21 Works

Data from: Geckos as springs: mechanics explain across-species scaling of adhesion

Casey A. Gilman, Michael J. Imburgia, Michael D. Bartlett, Daniel R. King, Alfred J. Crosby & Duncan J. Irschick
One of the central controversies regarding the evolution of adhesion concerns how adhesive force scales as animals change in size, either among or within species. A widely held view is that as animals become larger, the primary mechanism that enables them to climb is increasing pad area. However, prior studies show that much of the variation in maximum adhesive force remains unexplained, even when area is accounted for. We tested the hypothesis that maximum adhesive...

Data from: A characterization of autumn nocturnal migration detected by weather surveillance radars in the northeastern US

Andrew Farnsworth, Benjamin Mark Van Doren, Wesley M. Hochachka, Daniel Sheldon, Kevin Winner, Jed Irvine, Jeffrey Geevarghese & Steve Kelling
Billions of birds migrate at night over North America each year. However, few studies have described the phenology of these movements, such as magnitudes, directions, and speeds, for more than one migration season and at regional scales. In this study, we characterize density, direction, and speed of nocturnally migrating birds using data from 13 weather surveillance radars in the autumns of 2010 and 2011 in the northeastern US. After screening radar data to remove precipitation,...

Data from: Developmental plasticity affects sexual size dimorphism in an anole lizard

Camille Bonneaud, Erin Marnocha, Anthony Herrel, Bieke Vanhooydonck, Duncan J. Irschick & Thomas B. Smith
While developmental plasticity has been shown to contribute to sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in laboratory studies, its role in shaping SSD variation in wild vertebrate populations is unclear. Here we use a field study and a laboratory experiment to show that resource availability influences the degree of SSD among insular populations of Anolis sagrei lizards in the Bahamas. Total amounts of food biomass explained variation in male, but not female, body size on six Bahamian...

Data from: Root herbivory indirectly affects above- and belowground community members and directly reduces plant performance

Nicholas A. Barber, Nelson J. Milano, E. Toby Kiers, Nina Theis, Vanessa Bartolo, Ruth V. Hazzard & Lynn S. Adler
1.There is widespread recognition that above- and below-ground organisms are linked through their interactions with host plants that span terrestrial subsystems. In addition to direct effects on plants, soil organisms such as root herbivores can indirectly alter interactions between plants and other community members, with potentially important effects on plant growth and fitness. 2. We manipulated root herbivory by Acalymma vittatum in Cucumis sativus to determine indirect effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, leaf herbivory, the...

Data from: Ecology drives natural variation in an extreme antipredator trait: a cost-benefits analysis integrating modeling and field data

Chi-Yun Kuo & Duncan J. Irschick
Autotomy, or the voluntary shedding of body parts, is an extreme antipredator behaviour used by species in more than 100 animal families. Despite the long-standing observation that the propensity for autotomy can vary extensively among populations, how ecology might drive such variation is still poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that the variation in this extreme behaviour reflects the balance between costs and benefits determined by the local ecological environment. We focused on three ecological...

Data from: Phylogenetic analysis reveals positive correlations between adaptations to diverse hosts in a group of pathogen-like herbivores

Daniel A. Peterson, Nate B. Hardy, Geoffrey E. Morse, Ian C. Stocks, Akiko Okusu & Benjamin B. Normark
A jack of all trades can be master of none – this intuitive idea underlies most theoretical models of host-use evolution in plant-feeding insects, yet empirical support for trade-offs in performance on distinct host plants is weak. Trade-offs may influence the long-term evolution of host use while being difficult to detect in extant populations, but host-use evolution may also be driven by adaptations for generalism. Here we used host-use data from insect collection records to...

Data from: Plant-soil interactions shape the identity and persistence of soil organic carbon in invaded ecosystems: implication for legacy effects

Vidya Suseela, Peter Alpert, Cindy H. Nakatsu, Arthur Armstrong & Nishanth Tharayil
1. Introduced, invasive plants can alter local soil chemistry and microbial communities, but the underlying mechanisms and extent of these changes are largely unknown. Based on characteristics associated with invasiveness in plants, it was hypothesized that introduced species that produce large amounts of litter with distinctive secondary compounds can a) alter the chemistry of both extractable and bulk carbon in the soil, b) shift microbial communities towards microbes better able to metabolize the compounds in...

Data from: Scale insect host ranges are broader in the tropics

Nate B. Hardy, Daniel A. Peterson & Benjamin B. Normark
The specificity of the interactions between plants and their consumers varies considerably. The evolutionary and ecological factors underlying this variation are unclear. Several potential explanatory factors vary with latitude, for example plant species richness and the intensity of herbivory. Here, we use comparative phylogenetic methods to test the effect of latitude on host range in scale insects. We find that, on average, scale insects that occur in lower latitudes are more polyphagous. This result is...

Data from: Connecting proximate mechanisms and evolutionary patterns: pituitary gland size and mammalian life history

Jason M. Kamilar & Stacey R. Tecot
At the proximate level, hormones are known to play a critical role in influencing the life history of mammals, including humans. The pituitary gland is directly responsible for producing several hormones, including those related to growth and reproduction. Although we have a basic understanding of how hormones affect life history characteristics, we still have little knowledge of this relationship in an evolutionary context. We used data from 129 mammal species representing 14 orders to investigate...

Data from: Migration timing and its determinants for nocturnal migratory birds during autumn migration

Frank A. La Sorte, Wesley H. Hochachka, Andrew Farnsworth, Daniel Sheldon, Daniel Fink, Jeffrey Geevarghese, Kevin Winner, Benjamin M. Van Doren & Steve Kelling
1. Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments, and multiple environmental and biological factors determine the timing of migration. How these factors operate in combination during autumn migration, which is considered to be under weaker time constraints relative to spring migration, is not clear. 2. Here, we examine the patterns and determinants of migration timing for nocturnal migrants during autumn migration in the north-eastern USA using nocturnal reflectivity data...

Data from: More than one way to evolve a weed: Parallel evolution of U.S. weedy rice through independent genetic mechanisms

Xinshuai Qi, Yan Liu, Cynthia C. Vigueira, Nelson D. Young, Ana L. Caicedo, Yulin Jia, David R. Gealy & Kenneth M. Olsen
Many different crop species were selected for a common suite of ‘domestication traits’, which facilitates their use for studies of parallel evolution. Within domesticated rice (Oryza sativa), there has also been independent evolution of weedy strains from different cultivated varieties. This makes it possible to examine the genetic basis of parallel weed evolution and the extent to which this process occurs through shared genetic mechanisms. We performed comparative QTL mapping of weediness traits using two...

Data from: Effective number of breeders provides a link between interannual variation in stream flow and individual reproductive contribution in a stream salmonid

Andrew R. Whiteley, Jason A. Coombs, Matthew Cembrola, Matthew J. O'Donnell, Mark Hudy, Keith H. Nislow & Benjamin H. Letcher
The effective number of breeders that give rise to a cohort (Nb) is a promising metric for genetic monitoring of species with overlapping generations; however, more work is needed to understand factors that contribute to variation in this measure in natural populations. We tested hypotheses related to interannual variation in Nb in two long-term studies of brook trout populations. We found no supporting evidence for our initial hypothesis that inline image reflects inline image (defined...

Data from: Diet- and genetically-induced obesity differentially affect the fecal microbiome and metabolome in Apc1638N mice

Anna C. Pfalzer, Paula-Dene C. Nesbeth, Laurence D. Parnell, Lakshmanan K. Iyer, Zhenhua Liu, Anne V. Kane, C-Y. Oliver Chen, Albert K. Tai, Thomas A. Bowman, Martin S. Obin, Joel B. Mason, Andrew S. Greenberg, Sang-Woon Choi, Jacob Selhub, Ligi Paul & Jimmy W. Crott
Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), and alterations in the colonic microbiome and metabolome may be mechanistically involved in this relationship. The relative contribution of diet and obesity per se are unclear. We compared the effect of diet- and genetically-induced obesity on the intestinal microbiome and metabolome in a mouse model of CRC. Apc1638N mice were made obese by either high fat (HF) feeding or the presence of the Leprdb/db (DbDb) mutation....

Data from: Seasonal changes in the altitudinal distribution of nocturnally migrating birds during autumn migration

Frank A. La Sorte, Wesley M. Hochachka, Andrew Farnsworth, Daniel Sheldon, Benjamin M. Van Doren, Daniel Fink & Steve Kelling
Wind plays a significant role in the flight altitudes selected by nocturnally migrating birds. At mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, atmospheric conditions are dictated by the polar-front jet stream, whose amplitude increases in the autumn. One consequence for migratory birds is that the region’s prevailing westerly winds become progressively stronger at higher migration altitudes. We expect this seasonality in wind speed to result in migrants occupying progressively lower flight altitudes, which we test using density...

Data from: The importance of delineating networks by activity type in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida

Stefanie Gazda, Swami Iyer, Timothy Killingback, Richard Connor & Solange Brault
Network analysis has proved to be a valuable tool for studying the behavioural patterns of complex social animals. Often such studies either do not distinguish between different behavioural states of the organisms or simply focus attention on a single behavioural state to the exclusion of all others. In either of these approaches it is impossible to ascertain how the behavioural patterns of individuals depend on the type of activity they are engaged in. Here we...

Data from: Secondary metabolites in floral nectar reduce parasite infections in bumblebees

Leif L. Richardson, Lynn S. Adler, Anne S. Leonard, Jonathan Andicoechea, Karly H. Regan, Winston E. Anthony, Jessamyn S. Manson & Rebecca E. Irwin
The synthesis of secondary metabolites is a hallmark of plant defence against herbivores. These compounds may be detrimental to consumers, but can also protect herbivores against parasites. Floral nectar commonly contains secondary metabolites, but little is known about the impacts of nectar chemistry on pollinators, including bees. We hypothesized that nectar secondary metabolites could reduce bee parasite infection. We inoculated individual bumblebees with Crithidia bombi, an intestinal parasite, and tested effects of eight naturally occurring...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: The evolution of life cycle complexity in aphids: ecological optimization, or historical constraint?

Nate B. Hardy, Daniel A. Peterson & Carol D. Von Dohlen
For decades, biologists have debated why many parasites have obligate multi-host life cycles. Here, we use comparative phylogenetic analyses of aphids to evaluate the roles of ecological optimization and historical constraint in the evolution of life cycle complexity. If life cycle complexity is adaptive, it should be evolutionarily labile, i.e., change in response to selection. We provide evidence that this is true in some aphids (aphidines), but not others (non-aphidines) – groups that differ in...

Data from: Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance

Matthew A. Mumma, Chris Zieminski, Todd Fuller, Shane P. Mahoney, Lisette P. Waits & Todd K. Fuller
Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling...

Data from: Phase-dependent climate-predator interactions explain three decades of variation in neonatal caribou survival

Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, James A. Schaefer, Keith P. Lewis, Matthew Mumma, E. Hance Ellington, Nathaniel D. Rayl, Shane P. Mahoney, Darren Pouliot, Dennis L. Murray & Matthew A. Mumma
1. Climate can have direct and indirect effects on population dynamics via changes in resource competition or predation risk, but this influence can be modulated by density- or phase-dependent processes. We hypothesized that for ungulates, climatic conditions close to parturition have a greater influence on the predation risk of neonates during population declines, when females are already under nutritional stress triggered by food limitation. 2. We examined the presence of phase-dependent climate-predator interactions on neonatal...

Data from: The evolutionary legacy of size-selective harvesting extends from genes to populations

Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, Andrew R. Whiteley, Anna Kuparinen, Shuichi Matsumura, Paul A. Venturelli, Christian Wolter, Jon Slate, Craig R. Primmer, Thomas Meinelt, Shaun S. Killen, David Bierbach, Giovanni Polverino, Arne Ludwig & Robert Arlinghaus
Size-selective harvesting is assumed to alter life histories of exploited fish populations, thereby negatively affecting population productivity, recovery, and yield. However, demonstrating that fisheries-induced phenotypic changes in the wild are at least partly genetically determined has proved notoriously difficult. Moreover, the population-level consequences of fisheries-induced evolution are still being controversially discussed. Using an experimental approach, we found that five generations of size-selective harvesting altered the life histories and behavior, but not the metabolic rate, of...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    21

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    21

Affiliations

  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    21
  • Auburn University
    3
  • University of Idaho
    2
  • Cornell University
    2
  • Tufts Medical Center
    1
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    1
  • University of Antwerp
    1
  • VU University Amsterdam
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Darmouth
    1