138 Works

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) net primary productivity (NPP) on salt marsh sites at Morecambe Bay and Essex

H. Ford, A. Garbutt & M. Skov
The dataset comprises net primary productivity (NPP) measured as kilogrammes of dry above-ground vegetation per square metre per year. Sampling was conducted at six salt marsh sites at four spatial scales: 1 metre (m) (the minimal sampling unit) nested within a hierarchy of increasing scales of 1-10 m, 10-100 m and 100-1000 m. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England....

Urination data for Welsh Mountain ewes grazing upland and lowland pastures in North Wales, 2016

K.A. Marsden, L. Lush, J.A. Holmberg, M.J. Whelan, A.J. King, R.P. Wilson, A.F. Charteris, L.M. Cardenas, D.L. Jones & D.R. Chadwick
The data contains urination metrics including frequency, volume, chemical composition, estimated urine patch N loading rates and metabolomics profile of individual urine events from sheep (Welsh Mountain ewe) grazing a semi-improved upland pasture and a lowland improved pasture located in North Wales, UK. Urine collection studies were run in the spring, summer and autumn of 2016 for the semi-improved site and in autumn of 2016 on the lowland improved pasture. Sheep were housed in urine...

Grass productivity data from a field site in the Conwy Valley (2016)

L.L. De Sosa, H.C. Glanville, M.R. Marshall, D.M. Cooper & D. Jones
Data are presented showing grass productivity as grammes per 100 square centimetres under four different nutrient treatments (water, nitrogen, phosphorus and nitrogen & phosphorus combined). An experimental hillslope in the Conwy catchment was selected in August 2016. Three transects, were identified across the hillslope. Along each transect, a 1 x 1 square metre quadrat was used to delineate randomly selected sampling areas. Within each quadrat 5 individual 10 x 10 x 10 centimetre (cm) swards...

Plant physiological measurements in North Wales and Northwest England (2013, 2014 and 2016)

M.C. Blanes, S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, H. Harmens, S. Smart, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of plant physiological measurements from 15 sites located in the Conwy catchment (North Wales) and from 2 sites in North West England. Plant photosynthetic parameters for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) and the maximum light saturated photosynthesis (Asat) were measured on the dominant plant species as were foliar nitrogen (Foliar N) and phosphorus (Foliar P). Leaf mass area (LMA) and specific leaf area (SLA)...

Soil hydraulic property data from the Climoor fieldsite in the Clocaenog Forest (2010-2012)

D.A. Robinson, I. Lebron, A.R. Smith, M.R. Marshall, B.A. Emmett, S. Reinsch, D.M. Cooper & M.R. Brooks
This dataset contains soil hydraulic measurement data from the Climoor field site in the Clocaenog forest, in North Wales. The collection contains five data sets. 1) soil bulk density (0-5 centimetre) and saturated water content. 2) Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measured in the field at tensions of -2 and -6 centimetre using a mini disk infiltrometer. 3) Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measured using a HYPROP (registered trademark) instrument, an instrument which determines the hydraulic properties of soil...

Dry bulk density, loss on ignition and organic carbon content of surficial soils from Scottish salt marshes, 2018-2019

P. Ruranska, L.C. Miller, C. Hindle, C.J.T. Ladd, C. Smeaton, M.W. Skov & W.E.N. Austin
The dataset comprises of biogeochemical measurements of saltmarsh soil collected from 46 salt marshes across Scotland. Sites were chosen to represent contrasting habitats across Scotland, in particular sediment types, vegetation and sea level history. The data provide a quantitative measure of the dry bulk density, soil texture, organic matter content (LOI) and organic carbon present within surface soils (up to a depth of 10 cm). A total of 471 samples were collected, 157 of the...

Conwy stream and estuary water quality data (2013-2016) [Turf2Surf]

D.M. Cooper, M.R. Marshall, S.K. Malham, J.L. Williamson, K. Spinney, J.B. Winterbourn, T.D. Peters, E.R. Howlett, P. Rajko-Nenow, M.G. Pereira, A.J. Lawler, P.O. Keenan, S.A. Thacker, S. Hughes & I. Lebron
The data comprise water quality measurements taken from streams and rivers in the Conwy catchment and its estuary from March 2013 to October 2016. Depending on water type and sampling location the data consist of concentrations of major cations and anions, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, suspended material and coliforms. Samples were collected manually or by automatic sampler. Analysis was carried out at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) Bangor, CEH Lancaster and Bangor University laboratories....

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) soil moisture content from three soil depths on salt marsh sites at Morecambe Bay and Essex

H. Ford, A. Garbutt & M. Skov
The dataset comprises the field soil moisture content expressed as a percentage at three depth zones, (0 - 10 centimetre (cm), 10 - 20 cm and 20 - 30 cm), measured from bulk density soil samples taken within each 1 metre x 1 metre quadrat. Sampling was conducted at six salt marsh sites at four spatial scales: 1 metre (m) (the minimal sampling unit) nested within a hierarchy of increasing scales of 1-10 m, 10-100...

Past deforestation (2000-2018) and future deforestation probability (2019-2053) for Wallacea

M. Voigt, J. Supriatna, N.J. Deere, A. Kastanya, S.L. Mitchell, I.M.D. Rosa, T. Santika, R. Siregar, J.S. Tasirin, A. Widyanto, N.L. Winarni, Z. Zakaria, S. Mumbunan, Z.G. Davies & M.J. Struebig
Primary forest cover and forest cover loss in Wallacea for the years 2000-2018 to train a deforestation model and produce maps of projected probability of deforestation until 2053.

Data from: A spatially integrated framework for assessing socioecological drivers of carnivore decline

Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A. V. St. John, Elke Schüttler, David W. Macdonald & Zoe G. Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human–predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively. We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and...

Data from: Gynaecological cancer follow-up: national survey of current practice in the UK

Simon Leeson, Nick Stuart, Yvonne Sylvestre, Liz Hall & Rhiannon Whitaker
Objective: To establish a baseline of national practice for follow-up after treatment for gynaecological cancer. Design: Questionnaire survey. Setting: Gynaecological cancer centres and units. Geographical location: UK Participants: Members of the British Gynaecological Cancer Society and the National Forum of Gynaecological Oncology Nurses. Interventions: A questionnaire survey. Outcome measures: To determine schedules of follow-up, who provides it and what routine testing is used for patients who have had previous gynaecological cancer. Results: A total of...

Data from: How quantitative is metabarcoding: a meta-analytical approach

Philip D. Lamb, Ewan Hunter, John K. Pinnegar, Simon Creer, Richard G. Davies & Martin I. Taylor
Metabarcoding has been used in a range of ecological applications such as taxonomic assignment, dietary analysis, and the analysis of environmental DNA. However, after a decade of use in these applications there is little consensus on the extent to which proportions of reads generated corresponds to the original proportions of species in a community. To quantify our current understanding we conducted a structured review and meta-analysis. The analysis suggests that a weak quantitative relationship may...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of leaf trait variation among and within species during tropical dry forest succession in Costa Rica

Geraldine Derroire, Jennifer S. Powers, Catherine M. Hulshof, Luis E. Cárdenas Varela & John R. Healey
A coordinated response to environmental drivers amongst individual functional traits is central to the plant strategy concept. However, whether the trait co-ordination observed at the global scale occurs at other ecological scales (especially within species) remains an open question. Here, for sapling communities of two tropical dry forest types in Costa Rica, we show large differences amongst traits in the relative contribution of species turnover and intraspecific variation to their directional changes in response to...

Data from: Incorporating the geometry of dispersal and migration to understand spatial patterns of species distributions

Luis Gimenez
Dispersal and migration can be important drivers of species distributions. Because the paths followed by individuals of many species are curvilinear, spatial statistical models based on rectilinear coordinates systems would fail to predict population connectivity or the ecological consequences of migration or species invasions. I propose that we view migration/dispersal as if organisms were moving along curvilinear geometrical objects called smooth manifolds. In that view, the curvilinear pathways become the “shortest realised paths” arising from...

Data from: Colonisation history and genetic diversity: adaptive potential in early stage invasions

Roger S. Thorpe, Jacqualyn Eales & Anita Malhotra
The introduction of Anolis cristatellus from the multiple species anole community of Puerto Rico in the Greater Antilles to the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles, with its solitary endemic anole, provides an example of a very recent, timed, single introduction. We investigate the geographic origin and adaptive potential of the Dominican population using a range of methods including mtDNA phylogeography, nuclear microsatellite variation and multiple paternity studies, as well as heritability estimates, common...

Data from: Range-wide genomic data synthesis reveals transatlantic vicariance and secondary contact in Atlantic cod

Robert Fairweather, Ian R. Bradbury, Sarah J. Heylar, Mark De Bruyn, Nina O. Therkildsen, Paul Bentzen, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen & Gary R. Carvalho
Recent advances in genetic and genomic analysis have greatly improved our understanding of spatial population structure in marine species. However, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns at oceanic spatial scales remain rare. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), existing range‐wide examinations suggest significant transatlantic divergence, although the fine‐scale contemporary distribution of populations and potential for secondary contact are largely unresolved. Here, we explore transatlantic phylogeography in Atlantic cod using a data‐synthesis approach, integrating multiple genome‐wide single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...

Data from: Predicting function from sequence in a large multifunctional toxin family

Anita Malhotra, Simon Creer, John B. Harris, Reto Stöcklin, Philippe Favreau & Roger S. Thorpe
Venoms contain active substances with highly specific physiological effects and are increasingly being used as sources of novel diagnostic, research and treatment tools for human disease. Experimental characterisation of individual toxin activities is a severe rate-limiting step in the discovery process, and in-silico tools which allow function to be predicted from sequence information are essential. Toxins are typically members of large multifunctional families of structurally similar proteins that can have different biological activities, and minor...

Data from: Immanent conditions determine imminent collapses: nutrient regimes define the resilience of macroalgal communities

Jordi Boada, Rohan Arthur, David Alonso, Jordi F. Pagès, Albert Pessarrodona, Silvia Oliva, Giulia Ceccherelli, Luigi Piazzi, Javier Romero & Teresa Alcoverro
Predicting where state-changing thresholds lie can be inherently complex in ecosystems characterized by nonlinear dynamics. Unpacking the mechanisms underlying these transitions can help considerably reduce this unpredictability. We used empirical observations, field and laboratory experiments, and mathematical models to examine how differences in nutrient regimes mediate the capacity of macrophyte communities to sustain sea urchin grazing. In relatively nutrient-rich conditions, macrophyte systems were more resilient to grazing, shifting to barrens beyond 1 800 g m−2...

Data from: Plasticity in growth of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon: is the increased growth rate of farmed salmon caused by evolutionary adaptations to the commercial diet?

Alison C. Harvey, Monica F. Solberg, Eva Troianou, Gary R. Carvalho, Martin I. Taylor, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar Helge Matre & Kevin A. Glover
Background: Domestication of Atlantic salmon for commercial aquaculture has resulted in farmed salmon displaying substantially higher growth rates than wild salmon under farming conditions. In contrast, growth differences between farmed and wild salmon are much smaller when compared in the wild. The mechanisms underlying this contrast between environments remain largely unknown. It is possible that farmed salmon have adapted to the high-energy pellets developed specifically for aquaculture, contributing to inflated growth differences when fed on...

Data from: Medically important differences in snake venom composition are dictated by distinct postgenomic mechanisms

Nicholas R. Casewell, Simon C. Wagstaff, Wolfgang Wüster, Darren A. N. Cook, Fiona M. S. Bolton, Sarah I. King, Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Juan J. Calvete & Robert A. Harrison
Variation in venom composition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in snakes and occurs both interspecifically and intraspecifically. Venom variation can have severe outcomes for snakebite victims by rendering the specific antibodies found in antivenoms ineffective against heterologous toxins found in different venoms. The rapid evolutionary expansion of different toxin-encoding gene families in different snake lineages is widely perceived as the main cause of venom variation. However, this view is simplistic and disregards the understudied influence that...

Data from: Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae).

Andrew G. Briscoe, Sarah Goodacre, Susan E. Masta, Martin I. Taylor, Miquel A. Arnedo, David Penney, John Kenny, Simon Creer & Sara Goodacre
The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput...

Data from: A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod

Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Einar E. Nielsen, Nina O. Therkildsen, Martin I. Taylor, Rob Ogden, Audrey J. Geffen, Dorte Bekkevold, Sarah Helyar, Christophe Pampoulie, Torild Johansen & Gary R. Carvalho
The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome-wide or localized in “genomic mosaics” during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced. Empirical work has so far been limited, and the relative impacts of gene flow and natural selection on genomic patterns have not been fully explored. Here, we use ecotypes of Atlantic cod to investigate...

Data from: Transcriptomics and in vivo tests reveal novel mechanisms underlying endocrine disruption in an ecological sentinel, Nucella lapillus

Sonia Pascoal, Gary Carvalho, Olga Vasieva, Roger Hughes, Andrew Cossins, Yongxiang Fang, Kevin Ashelford, Lisa Olohan, Carlos Barroso, Sonia Mendo & Simon Creer
Anthropogenic endocrine disruptors now contaminate all environments globally, with concomitant deleterious effects across diverse taxa. While most studies on endocrine disruption (ED) have focused on vertebrates, the superimposition of male sexual characteristics in the female dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus (imposex), caused by organotins, provides one of the most clearcut ecological examples of anthropogenically induced ED in aquatic ecosystems. To identify the underpinning mechanisms of imposex for this ‘nonmodel’ species, we combined Roche 454 pyrosequencing with custom...

Data from: Negative effects of vertebrate on invertebrate herbivores mediated by enhanced plant nitrogen content

Yu Zhu, Zhiwei Zhong, Jordi Pagès, Deborah Finke, Deli Wang, Quanhui Ma, Nazim Hassan, Zhu Hui, Ling Wang & Hui Zhu
1. Classic theory holds that the main interaction within the herbivore guild is competition, based on research focused on co-occurring, similarly-sized species that reduce the quantity of shared plant resources. However, plant quality may also be crucial in mediating herbivore interspecific interactions. This is especially true when competition occurs between distantly-related herbivore species, given that small terrestrial herbivores (e.g. insect herbivores) appear to be more sensitive to alterations of plant quality than plant quantity. 2....

Data from: When one phenotype is not enough - divergent evolutionary trajectories govern venom variation in a widespread rattlesnake species

Giulia Zancolli, Juan J. Calvete, Michael D. Cardwell, Harry W. Greene, William K. Hayes, Matthew J. Hegarty, Hans-Werner Herrmann, Andrew T. Holycross, Dominic I. Lannutti, John F. Mulley, Libia Sanz, Zachary D. Travis, Joshua R. Whorley, Catharine E. Wüster & Wolfgang Wuster
Understanding the origin and maintenance of phenotypic variation, particularly across a continuous spatial distribution, represents a key challenge in evolutionary biology. For this, animal venoms represent ideal study systems: they are complex, variable, yet easily quantifiable molecular phenotypes with a clear function. Rattlesnakes display tremendous variation in their venom composition, mostly through strongly dichotomous venom strategies, which may even coexist within single species. Here, through dense, widespread population-level sampling of the Mojave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus,...

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