Pelaez, Paul M. Musili, Staline Kibet, S. Kimani Ndung'u, David Kenfack & Naomi E. Pierce
1. The Acacia drepanolobium (also known as Vachellia drepanolobium) ant-plant symbiosis is considered a classic case of species coexistence, in which four species of tree-defending ants compete for nesting space in a single host tree species. Coexistence in this system has been explained by trade-offs in the ability of the ant associates to compete with each other for occupied trees versus the ability to colonize unoccupied trees. 2. We seek to understand the proximal reasons...

Data from: An ancient origin for the enigmatic Flat-Headed Frogs (Bombinatoridae: Barbourula) from the islands of Southeast Asia

David C. Blackburn, David P. Bickford, Arvin C. Diesmos, Djoko T. Iskandar & Rafe M. Brown
Background: The complex history of Southeast Asian islands has long been of interest to biogeographers. Dispersal and vicariance events in the Pleistocene have received the most attention, though recent studies suggest a potentially more ancient history to components of the terrestrial fauna. Among this fauna is the enigmatic archaeobatrachian frog genus Barbourula, which only occurs on the islands of Borneo and Palawan. We utilize this lineage to gain unique insight into the temporal history of...

Data from: An ancient origin for the enigmatic Flat-Headed Frogs (Bombinatoridae: Barbourula) from the islands of Southeast Asia

David C Blackburn, David P Bickford, Arvin C Diesmos, Djoko T Iskandar, Rafe M Brown, David C. Blackburn, Rafe M. Brown, David P. Bickford, Arvin C. Diesmos & Djoko T. Iskandar
Background: The complex history of Southeast Asian islands has long been of interest to biogeographers. Dispersal and vicariance events in the Pleistocene have received the most attention, though recent studies suggest a potentially more ancient history to components of the terrestrial fauna. Among this fauna is the enigmatic archaeobatrachian frog genus Barbourula, which only occurs on the islands of Borneo and Palawan. We utilize this lineage to gain unique insight into the temporal history of...

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