20 Works

Data from: The comparative hydrodynamics of rapid rotation by predatory appendages

Mathew J. McHenry, Philip S. L. Anderson, Sam Van Wassenbergh, David Matthews, Adam Summers & S. N. Patek
Countless aquatic animals rotate appendages through the water, yet fluid forces are typically modeled with translational motion. To elucidate the hydrodynamics of rotation, we analyzed the raptorial appendages of mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) using a combination of flume experiments, mathematical modeling and phylogenetic comparative analyses. We found that computationally efficient blade-element models offered an accurate first-order approximation of drag, when compared with a more elaborate computational fluid-dynamic model. Taking advantage of this efficiency, we compared the...

Ancient and modern colonization of North America by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an invasive insect from East Asia

Nathan P. Havill, Shigehiko Shiyake, Ashley Lamb Galloway, Robert G. Foottit, Guoyue Yu, Annnie Paradis, Joseph Elkinton, Michael E. Montgomery, Masakazu Sano, Adalgisa Caccone & Annie Paradis
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of hemlock trees (Tsuga) in eastern North America. We used 14 microsatellites and mitochondrial COI sequences to assess its worldwide genetic structure and reconstruct its colonization history. The resulting information about its life cycle, biogeography and host specialization could help predict invasion by insect herbivores. We identified eight endemic lineages of hemlock adelgids in central China, western China, Ulleung Island (South Korea), western North America, and...

Data from: Madagascar's ephemeral palaeo-grazer guild: who ate the ancient C4 grasses?

Laurie R. Godfrey & Brooke E. Crowley
Supplementary isotope and radiocarbon data on subfossil hippos and tortoises of MadagascarRaw and corrected d13C data and 14C and calibrated radiocarbon ages before present, and data sources for now-extinct Hippopotamus and Aldabrachelys on MadagascarSupplementary Table_for submission.xls

Data from: Novel opsin gene variation in large-bodied, diurnal lemurs

Rachel L. Jacobs, Tammie S. MacFie, Amanda N. Spriggs, Andrea L. Baden, Toni Lyn Morelli, Mitchell T. Irwin, Richard R. Lawler, Jennifer Pastorini, Mireya Mayor, Runhua Lei, Ryan Culligan, Melissa T. R. Hawkins, Peter M. Kappeler, Patricia C. Wright, Edward E. Louis, Nicholas I. Mundy & Brenda J. Bradley
Some primate populations include both trichromatic and dichromatic (red–green colour blind) individuals due to allelic variation at the X-linked opsin locus. This polymorphic trichromacy is well described in day-active New World monkeys. Less is known about colour vision in Malagasy lemurs, but, unlike New World monkeys, only some day-active lemurs are polymorphic, while others are dichromatic. The evolutionary pressures underlying these differences in lemurs are unknown, but aspects of species ecology, including variation in activity...

Data from: First diagnosis of septic arthritis in a dinosaur

Jennifer Anné, Brandon P. Hedrick & Jason P. Schein
Identification and interpretation of pathologies in the fossil record allows for unique insights into the life histories of extinct organisms. However, the rarity of such finds limits not only the sample size for palaeopathologic studies, but also the types of analyses that may be performed. In this study, we present the first occurrence of a palaeopathology in a vertebrate from the Mesozoic of the East Coast of North America (Appalachia), a pathologic ulna and radius...

Data from: Vigor and skill in the acrobatic mating displays of a Neotropical songbird

Lilian T. Manica, Regina H. Macedo, Jefferson A. Graves & Jeffrey Podos
Animal social behaviors are often mediated by signals that provide information about signaler attributes. Although some signals are structurally simple, others are temporally dynamic and multifaceted. In such cases, exaggeration of some display components is likely to curtail the expression of others. We quantified features of the acrobatic, multimodal “leap display” of blue-black grassquits (Volatinia jacarina), which appears to entail moderate-to-high performance levels in terms of vigor and skill. We video recorded and quantified leap...

Data from: Foraging environment determines the genetic architecture and evolutionary potential of trophic morphology in cichlid fishes

Kevin J. Parsons, Moira Concannon, Dina Navon, Jason Wang, Ilene Ea, Kiran Groveas, Calum Campbell & R. Craig Albertson
Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to change their phenotype in response to shifts in the environment. While a central topic in current discussions of evolutionary potential, a comprehensive understanding of the genetic underpinnings of plasticity is lacking in systems undergoing adaptive diversification. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity in a textbook adaptive radiation, Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Specifically, we crossed two divergent species to generate an F3 hybrid mapping population. At early juvenile...

Data from: Assessing the effects of a sequestered germline on interdomain lateral gene transfer in Metazoa

Lindy M Jensen, Jessica R Grant, , Laura A. Katz & Lindy Jensen
A sequestered germline in Metazoa has been argued to be an obstacle to lateral gene transfer (LGT), though few studies have specifically assessed this claim. Here we test the hypothesis that the origin of a sequestered germline reduced LGT events in Bilateria (i.e. triploblast lineages) as compared to early-diverging Metazoa (i.e. Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Porifera, and Placozoa). We analyze single-gene phylogenies generated with over 900 species, sampled from among Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota to identify well-supported...

Data from: Using spatial capture–recapture to elucidate population processes and space-use in herpetological studies

David J. Muñoz, David A. W. Miller, Chris Sutherland & Evan H. Campbell Grant
The cryptic behavior and ecology of herpetofauna make estimating the impacts of environmental change on demography difficult; yet, the ability to measure demographic relationships is essential for elucidating mechanisms leading to the population declines reported for herpetofauna worldwide. Recently developed spatial capture–recapture (SCR) methods are well suited to standard herpetofauna monitoring approaches. Individually identifying animals and their locations allows accurate estimates of population densities and survival. Spatial capture–recapture methods also allow estimation of parameters describing...

Sensory feedback and coordinating asymmetrical landing in toads

Suzanne Cox, Gary B. Gills, Gary B. Gillis & S. M. Cox
Coordinated landing requires anticipating the timing and magnitude of impact, which in turn requires sensory input. To better understand how cane toads, well known for coordinated landing, prioritize visual versus vestibular feedback during hopping, we recorded forelimb joint angle patterns and electromyographic data from five animals hopping under two conditions that were designed to force animals to land with one forelimb well before the other. In one condition, landing asymmetry was due to mid-air rolling,...

Data from: Assessing the umbrella value of a range-wide conservation network for jaguars (Panthera onca)

Daniel Thornton, Kathy Zeller, Carlo Rondinini, Luigi Boitani, Kevin Crooks, Christopher Burdett, Alan Rabinowitz & Howard Quigley
Umbrella species are employed as conservation short-cuts for the design of reserves or reserve networks. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of umbrellas is equivocal, which has prevented more widespread application of this conservation strategy. We perform a novel large-scale evaluation of umbrella species by assessing the potential umbrella value of a jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation network (consisting of viable populations and corridors) that extends from Mexico to Argentina. Using species richness, habitat quality, and...

Data from: Attracting mutualists and antagonists: plant trait variation explains the distribution of specialist floral herbivores and pollinators on crops and wild gourds

N. Theis, N. A. Barber, S. D. Gillespie, R. V. Hazzard & L. S. Adler
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Floral traits play important roles in pollinator attraction and defense against floral herbivory. However, plants may experience trade-offs between conspicuousness to pollinators and herbivore attraction. Comparative studies provide an excellent framework to examine the role of multiple traits shaping mutualist and antagonist interactions. METHODS: To assess whether putative defensive and attractive traits predict species interactions, we grew 20 different Cucurbitaceae species and varieties in the field to measure interactions with pollinators...

Data from: Synchrony in small mammal community dynamics across a forested landscape

Ryan B. Stephens, Daniel J. Hocking, Mariko Yamasaki & Rebecca J. Rowe
Long-term studies at local scales indicate that fluctuations in abundance among trophically similar species are often temporally synchronized. Complementary studies on synchrony across larger spatial extents are less common, as are studies that investigate the subsequent impacts on community dynamics across the landscape. We investigate the impact of species population fluctuations on concordance in community dynamics for the small mammal fauna of the White Mountain National Forest, USA. Hierarchical open population models, which account for...

Data from: Island-wide aridity did not trigger recent megafaunal extinctions in Madagascar

Brooke E. Crowley, Laurie R. Godfrey, Richard J. Bankoff, George H. Perry, Brendan J. Culleton, Douglas J. Kennett, Michael R. Sutherland, Karen E. Samonds & David A. Burney
Researchers are divided about the relative importance of people versus climate in triggering the Late Holocene extinctions of the endemic large-bodied fauna on the island of Madagascar. Specifically, a dramatic and synchronous decline in arboreal pollen and increase in grass pollen ca. 1,000 years ago has been alternatively interpreted as evidence for aridification, increased human activity, or both. As aridification and anthropogenic deforestation can have similar effects on vegetation, resolving which of these factors (if...

Data from: Keeping things local: subpopulation Nb and Ne in a stream network with partial barriers to fish migration

Andrew R. Whiteley, Jason A. Coombs, Matthew J. O'Donnell, Keith H. Nislow & Benjamin H. Letcher
For organisms with overlapping generations that occur in metapopulations, uncertainty remains regarding the spatio-temporal scale of inference of estimates of the effective number of breeders (N^b)and whether these estimates can be used to predict generational Ne. We conducted a series of tests of the spatio-temporal scale of inference of estimates of Nb in nine consecutive cohorts within a long-term study of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also tested a recently developed approach to estimate generational...

Data from: The effects of dietary macronutrients on flight ability, energetics, and fuel metabolism of yellow-rumped warblers Setophaga coronata

Christopher G. Guglielmo, Alexander R. Gerson, Edwin R. Price & Quentin R. Hays
The catabolism of protein from organs and muscles during migratory flight is necessary to produce glucose, key metabolic intermediates, and water, but may have negative effects on flight range and refueling at stopovers. We tested the hypothesis, suggested by previous studies, that birds that eat high-protein insect diets use more protein for fuel in flight than those that eat high-carbohydrate fruits. First, we fed migratory yellow-rumped warblers synthetic fruit or mixed insect/fruit diets, and measured...

Data from: Tempo and mode of genome evolution in a 50,000-generation experiment

Olivier Tenaillon, Jeffrey E. Barrick, Noah Ribeck, Daniel E. Deatherage, Jeffrey L. Blanchard, Aurko Dasgupta, Gabriel C. Wu, Sébastien Wielgoss, Stéphane Cruveiller, Claudine Médigue, Dominique Schneider & Richard E. Lenski
Adaptation by natural selection depends on the rates, effects and interactions of many mutations, making it difficult to determine what proportion of mutations in an evolving lineage are beneficial. Here we analysed 264 complete genomes from 12 Escherichia coli populations to characterize their dynamics over 50,000 generations. The populations that retained the ancestral mutation rate support a model in which most fixed mutations are beneficial, the fraction of beneficial mutations declines as fitness rises, and...

Data from: Little white lies: pericarp color provides insights into the origins and evolution of Southeast Asian weedy rice

Yongxia Cui, Beng Kah Song, Lin-Feng Li, Ya-Ling Li, Zhongyun Huang, Ana L. Caicedo, Yulin Jia & Kenneth M. Olsen
Weedy rice is a conspecific form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) that infests rice fields and results in severe crop losses. Weed strains in different world regions appear to have originated multiple times from different domesticated and/or wild rice progenitors. In the case of Malaysian weedy rice, a multiple-origin model has been proposed based on neutral markers and analyses of domestication genes for hull color and seed shattering. Here we examined variation in pericarp...

Data from: Genetic and developmental basis for fin shape variation in African cichlid fishes

Dina Navon, Nathan Olearczyk & R. Craig Albertson
Adaptive radiations are often characterized by the rapid evolution of traits associated with divergent feeding modes. For example, the evolutionary history of African cichlids is marked by repeated and coordinated shifts in skull, trophic, fin and body shape. Here, we seek to explore the molecular basis for fin shape variation in Lake Malawi cichlids. We first described variation within an F2 mapping population derived by crossing two cichlid species with divergent morphologies including fin shape....

Data from: Evidence toads may modulate landing preparation without predicting impact time

Suzanne M. Cox & Gary B. Gillis
Within anurans (frogs and toads), cane toads (Bufo marinus) perform particularly controlled landings in which the forelimbs are exclusively used to decelerate and stabilize the body after impact. Here we explore how toads achieve dynamic stability across a wide range of landing conditions. Specifically, we suggest that torques during landing could be reduced by aligning forelimbs with the body's instantaneous velocity vector at impact (impact angle). To test whether toad forelimb orientation varies with landing...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    20

Affiliations

  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    20
  • Northern Illinois University
    3
  • University of Cincinnati
    2
  • Mount Holyoke College
    2
  • United States Geological Survey
    2
  • Pennsylvania State University
    2
  • University of Montana
    1
  • University of Antwerp
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Hunter College
    1