158 Works

Sheep urine patch greenhouse gas emissions from a semi-improved upland grassland in North Wales, UK

K.A. Marsden, J.A. Holmberg, D.L. Jones & D.R. Chadwick
The dataset contains annual soil greenhouse gas emissions following sheep urine (real and artificial) applications to a semi-improved upland grassland in North Wales, UK, across two seasons (spring and autumn) within the year 2016-2017. Soil greenhouse gas data were collected using a combination of automated chambers and manually sampled chambers, both analysed via gas chromatography. Supporting data include meteorological data, soil chemistry and above ground biomass data collected on a time-series throughout the study, following...

Soil chemical and physical properties from a digestate (winter wheat trial) experiment at North Wyke and Henfaes Farm, UK (2017)

S. Reinsch, I. Lebron, A.R. Sánchez-Rodríguez, A.M. Carswell, H. Carter, D.R. Chadwick, J.M. Cotton, H. Guyatt, R. Harvey, A. Hunt, D.L. Jones, P.O. Keenan, A.J. Lawlor, M.R. Marshall, T.H. Misselbrook, M. Patel, A.P. Pinder, M.G. Pereira, K.S. Saunders, B. Tanna, N. Thompson & B.A. Emmett
The data consist of soil physicochemical and biological data for three soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm) from a winter wheat field experiment located at two research sites in the United Kingdom. Soil samples were collected between April 2017 and August 2017. Extractions and measurements were carried out thereafter. The sites were Rothamsted Research at North Wyke in Devon and Bangor University at Henfaes Research Station in North Wales. At each site measurements were...

Consistent concentrations of critically endangered Balearic shearwaters in UK waters revealed by at-sea surveys

Jessica Ann Phillips, Alex N. Banks, Mark Bolton, Tom Brereton, Pierre Cazenave, Natasha Gillies, Oliver Padget, Jeroen Van Der Kooij, James Waggit & Tim Guilford
Aim: Europe’s only globally critically endangered seabird, the Balearic shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus), is thought to have expanded its post-breeding range northwards into UK waters, though its distribution there is not yet well understood. This study aims to identify environmental factors associated with the species’ presence, and map the probability of presence of the species across the western English Channel and southern Celtic Sea, and estimate the number of individuals in this area. Location: The western...

Low-cost tools mitigate climate change during reproduction in an endangered marine ectotherm

Leo Clarke, Rebecca Elliot, Elena Abella-Perez, Adolfo Marco, Samir Martins & Lucy Hawkes
The impacts of anthropogenic climate change will be most dramatic for species that live in narrow thermal niches, such as reptiles. Given the imminent threat to biodiversity, and that actions to reduce carbon emissions are not yet sufficient, it is important that a sound evidence base of potential mitigation options is available for conservation managers. Successful incubation and production of male sea turtle hatchlings is threatened by increased global temperatures (sex is determined by the...

Data: Genomic signatures of admixture and selection are shared among populations of Zaprionus indianus across the western hemisphere

Aaron A. Comeault, Andreas F. Kautt & Daniel R. Matute
Introduced species have become an increasingly common component of biological communities around the world. A central goal in invasion biology is therefore to identify the demographic and evolutionary factors that underlie successful introductions. Here we use whole genome sequences, collected from populations in the native and introduced ranges of the African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus, to quantify genetic relationships among them, identify potential sources of the introductions, and test for selection at different spatial scales....

Contrasting selection pressure on body and weapon size in a polygynous megaherbivore

Graeme Shannon, Phoebe Sadler, Joanna Smith, Eleanor Roylance-Casson & Line S. Cordes
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a common morphological trait in ungulates, with polygyny considered the leading driver of larger male body mass and weapon size. However, not all polygynous species exhibit SSD, while molecular evidence has revealed a more complex relationship between paternity and mating system than originally predicted. SSD is, therefore, likely to be shaped by a range of social, ecological and physiological factors. We present the first definitive analysis of SSD in the...

Linking variation in planktonic primary production to coral reef fish growth and condition

Ronan Roche
Within low nutrient tropical oceans, islands and atolls with higher primary production support higher reef fish biomass and reef organism abundance. External energy subsidies can be delivered onto reefs via a range of physical mechanisms. However, the influence of spatial variation in primary production on reef fish growth and condition is largely unknown. It is not yet clear how variability in food delivery onto a reef interacts with reef depth and slope, and affects reef...

Hurricane disturbance accelerated the thermophilization of a Jamaican montane forest

Edmund V. J. Tanner, Peter Bellingham, John Healey & Kenneth Feeley
Thermophilization – changes in community composition towards greater relative abundances of species associated with warmer environments – has been described for plants and animals in many locations around the world. Disturbances of various kinds have increased rates of thermophilization in temperate sites, and this has been proposed, but not demonstrated, for some tropical environments. In this study, we tested whether disturbance by a Category four hurricane in 1988 (Hurricane Gilbert) increased thermophilization in a Jamaican...

Hybridisation and chloroplast capture between ancient Themeda triandra ecotypes in Australia

Luke Dunning, Jill Olofsson, Alexander Papadopulos, Samuel Hibdige, Oriane Hidalgo, Ilia Leitch, Paulo Baleeiro, Sinethemba Ntshangase, Nigel Barker & Richard Jobson
Ecotypes are distinct populations within a species that are adapted to specific environmental conditions. Understanding how these ecotypes become established, and how they interact when reunited, is fundamental to elucidating how ecological adaptations are maintained. This study focuses on Themeda triandra, a dominant grassland species across Asia, Africa and Australia. It is the most widespread plant in Australia, where it has distinct ecotypes that are usually restricted to either wetter and cooler coastal regions or...

Zinc tolerance measurements for Silene uniflora populations in the UK and Ireland, 2021

A. Papadopulos, D. Wood & L. Giles
The dataset contains: (i) estimates of zinc tolerance for 50 populations of Silene uniflora in the UK and Ireland generated between 03/2021 and 09/2021. The data were collected using cuttings from wild collected specimens. Root growth of cuttings in zinc rich media was assessed using deep water culture experiments. The data set contains the zinc tolerance (mean and standard deviations of root growth scores) and the number of cuttings assessed for each population; (ii) GPS...

Data from: Medically important differences in snake venom composition are dictated by distinct postgenomic mechanisms

Nicholas R. Casewell, Simon C. Wagstaff, Wolfgang Wüster, Darren A. N. Cook, Fiona M. S. Bolton, Sarah I. King, Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Juan J. Calvete & Robert A. Harrison
Variation in venom composition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in snakes and occurs both interspecifically and intraspecifically. Venom variation can have severe outcomes for snakebite victims by rendering the specific antibodies found in antivenoms ineffective against heterologous toxins found in different venoms. The rapid evolutionary expansion of different toxin-encoding gene families in different snake lineages is widely perceived as the main cause of venom variation. However, this view is simplistic and disregards the understudied influence that...

Data from: Colonisation history and genetic diversity: adaptive potential in early stage invasions

Roger S. Thorpe, Jacqualyn Eales & Anita Malhotra
The introduction of Anolis cristatellus from the multiple species anole community of Puerto Rico in the Greater Antilles to the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles, with its solitary endemic anole, provides an example of a very recent, timed, single introduction. We investigate the geographic origin and adaptive potential of the Dominican population using a range of methods including mtDNA phylogeography, nuclear microsatellite variation and multiple paternity studies, as well as heritability estimates, common...

Data from: Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae).

Andrew G. Briscoe, Sarah Goodacre, Susan E. Masta, Martin I. Taylor, Miquel A. Arnedo, David Penney, John Kenny, Simon Creer & Sara Goodacre
The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput...

Data from: A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod

Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Einar E. Nielsen, Nina O. Therkildsen, Martin I. Taylor, Rob Ogden, Audrey J. Geffen, Dorte Bekkevold, Sarah Helyar, Christophe Pampoulie, Torild Johansen & Gary R. Carvalho
The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome-wide or localized in “genomic mosaics” during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced. Empirical work has so far been limited, and the relative impacts of gene flow and natural selection on genomic patterns have not been fully explored. Here, we use ecotypes of Atlantic cod to investigate...

Data from: Gynaecological cancer follow-up: national survey of current practice in the UK

Simon Leeson, Nick Stuart, Yvonne Sylvestre, Liz Hall & Rhiannon Whitaker
Objective: To establish a baseline of national practice for follow-up after treatment for gynaecological cancer. Design: Questionnaire survey. Setting: Gynaecological cancer centres and units. Geographical location: UK Participants: Members of the British Gynaecological Cancer Society and the National Forum of Gynaecological Oncology Nurses. Interventions: A questionnaire survey. Outcome measures: To determine schedules of follow-up, who provides it and what routine testing is used for patients who have had previous gynaecological cancer. Results: A total of...

Data from: Predicting function from sequence in a large multifunctional toxin family

Anita Malhotra, Simon Creer, John B. Harris, Reto Stöcklin, Philippe Favreau & Roger S. Thorpe
Venoms contain active substances with highly specific physiological effects and are increasingly being used as sources of novel diagnostic, research and treatment tools for human disease. Experimental characterisation of individual toxin activities is a severe rate-limiting step in the discovery process, and in-silico tools which allow function to be predicted from sequence information are essential. Toxins are typically members of large multifunctional families of structurally similar proteins that can have different biological activities, and minor...

Data from: Transcriptomics and in vivo tests reveal novel mechanisms underlying endocrine disruption in an ecological sentinel, Nucella lapillus

Sonia Pascoal, Gary Carvalho, Olga Vasieva, Roger Hughes, Andrew Cossins, Yongxiang Fang, Kevin Ashelford, Lisa Olohan, Carlos Barroso, Sonia Mendo & Simon Creer
Anthropogenic endocrine disruptors now contaminate all environments globally, with concomitant deleterious effects across diverse taxa. While most studies on endocrine disruption (ED) have focused on vertebrates, the superimposition of male sexual characteristics in the female dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus (imposex), caused by organotins, provides one of the most clearcut ecological examples of anthropogenically induced ED in aquatic ecosystems. To identify the underpinning mechanisms of imposex for this ‘nonmodel’ species, we combined Roche 454 pyrosequencing with custom...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) soil moisture content from three soil depths on salt marsh sites at Morecambe Bay and Essex

H. Ford, A. Garbutt & M. Skov
The dataset comprises the field soil moisture content expressed as a percentage at three depth zones, (0 - 10 centimetre (cm), 10 - 20 cm and 20 - 30 cm), measured from bulk density soil samples taken within each 1 metre x 1 metre quadrat. Sampling was conducted at six salt marsh sites at four spatial scales: 1 metre (m) (the minimal sampling unit) nested within a hierarchy of increasing scales of 1-10 m, 10-100...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) net primary productivity (NPP) on salt marsh sites at Morecambe Bay and Essex

H. Ford, A. Garbutt & M. Skov
The dataset comprises net primary productivity (NPP) measured as kilogrammes of dry above-ground vegetation per square metre per year. Sampling was conducted at six salt marsh sites at four spatial scales: 1 metre (m) (the minimal sampling unit) nested within a hierarchy of increasing scales of 1-10 m, 10-100 m and 100-1000 m. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England....

Data from: Immanent conditions determine imminent collapses: nutrient regimes define the resilience of macroalgal communities

Jordi Boada, Rohan Arthur, David Alonso, Jordi F. Pagès, Albert Pessarrodona, Silvia Oliva, Giulia Ceccherelli, Luigi Piazzi, Javier Romero & Teresa Alcoverro
Predicting where state-changing thresholds lie can be inherently complex in ecosystems characterized by nonlinear dynamics. Unpacking the mechanisms underlying these transitions can help considerably reduce this unpredictability. We used empirical observations, field and laboratory experiments, and mathematical models to examine how differences in nutrient regimes mediate the capacity of macrophyte communities to sustain sea urchin grazing. In relatively nutrient-rich conditions, macrophyte systems were more resilient to grazing, shifting to barrens beyond 1 800 g m−2...

Conwy stream and estuary water quality data (2013-2016) [Turf2Surf]

D.M. Cooper, M.R. Marshall, S.K. Malham, J.L. Williamson, K. Spinney, J.B. Winterbourn, T.D. Peters, E.R. Howlett, P. Rajko-Nenow, M.G. Pereira, A.J. Lawler, P.O. Keenan, S.A. Thacker, S. Hughes & I. Lebron
The data comprise water quality measurements taken from streams and rivers in the Conwy catchment and its estuary from March 2013 to October 2016. Depending on water type and sampling location the data consist of concentrations of major cations and anions, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, suspended material and coliforms. Samples were collected manually or by automatic sampler. Analysis was carried out at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) Bangor, CEH Lancaster and Bangor University laboratories....

Plant physiological measurements in North Wales and Northwest England (2013, 2014 and 2016)

M.C. Blanes, S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, H. Harmens, S. Smart, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of plant physiological measurements from 15 sites located in the Conwy catchment (North Wales) and from 2 sites in North West England. Plant photosynthetic parameters for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) and the maximum light saturated photosynthesis (Asat) were measured on the dominant plant species as were foliar nitrogen (Foliar N) and phosphorus (Foliar P). Leaf mass area (LMA) and specific leaf area (SLA)...

Data from: Impacts of logging roads on tropical forests

Fritz Kleinschroth & John R. Healey
Road networks are expanding in tropical countries, increasing human access to remote forests that act as refuges for biodiversity and provide globally important ecosystem services. Logging is one of the main drivers of road construction in tropical forests. We evaluated forest fragmentation and impacts of logging roads on forest resilience and wildlife, considering the full life cycle of logging roads. Through an extensive evidence review we found that for logging road construction, corridors between 3...

Soil hydraulic property data from the Climoor fieldsite in the Clocaenog Forest (2010-2012)

D.A. Robinson, I. Lebron, A.R. Smith, M.R. Marshall, B.A. Emmett, S. Reinsch, D.M. Cooper & M.R. Brooks
This dataset contains soil hydraulic measurement data from the Climoor field site in the Clocaenog forest, in North Wales. The collection contains five data sets. 1) soil bulk density (0-5 centimetre) and saturated water content. 2) Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measured in the field at tensions of -2 and -6 centimetre using a mini disk infiltrometer. 3) Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measured using a HYPROP (registered trademark) instrument, an instrument which determines the hydraulic properties of soil...

Data from: Plasticity in growth of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon: is the increased growth rate of farmed salmon caused by evolutionary adaptations to the commercial diet?

Alison C. Harvey, Monica F. Solberg, Eva Troianou, Gary R. Carvalho, Martin I. Taylor, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar Helge Matre & Kevin A. Glover
Background: Domestication of Atlantic salmon for commercial aquaculture has resulted in farmed salmon displaying substantially higher growth rates than wild salmon under farming conditions. In contrast, growth differences between farmed and wild salmon are much smaller when compared in the wild. The mechanisms underlying this contrast between environments remain largely unknown. It is possible that farmed salmon have adapted to the high-energy pellets developed specifically for aquaculture, contributing to inflated growth differences when fed on...

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