51 Works

Sex-specific patterns of senescence in artificial insect populations varying in sex-ratio to manipulate reproductive effort

Charly Jehan, Manon Chogne, Thierry Rigaud & Yannick Moret
Background: The disposable soma theory of ageing assumes that organisms optimally trade-off limited resources between reproduction and longevity to maximize fitness. Early reproduction should especially trade-off against late reproduction and longevity because of reduced investment into somatic protection, including immunity. Moreover, as optimal reproductive strategies of males and females differ, sexually dimorphic patterns of senescence may evolve. In particular, as males gain fitness through mating success, sexual competition should be a major factor accelerating male...

Using aerobic exercise to evaluate sub-lethal tolerance of acute warming in fishes

David McKenzie
We investigated whether fatigue from sustained aerobic swimming provides a sublethal endpoint to define tolerance of acute warming in fishes, as an alternative to loss of equilibrium (LOE) during a critical thermal maximum protocol (CTmax). Two species were studied, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Each fish underwent an incremental swim test to determine gait transition speed (UGT), where it first engaged the unsteady anaerobic swimming mode that preceded fatigue. After suitable recovery...

Data from: Rapid diversification rates in Amazonian Chrysobalanaceae inferred from plastid genome phylogenetics

Jerome Chave
We studied the evolutionary history of Chrysobalanaceae with phylogenetic analyses of complete plastid genomes from 156 species to assess the tempo of diversification in the Neotropics and help to unravel the causes of Amazonian plant diversification. These plastid genomes had a mean length of 162,204 base pairs, and the nearly complete DNA sequence matrix, with reliable fossils, was used to estimate a phylogenetic tree. Chrysobalanaceae diversified from 38.9 Mya (95% highest posterior density, 95%HPD: 34.2-43.9...

Translation Inhibitory Elements from Hoxa3 and Hoxa11 mRNAs use uORFs for translation inhibition

Franck Martin, Fatima Alghoul, Laure Schaeffer & Gilbert Eriani
During embryogenesis, Hox mRNA translation is tightly regulated by a sophisticated molecular mechanism that combines two RNA regulons located in their 5’UTR. First, an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) enables cap-independent translation. The second regulon is a Translation Inhibitory Element or TIE, which ensures concomitant cap-dependent translation inhibition. In this study, we deciphered the molecular mechanisms of mouse Hoxa3 and a11 TIE elements. Both TIEs possess an upstream Open Reading Frame (uORF) that is critical...

Epistasis, inbreeding depression and the evolution of self-fertilization

Denis Roze
Inbreeding depression resulting from partially recessive deleterious alleles is thought to be the main genetic factor preventing self-fertilizing mutants from spreading in outcrossing hermaphroditic populations. However, deleterious alleles may also generate an advantage to selfers in terms of more efficient purging, while the effects of epistasis among those alleles on inbreeding depression and mating system evolution remain little explored. In this paper, we use a general model of selection to disentangle the effects of different...

Imaging mass cytometry data: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissue section

Jessica Timms, James Opzoomer, Kevin Blighe, Thanos Mourikis, Nicolas Chapuis, Richard Bekoe, Sedigeh Kareemaghay, Paola Nocerino, Mahvash Tavassoli, Claire Harrison, Francesca Ciccarelli, Peter Parker, James Arnold, Benedetta Apollonio, Alan Ramsay, Michaela Fontenay, Paul Barber, James Arnold & Shahram Kordasti
High dimensional cytometry is an innovative tool for immune monitoring in health and disease, it has provided novel insight into the underlying biology as well as biomarkers for a variety of diseases. However, the analysis of multiparametric “big data” usually requires specialist computational knowledge. Here we describe ImmunoCluster (https://github.com/kordastilab/ImmunoCluster) an R package for immune profiling cellular heterogeneity in high dimensional liquid and imaging mass cytometry, and flow cytometry data, designed to facilitate computational analysis by...

Variation and correlation in the timing of breeding of North Atlantic seabirds across multiple scales

Katharine Keogan, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Richard Phillips, David Alvarez, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Robert Barrett, Claus Bech, Peter Becker, Per-Arvid Berglund, Sandra Bouwhuis, Zofia Burr, Olivier Chastel, Signe Christensen-Dalsgaard, Sébastien Descamps, Tony Diamond, Kyle Elliott, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Mike Harris, Jonas Hentati-Sundberg, Martin Heubeck, Magdalene Langset, Svein Lorentsen, Heather Major, Mark Mallory … & Stephen Kress
Timing of breeding, an important driver of fitness in many populations, is widely studied in the context of global change, yet despite considerable efforts to identify environmental drivers of seabird nesting phenology, for most populations we lack evidence of strong drivers. Here we adopt an alternative approach, examining the degree to which different populations positively covary in their annual phenology to infer whether phenological responses to environmental drivers are likely to be (i) shared across...

Data from: Diversity increases with elevation: empidine dance flies (Diptera, Empididae) challenge a predominant pattern

Paul Chatelain, Adrian Plant, Adeline Soulier, Christophe Daugeron & Adeline Soulier-Perkins
Tropical mountain forests are important reservoirs of biodiversity. They are usually species rich and often support endemic species making them prime targets for conservation effort. The aim of this study is to investigate elevational patterns of species diversity and phenology in order to provide a meaningful understanding of insects’ spatio-temporal distributions along a tropical gradient of elevation. Our study focuses on the Empidinae communities (Diptera, Empididae) from Doi Inthanon (north Thailand, gradient 400–2556 m.a.s.l), sampled...

Data from: Hierarchical structure of ecological and non-ecological processes of differentiation shaped ongoing gastropod radiation in the Malawi Basin

Bert Van Bocxlaer
Ecological processes, non-ecological processes or a combination of both may cause reproductive isolation and speciation, but their specific roles and potentially complex interactions in evolutionary radiations remain poorly understood, which defines a central knowledge gap at the interface of microevolution and macroevolution. Here I examine genome scans in combination with phenotypic and environmental data to disentangle how ecological and non-ecological processes contributed to population differentiation and speciation in an ongoing radiation of Lanistes gastropods from...

Data from: UV wavelengths experienced during development affect larval newt visual sensitivity and predation efficiency

Mélissa Martin, Marc Théry, Gwendolen Rodgers, Delphine Goven, Stéphane Sourice, Pascal Mège & Jean Secondi
We experimentally investigated the influence of developmental plasticity of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity on predation efficiency of the larval smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. We quantified expression of SWS1 opsin gene (UV-sensitive protein of photoreceptor cells) in the retinas of individuals who had developed in the presence (UV+) or absence (UV−) of UV light (developmental treatments), and tested their predation efficiency under UV+ and UV− light (testing treatments). We found that both SWS1 opsin expression and...

Data from: Evolutionary processes driving spatial patterns of intra-specific genetic diversity in river ecosystems

Ivan Paz-Viñas, Géraldine Loot, Virginie M. Stevens, Simon Blanchet & I. Paz-Vinas
Describing, understanding and predicting the spatial distribution of genetic diversity is a central issue in biological sciences. In river landscapes, it is generally predicted that neutral genetic diversity should increase downstream, but there have been few attempts to test and validate this assumption across taxonomic groups. Moreover, it is still unclear what are the evolutionary processes that may generate this apparent spatial pattern of diversity. Here, we quantitatively synthesized published results from diverse taxa living...

The ASTARTE Paleotsunami deposits database - NEAM region

Paolo Marco De Martini, Daniela Pantosti, Simone Orefice, Alessandra Smedile, Antonio Patera, Raphaël Paris, Pedro Terrinha, James Hunt, Gerassimos Papadopoulos, João Noiva, Ioanna Triantafyllou & Ahmet Cevdet Yalçıner
The EU project ASTARTE aims at developing a higher level of tsunami hazard assessment in the North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Connected seas (NEAM) region by a combination of field work, experimental work, numerical modeling and technical development. The project is a cooperative work of 26 institutes from 16 countries and links together the description of past tsunamigenic events, the identification and characterization of tsunami sources, the assessment of the impact of such events, and...

Data from: Immigrant and extrinsic hybrid seed inviability contribute to reproductive isolation between forest and dune ecotypes of Epipactis helleborine (Orchidaceae)

Hans Jacquemyn, Hanne De Kort, An Vanden Broeck & Rein Brys
Reproductive isolation caused by divergent natural selection arising from differences between ecological environments or ecological interactions represents a major mechanism contributing to speciation, but its relative importance is poorly known. In this study, controlled reciprocal crossings and seed germination experiments were combined with genetic and morphometric analyses to test the hypothesis that previously described differences in mycorrhizal communities between forest and dune ecotypes of Epipactis helleborine were sufficiently strong to create complete reproductive isolation between...

A new tree-based methodological framework to infer the evolutionary history of Mesopolyploid lineages: An application to the Brassiceae tribe (Brassicaceae)

Laura Hénocq, Sophie Gallina, Eric Schmitt, Vincent Castric, Xavier Vekemans & Céline Poux
Whole genome duplication events are notably widespread in plants and this poses particular challenges for phylogenetic inference in allopolyploid lineages, i.e. lineages that result from the merging of two or more diverged genomes after interspecific hybridization. The nuclear genomes resulting from allopolyploidization contain homologous gene copies from different evolutionary origins called homoeologs, whose orthologs must be sorted out in order to reconstruct the evolutionary history of polyploid clades. In this study, we propose a methodological...

Does mast seeding shape mating time in wild boar? A comparative study

Jessica Cachelou, Christine Saint-Andrieux, Eric Baubet, Eveline Nivois, Emmanuelle Richard, Jean-Michel Gaillard & Marlène Gamelon
In seasonal environments, the timing of reproduction often matches with the peak of food resources. One well-known effect of global warming is an earlier phenology of resources, leading to a possible mismatch between timing of reproduction for consumers and food peak. However, global warming may also change the dynamics of food resources, such as the intensity and frequency of pulsed mast seeding. How quantitative changes in mast seeding influence the timing of reproduction of seed...

Data from: Dendritic connectivity shapes spatial patterns of genetic diversity: a simulation-based study

Ivan Paz-Vinas & Simon Blanchet
Landscape features notoriously affect spatial patterns of biodiversity. For instance, in dendritic ecological networks (such as river basins), dendritic connectivity has been proposed to create unique spatial patterns of biodiversity. Here, we compared genetic datasets simulated under a lattice-like, a dendritic and a circular landscape to test the influence of dendritic connectivity on neutral genetic diversity. The circular landscape had a level of connectivity similar to that of the dendritic landscape, so as to isolate...

Data from: Mechanisms of reciprocity and diversity in social networks: a modelling and comparative approach

Ivan Puga-Gonzalez, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke, Sebastian Sosa, Bernard Thierry & Cedric Sueur
Three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie reciprocation of social behaviors in gregarious animals: ‘calculated reciprocity’, ‘emotional bookkeeping’ and ‘symmetry-based reciprocity’. Among these explanations, emotional book-keeping has received the broadest support from experimental and observational studies. On the other hand, three individual-based models have shown that reciprocation may emerge via ‘symmetry-based reciprocity’, ‘emotional bookkeeping’, or a combination of both mechanisms. Here we use these three models to assess their relative fit with empirical data on...

Data from: Cryptic differences in colour among Müllerian mimics: how can the visual capacities of predators and prey shape the evolution of wing colours?

Violaine Llaurens, Mathieu Joron & Marc Théry
Antagonistic interactions between predators and prey often lead to co-evolution. In the case of toxic prey, aposematic colours act as warning signals for predators and play a protective role. Evolutionary convergence in colour patterns among toxic prey evolves due to positive density-dependent selection and the benefits of mutual resemblance in spreading the mortality cost of educating predators over a larger prey assemblage. Comimetic species evolve highly similar colour patterns, but such convergence may interfere with...

Data from: The representational dynamics of perceived voice emotions evolve from categories to dimensions

Bruno L. Giordano, Caroline Whiting, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Sonja A. Kotz, Joachim Gross & Pascal Belin
Long-standing affective science theories conceive the perception of emotional stimuli either as discrete categories (for example, an angry voice) or continuous dimensional attributes (for example, an intense and negative vocal emotion). Which position provides a better account is still widely debated. Here we contrast the positions to account for acoustics-independent perceptual and cerebral representational geometry of perceived voice emotions. We combined multimodal imaging of the cerebral response to heard vocal stimuli (using functional magnetic resonance...

Ancient tropical extinctions at high latitudes contributed to the latitudinal diversity gradient

Andrea Sánchez Meseguer & Fabien Condamine
Global biodiversity currently peaks at the equator and decreases toward the poles. Growing fossil evidence suggest this hump-shaped latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) has not been persistent through time, with similar diversity across latitudes flattening out the LDG during past greenhouse periods. However, when and how diversity declined at high latitudes to generate the modern LDG remains an open question. Although diversity-loss scenarios have been proposed, they remain mostly undemonstrated. We outline the ‘asymmetric gradient of...

Testing the potential contribution of Wolbachia to speciation when cytoplasmic incompatibility becomes associated with host‐related reproductive isolation

Daniel Bruzzese, Hannes Schuler, Thomas Wolfe, Mary Glover, Joseph Mastroni, Meredith Doellman, Cheyenne Tait, Wee Yee, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Glen Hood, Robert Goughnour, Christian Stauffer, Patrik Nosil, Jeffery Feder, Daniel J. Bruzzese, Thomas M. Wolfe, Mary M. Glover, Meredith M. Doellman, Wee L. Yee, Glen R. Hood & Jeffery L. Feder
Endosymbiont induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) may play an important role in arthropod speciation. However, whether CI consistently becomes associated or coupled with other host-related forms of reproductive isolation (RI) to impede the transfer of endosymbionts between hybridizing populations and further the divergence process remains an open question. Here, we show varying degrees of pre- and post-mating RI exist among allopatric populations of two interbreeding cherry-infesting tephritid fruit flies (Rhagoletis cingulata and R. indifferens) across North...

Scale-dependent shifts in functional and phylogenetic structure of Mediterranean island plant communities over two centuries

Chunhui Zhang, Marc William Cadotte, Alessandro Chiarucci, Michel Loreau, Charles Willis, Xingfeng Si, Lanping Li & Marcus Cianciaruso
1. Since the Industrial Revolution, the rapid global population and economic expansion has had tremendous impacts on biodiversity across spatial scales, especially for islands. While changes in species richness are easily inferred, the impact of human activity on the underlying community assembly processes has been difficult to ascertain because of lack of long-term community data. 2. Here, we document how the manifestations of plant community assembly have changed over time and space in a Mediterranean...

Pollen records of Miocene thermal maximum

Jean-Pierre Suc, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno & Mostefa Bessedik
In order to identify the northern latitudinal limit between mangroves composed of Avicennia only and diversified mangroves during the Cenozoic thermal maxima, a special attention was paid to the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO: 17–14 Ma) in the Mediterranean s.l. region, including the Mediterranean Basin s.s. and its former brackish appendix, the Paratethys (Popescu et al., accepted, Journ. Biogeogr.). Pollen data come from forty-five biostratigraphically well-dated marine samples from 8 locations belonging to the MMCO....

Database PCA: A middle Pleistocene Homo from Nesher Ramla, Israel

Hila May, Israel Hershkovitz, Rachel Sarig, Ariel Pokhojaev, Dominique Grimaud-Hervé, Emiliano Bruner, Cinzia Fornai, Rolf Quam, Juan-Luis Arsuaga, Viktoria A. Krenn, Maria Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez De Castro, Laura Martín-Francés, Viviane Slon, Lou Albessard-Ball, Amélie Vialet, Tim Schüler, Giorgio Manzi, Antonio Profico, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Gerhard W. Weber & Yossi Zaidner
It has long been believed that Neanderthals originated and flourished on the European continent. However, recent morphological and genetic studies have suggested that they may have received a genetic contribution from a yet unknown non-European group. Here we report on the recent discovery of archaic Homo fossils from the site of Nesher Ramla, Israel, which we dated to 140,000 to 120,000 years ago. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parietal bones, mandible, and lower...

Data from: Genetic architecture of sensory exploitation: QTL mapping of female and male receiver traits in an acoustic moth

Sylvain Alem, Réjane Streiff, Brigitte Courtois, Saliha Zenboudji, Denis Limousin & Michael D. Greenfield
The evolution of extravagant sexual traits by sensory exploitation occurs if males incidentally evolve features that stimulate females owing to a pre-existing environmental response that arose in the context of natural selection. The sensory exploitation process is thus expected to leave a specific genetic imprint, a pleiotropic control of the original environmental response and the novel sexual response in females. However, females may be subsequently selected to improve their discrimination of environmental and sexual stimuli....

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