14 Works

Data from: Variation in adult sex ratio alters the association between courtship, mating frequency and paternity in the lek-forming fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.

Philip T. Leftwich, Dominic A. Edward, Luke Alphey, Matthew J. G. Gage & Tracey Chapman
The intensity with which males deliver courtship and the frequency with which they mate are key components of male reproductive success. However, we expect the strength of the relationship between these traits and a male’s overall paternity to be strongly context dependent, e.g. to be altered significantly by the extent of post-mating competition. We tested this prediction in a lekking insect, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). We examined the effect of manipulating the sex ratio from male-...

Data from: Age-dependent female responses to a male ejaculate signal alter demographic opportunities for selection

Claudia Fricke, Darrell Green, Walter E. Mills & Tracey Chapman
A central tenet of evolutionary explanations for ageing is that the strength of selection wanes with age. However, data on age-specific expression and benefits of sexually selected traits are lacking—particularly for traits subject to sexual conflict. We addressed this by using as a model the responses of Drosophila melanogaster females of different ages to receipt of sex peptide (SP), a seminal fluid protein transferred with sperm during mating. SP can mediate sexual conflict, benefitting males...

Data from: Effects of ovarian fluid on sperm traits and its implications for cryptic female choice in zebrafish

Federica Poli, Simone Immler & Clelia Gasparini
In polyandrous mating systems, females maintain the opportunity to bias male fertilization success after mating in a process known as cryptic female choice. Mechanisms of cryptic female choice have been described both in internal and external fertilizers, and may affect fertilization processes at different stages before, during and after fertilization. While in internal fertilizers, females have substantial control over sperm storage and fertilization, in external fertilizers, female control is limited. A key factor proposed to...

Data from: Ribosomal DNA sequence heterogeneity reflects intra-species phylogenies and predicts genome structure in two contrasting yeast species

Claire West, Stephen A. James, Robert P. Davey, Jo Dicks & Ian N. Roberts
The ribosomal RNA encapsulates a wealth of evolutionary information, including genetic variation that can be used to discriminate between organisms at a wide range of taxonomic levels. For example, the prokaryotic 16S rDNA sequence is very widely used both in phylogenetic studies and as a marker in metagenomic surveys and the ITS region, frequently used in plant phylogenetics, is now recognised as a fungal DNA barcode. However, this widespread use does not escape criticism, principally...

Data from: Consequences of sibling rivalry vary across life in a passerine bird

Kat Bebbington, Sjouke Anne Kingma, Eleanor A. Fairfield, Lewis G. Spurgin, Jan Komdeur & David S. Richardson
Many studies have assessed the costs of sibling rivalry in systems where offspring always have competitors, but conclusions about sibling rivalry in these species are restricted to interpreting the cost of changes in the relative level of competition and are often complicated by the expression of potentially costly rivalry related traits. Additionally, the majority of studies focus on early-life sibling rivalry, but the costs of competition can also affect later-life performance. We test a suite...

Data from: Biodiversity soup: metabarcoding of arthropods for rapid biodiversity assessment and biomonitoring

Douglas W. Yu, Yinqiu Ji, Brent C. Emerson, Xiaoyang Wang, Chengxi Ye, Chunyan Yang & Zhaoli Ding
1) Traditional biodiversity assessment is costly in time, money, and taxonomic expertise. Moreover, data are frequently collected in ways (e.g. visual bird lists) that are unsuitable for auditing by neutral parties, which is necessary for dispute resolution. 2) We present protocols for the extraction of ecological, taxonomic and phylogenetic information from bulk samples of arthropods. The protocols combine mass trapping of arthropods, mass-PCR amplification of the COI barcode gene, pyrosequencing, and bioinformatic analysis, which together...

Data from: Measuring the fitness benefits of male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster

Dominic Alexander Edward & Tracey Chapman
It is increasingly realised that the potential for male mate choice is widespread across many taxa. However, measurements of the relative magnitude of the fitness benefits that such choice can confer are lacking. Here we directly measured, in a comprehensive set of tests that manipulated key variables, the fitness benefits of male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster, by measuring egg production in females that were chosen or rejected by males. The results provided significant evidence...

Data from: Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading

Chavaunne T. Thorpe, Graham P. Riley, Helen L. Birch, Peter D. Clegg & Hazel R. C. Screen
Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess...

Data from: Post-copulatory opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice provide no offspring fitness benefits in externally fertilizing salmon

Alyson J. Lumley, Sian E. Diamond, Sigurd Einum, Sarah E. Yeates, Danielle Peruffo, Brent C. Emerson & Matthew JG Gage
There is increasing evidence that females can somehow improve their offspring fitness by mating with multiple males, but we understand little about the exact stage(s) at which such benefits are gained. Here, we measure whether offspring fitness is influenced by mechanisms operating solely between sperm and egg. Using externally fertilizing and polyandrous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we employed split-clutch and split-ejaculate in vitro fertilization experiments to generate offspring using designs that either denied or applied...

Data from: Inbreeding promotes female promiscuity

Łukasz Michalczyk, Anna L. Millard, Oliver Y. Martin, Alyson J. Lumley, Brent C. Emerson, Tracey Chapman & Matthew J.G. Gage
The widespread phenomenon of polyandry (mating by females with multiple males) is an evolutionary puzzle, because females can sustain costs from promiscuity, while full fertility can be provided by a single male. Using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we identify major fitness benefits of polyandry to females under inbreeding, when the risks of fertilization by incompatible male haplotypes are especially high. Fifteen generations after inbred populations had passed through genetic bottlenecks, we recorded increased...

Data from: Cryptic female choice favours sperm from MHC-dissimilar males

Hanne Løvlie, Mark A. F. Gillingham, Kirsty Worley, Tommaso Pizzari, David S. Richardson & H. Lovlie
Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where...

Data from: Manipulation of feeding regime alters sexual dimorphism for lifespan and reduces sexual conflict in Drosophila melanogaster

Elizabeth M.L. Duxbury, Wayne G. Rostant, Tracey Chapman & Elizabeth M. L. Duxbury
Sexual dimorphism for lifespan (SDL) is widespread, but poorly understood. A leading hypothesis, which we test here, is that strong SDL can reduce sexual conflict by allowing each sex to maximize its sex-specific fitness. We used replicated experimental evolution lines of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which had been maintained for over 360 generations on either unpredictable ‘Random’ or predictable ‘Regular’ feeding regimes. This evolutionary manipulation of feeding regime led to robust, enhanced SDL in...

Data from: Identification of candidate effector genes of Pratylenchus penetrans

Paulo Vieira, Thomas Mayer, Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Dana K. Howe, Inga Zasada, Thomas Baum, Jonathan D. Eisenback, Kathryn Kamo, Thomas R. Maier & Thomas J. Baum
Pratylenchus penetrans is one of the most important species among root lesion nematodes (RLNs) due to the detrimental and economic impact that it causes in a wide range of crops. Similar to other plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs), P. penetrans harbors a significant number of secreted proteins that play key roles during parasitism. Here we combined spatially and temporally resolved next generation sequencing datasets of P. penetrans to select a list of candidate genes aimed at the...

Data from: A versatile method for assessing pathogenicity of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus to ash foliage

Elizabeth S. Orton, Martha Clarke, Clive M. Brasier, Joan F. Webber & James K. M. Brown
We describe a method for inoculating rachises of Fraxinus excelsior (European or common ash) with Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which is faster than previous methods and allows associated foliar symptoms to be assessed on replicate leaves. A total of ten ash seedlings were inoculated with five isolates of H. fraxineus and lesion development assessed over four weeks. A five‐point disease progress scale of symptom development was developed from no lesion (0), lesion on rachis (1), “pre‐top dead,”...

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