16 Works

Data from: Unexpected spatial population ecology of a widespread terrestrial salamander near its southern range edge

Raisa Hernández-Pacheco, Chris Sutherland, Lily M. Thompson & Kristine Grayson
Under the current amphibian biodiversity crisis, common species provide an opportunity to measure population dynamics across a wide range of environmental conditions while examining the processes that determine abundance and structure geographic ranges. Studying species at their range limits also provides a window for understanding the dynamics expected in future environments under increasing climate change and human modification. We quantified patterns of seasonal activity, density, and space use in the Eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus)...

Data from: Estimating body mass of free-living whales using aerial photogrammetry and 3D volumetrics

Fredrik Christiansen, Mariano Sironi, Michael J. Moore, Matías Di Martino, Marcos Ricciardi, Hunter A. Warick, Duncan J. Irschick, Robert Gutierrez & Marcela M. Uhart
1. Body mass is a key life history trait in animals. Despite being the largest animals on the planet, no method currently exists to estimate body mass of free-living whales. 2. We combined aerial photographs and historical catch records to estimate the body mass of free-living right whales (Eubalaena sp.). First, aerial photogrammetry from unmanned aerial vehicles was used to measure the body length, width (lateral distance) and height (dorso-ventral distance) of free-living southern right...

Data from: Genetic analyses in Lake Malawi cichlids identify new roles for Fgf signaling in scale shape variation

R. Craig Albertson, Kenta Kawasaki, Emily Tetrault & Kara Powder
Elasmoid scales are the most common epithelial appendage among vertebrates, however an understanding of the genetic mechanisms that underlie variation in scale shape is lacking. Using an F2 mapping cross between morphologically distinct cichlid species, we identified >40 QTL for scale shape at different body positions. We show that while certain regions of the genome regulate variation in multiple scales, most are specific to scales at distinct positions. This suggests a degree of regional modularity...

Temporally varying disruptive selection in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis).

Marc-Olivier Beausoleil, Luke Frishkoff, Leithen M'Gonigle, Joost Raeymaekers, Sarah Knutie, Luis De León, Sarah Huber, Jaime Chaves, Dale Clayton, Jennifer Koop, Jeffrey Podos, Diana Sharpe, Andrew Hendry & Rowan Barrett
Disruptive natural selection within populations exploiting different resources is considered to be a major driver of adaptive radiation and the production of biodiversity. Fitness functions, which describe the relationships between trait variation and fitness, can help to illuminate how this disruptive selection leads to population differentiation. However, a single fitness function represents only a particular selection regime over a single specified time period (often a single season or a year), and therefore might not capture...

Source data for \"Invasive grasses increase fire occurrence and frequency across U.S. ecoregions.\"

Emily Fusco, John Finn, Jennifer Balch, R. Chelsea Nagy & Bethany Bradley

Data from: Opening the tap: increased riverine connectivity strengthens marine food web pathways.

Beatriz S. Dias, Michael G. Frisk & Adrian Jordaan
Reduction of ecosystem connectivity has long-lasting impacts on food webs. Anadromous fish, which migrate from marine to freshwater ecosystems to complete reproduction, have seen their historically larger ecosystem role undercut by widespread riverine habitat fragmentation and other impacts mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. The result has been extensive extirpations and increased susceptibility to a suite of environmental factors that currently impede recovery. Under this present-day context of reduced productivity and connectivity, aggressive management actions and...

Larger body size and earlier run timing increase alewife reproductive success in a whole lake experiment

Meghna Marjadi, Allison Roy, Adrian Jordaan & Andrew Whiteley
Environmental conditions can influence biological characteristics, such as phenology and body size, with important consequences for organismal fitness. Examining these fitness consequences under natural conditions through genetic pedigree reconstruction offers a lens into potential population responses to changing environments. Over 3 years (2013–2015), we introduced adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), anadromous, iteroparous clupeids, into one Massachusetts (USA) lake to complete the first detailed examination of this species’ mating system and assess relationships among body size, reproductive...

Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics

Francesco Rovero, Jorge Ahumada, Patrick Jansen, Douglas Sheil, Patricia Alvarez, Kelly Boekee, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Lima, Emanuel Martin, Timothy O’Brien, Julia Salvador, Fernanda Santos, Melissa Rosa, Alexander Zvoleff, Chris Sutherland & Simone Tenan
Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here,...

Data from: Examining carry‐over effects of winter habitat on breeding phenology and reproductive success in prairie warblers (Setophaga discolor)

Michael E. Akresh, David I. King & Peter P. Marra
Winter habitat quality can influence breeding phenology and reproductive success of migratory birds. Using stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) from bird claws and red blood cells collected in Massachusetts, USA, we assessed if winter habitat occupancy carried over to affect prairie warbler (Setophaga discolor) breeding arrival dates, body condition upon arrival, pairing success, first-egg dates, and reproductive success. In two of three years (in 2011 and 2012, but not in 2013), after-second-year (ASY) males...

Data from: Bee pathogen transmission dynamics: deposition, persistence and acquisition on flowers

Laura L. Figueroa, Malcolm Blinder, Cali Grincavitch, Angus Jelinek, Emilia K. Mann, Liam A. Merva, Lucy E. Metz, Amy Y. Zhao, Rebecca E. Irwin, Scott H. McArt & Lynn S. Adler
Infectious diseases are a primary driver of bee decline worldwide, but limited understanding of how pathogens are transmitted hampers effective management. Flowers have been implicated as hubs of bee disease transmission, but we know little about how interspecific floral variation affects transmission dynamics. Using bumble bees (Bombus impatiens), a trypanosomatid pathogen (Crithidia bombi), and three plant species varying in floral morphology, we assessed how host infection and plant species affect pathogen deposition on flowers, and...

Source data for \"Writing with librarians: Reporting back on turning your poster or presentation into an article.\"

Kristin Lee & Thea Atwood

Data from: Pre-infection effects of nectar secondary compounds on a bumble bee gut pathogen

Kristen Michaud, Rebecca Irwin, Nicholas Barber & Lynn Adler
Bumble bee pollinators can be exposed to pathogens when foraging on flowers previously visited by infected individuals. Infectious cells may be deposited in floral nectar, providing a site for pathogens to interact with nectar secondary compounds prior to infecting bees. Some nectar secondary compounds can reduce pathogen counts in infected bumble bees, but we know less about how exposure to these compounds directly affects pathogens prior to being ingested by their host. We exposed the...

Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor

John M. Martinis, Sergio Boixo, Hartmut Neven, Frank Arute, Kunal Arya, Ryan Babbush, Dave Bacon, Joseph C. Bardin, Rami Barends, Rupak Biswas, Fernando G. S. L. Brandao, David A. Buell, Brian Burkett, Yu Chen, Zijun Chen, Ben Chiaro, Roberto Collins, William Courtney, Andrew Dunsworth, Edward Farhi, Brooks Foxen, Austin Fowler, Craig Gidney, Marissa Giustina, Rob Graff … & Adam Zalcman
The tantalizing promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here, we report using a processor with programmable superconducting qubits to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 2^53 ∼ 10^16. Measurements from repeated...

Data from: Evidence to support common application switching behaviour on smartphones

Liam Turner, Roger Whitaker, Stuart Allen, David Linden, Kun Tu, Jian Li & Don Towsley
We find evidence to support common behaviour in smartphone usage based on analysis of application (app) switching. This is an overlooked aspect of smartphone usage that gives additional insight beyond screen time and the particular apps that are accessed. Using a dataset of usage behaviour from 53 participants over a 6-week period, we find strong similarity in the structure of networks built from app switching, despite diversity in the apps used, and the volume of...

Data from: Length polymorphisms at two candidate genes explain variation of migratory behaviors in blackpoll warblers (Setophaga striata)

Joel Ralston, Lydia Lorenc, Melissa Montes, William Deluca, Jeremy Kirchman, Brad Woodworth, Stuart Mackenzie, Amy Newman, Hilary A. Cooke, Nikole Freeman, Alex Sutton, Lila Tauzer & D. Ryan Norris
Migratory behaviors such as the timing and duration of migration are genetically inherited and can be under strong natural selection, yet we still know very little about the specific genes or molecular pathways that control these behaviors. Studies in candidate genes Clock and Adcyap1 have revealed that both of these loci can be significantly correlated with migratory behaviors in birds, though observed relationships appear to vary across species. We investigated geographic genetic structure of Clock...

Does blood loss explain higher resting metabolic rates in nestling birds with hematophagous ectoparasites?

Natalie Sun, Sarah Goodwin, Michael Griego, Alexander Gerson & Ethan Clotfelter
Nestlings of many bird species are hosts to hematophagous ectoparasites. Parasitism of nestlings is usually sub-lethal, but its effects can extend into the fledgling and adult stages. Nestling hosts lose enough blood to become anemic, but the effects of reduced oxygen-carrying capacity on metabolic rate are poorly understood. This study examined the consequences of parasitism by larval blow flies Protocalliphora sialia for nestling tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor. We found that nestlings with more parasites had...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    16

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    16

Affiliations

  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    16
  • North Carolina State University
    2
  • Wildlife Conservation Society
    2
  • Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí
    1
  • University of Montana
    1
  • University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
    1
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
    1
  • Field Museum of Natural History
    1
  • Google (United States)
    1