Exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics are apparently costly and seem to defy natural selection. This conundrum prompted Charles Darwin to propose the theory of sexual selection. Accordingly, exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics might be ornaments on which female choice is based and/or armaments used during male-male competition. Males of many cichlid fish species, including the adaptive radiation of Nicaraguan Midas cichlids, develop a highly exaggerated nuchal hump, which is thought to be a sexually selected trait. To...
The Theory of Island Biogeography postulates that size and isolation are key drivers of biodiversity on islands. This theory has been applied not only to true (e.g. oceanic) islands but also to terrestrial island-like systems (e.g. edaphic islands). Recently, a debate has opened as to whether terrestrial island-like systems function like true islands. However, identifying the effect of insularity in terrestrial systems is conceptually and methodologically challenging because recognizing species source(s) and measuring isolation is...
Aim: Alpine habitats support unique biodiversity confined to high-elevation areas in the current interglacial. Plant diversity in these habitats responds to area, environment, connectivity and isolation, yet these factors have been rarely evaluated in concert. Here we investigate major determinants of regional species pools in alpine grasslands, and the responses of their constituent species groups. Location: European mountains below 50ºN. Time Period: Between 1928 and 2019. Major Taxa Studied: Vascular plants. Methods: We compiled species...
Data from: Genomic variation, population history and within-archipelago adaptation between island bird populationsClaudia A. Martin, Claire Armstrong, Juan Carlos Illera, Brent C. Emerson, David Richardson & Lewis G. Spurgin
Oceanic island archipelagos provide excellent models to understand evolutionary processes. Colonisation events and gene flow can interact with selection to shape genetic variation at different spatial scales. Landscape-scale variation in biotic and abiotic factors may drive fine-scale selection within islands, while long-term evolutionary processes may drive divergence between distantly related populations. Here, we examine patterns of population history and selection between recently diverged populations of the Berthelot’s pipit (Anthus berthelotii), a passerine endemic to three...
Physiology and acclimation potential are tuned with phenology in larvae of a prolonged breeder amphibianUrtzi Enriquez-Urzelai, Alfredo G. Nicieza, Albert Montori, Gustavo A. Llorente & Miren Bego Urrutia
Due to the speed of climate changes, rapid buffering mechanisms such as phenotypic plasticity – which may depend on breeding phenology – could be key to avoid extinction. The links between phenology and plasticity, however, remain understudied. Here we explored the matching between phenology and the thermal sensitivity of standard (SMR) and routine metabolic rates (RMR), metabolic scope (i.e. the difference between RMR and SMR), survival and growth-development trajectories in larvae of a prolonged breeder...
Data from: Season rather than habitat affects lynx survival and risk of mortality in the human-dominated landscape of southern SwedenHenrik Andren, Aronsson Malin, José V. Lopez-Bao, Gustaf Samelius, Guillaume Chapron, Geir Rune Rauset, Heather Hemmingmoore & Jens Persson
Landscapes are mosaics of habitat associated with different risks and resources, including human activities, which can affect individual survival in wildlife. Different relationships between habitat characteristics and human-caused and natural mortality can result in attractive sinks. We used individual-based data from 97 Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) monitored for 160 exposure years to link adult survival and the risk of mortality to home range habitat characteristics in the human-dominated landscape of southern Sweden. Human-caused mortality dominated...
Data from: Selection for functional performance in the evolution of cuticle hardening mechanisms in insectsPaola Laiolo, Joaquina Pato, Juan Carlos Illera & José Ramón Obeso
Calcified tissues have repeatedly evolved in many animal lineages and show a tremendous diversity of forms and functions. The cuticle of many insects is enriched with elements other than Calcium, a strategy of hardening that is taxonomically widespread but apparently poorly variable among clades. Here, we investigate the evolutionary potential of the enrichment with metals in insect cuticle at different biological levels. We combined experimental evidence of Zinc content variation in the mandibles of a...
Persistence of seed dispersal in agroecosystems: effects of landscape modification and intensive soil management practices in avian frugivores, frugivory and seed deposition in olive croplandsPedro J. Rey, Francisco M. Camacho, Rubén Tarifa, Carlos Martínez-Núñez, Teresa Salido, Antonio J. Pérez & Daniel García
Farming impacts on animal-mediated seed dispersal through mechanisms operating at least at two spatial scales: first, at the landscape scale, through habitat loss and land conversion to agriculture/livestock grazing, and second, by local intensification (farm scale) of the agricultural practices. Nonetheless, these two scales of farming impact on the seed dispersal function have been rarely integrated. In particular, studies evaluating the effect of agriculture in the seed dispersal function of frugivorous birds in Mediterranean ecosystems...
Fruit abundance and trait matching determine diet type and body condition across frugivorous bird populationsJuan P. González-Varo, Alejandro Onrubia, Néstor Pérez-Méndez, Rubén Tarifa & Juan C. Illera
Research on seed-dispersal mutualisms has been highly unbalanced towards the plants, largely overlooking the fitness effects of fruit resources on frugivorous animals. Moreover, despite morphological mismatches like gape limitation may reduce the abundance of fruits that are actually accessible to a frugivore species, there is very little evidence on the trait-matching implications from a frugivore’s perspective. Here, we refine recent resource-provisioning models to comprehensively test the joint effects of fruit abundance and trait matching on...
An objective-based prioritization approach to support trophic complexity through ecological restorationEmma Ladouceur, Jennifer McGowan, Patrick Huber, Hugh Possingham, Davide Scridel, Roel Van Klink, Peter Poschlod, Hans Cornelissen, Costantino Bonomi & Borja Jiménez-Alfaro
1. Reassembling ecological communities and rebuilding habitats through active restoration treatments requires curating the selection of plant species to use in seeding and planting mixes. Ideally, these mixes should be assembled based on attributes that support ecosystem function and services, promote plant and animal species interactions and ecological networks in restoration while balancing project constraints. Despite these critical considerations, it is common for species mixes to be selected opportunistically. Reframing the selection of seed mixes...
University of Oviedo10
University of Jaén2
Czech Academy of Sciences2
University of the Basque Country1
Vrije Universiteit Brussel1
Museo delle Scienze1
Institute for Research and Technology in Food and Agriculture1
University of Regensburg1
German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research1