37 Works

Structural evolution drives diversification of the large LRR-RLK gene family

Jarrett Man, Joseph Gallagher Gallagher & Madelaine Bartlett
Cells are continuously exposed to chemical signals that they must discriminate between and respond to appropriately. In embryophytes, the Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases (LRR-RLKs) are signal receptors critical in development and defense. LRR-RLKs have diversified to hundreds of genes in many plant genomes. Although intensively studied, a well-resolved LRR-RLK gene tree has remained elusive. To resolve the LRR-RLK gene tree, we developed an improved gene discovery method based on iterative Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-searching and...

Data from: Developing a Stopover-CORT hypothesis: corticosterone predicts body composition and refueling rate in Gray Catbirds during migratory stopover

Joely DeSimone, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez, Cory Elowe, Michael Griego, Creagh Breuner & Alexander Gerson
Migratory flight is energetically challenging, requiring alternating phases of fuel catabolism and fuel accumulation, accompanied by dramatic changes in body composition and behavior. Baseline corticosterone (CORT; the primary glucocorticoid in birds) is thought to underlie transitions between fuel catabolism during flight, fuel deposition during stopover, and the initiation of migratory flight. However, studies of CORT on stopover physiology and behavior remain disparate efforts, lacking the cohesion of a general hypothesis. Here we develop a Stopover-CORT...

Data from: Does facial hair greying in chimpanzees provide a salient progressive cue of aging?

Elizabeth Tapanes, Jason Kamilar, Brenda Bradley & Stephanie Anestis
The greying of human head hair is arguably the most salient marker of human aging. In wild mammal populations, greying can change with life history or environmental factors (e.g., sexual maturity in silverback gorillas). Yet, whether humans are unique in our pattern of age-related hair depigmentation is unclear. We examined the relationship between pigmentation loss in facial hair (greying) to age, population, and sex in wild and captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Digital facial photographs representing...

Effect of soil carbon amendments in reversing the legacy effect of plant invasion

Vidya Suseela, Ziliang Zhang & Prasanta Bhowmik
1. Invasive plant species are key drivers of global environmental changes leading to the disruption of ecosystems they invade. Many invasive species engage in novel niche construction through plant-soil feedbacks facilitated by the input of secondary compounds, which help their further spread and survival. These compounds can persist in soil even after the removal of the invader thus creating a legacy effect that inhibits the return of native flora and fauna. Thus, formulating active intervention...

Hedgehog signaling is necessary and sufficient to mediate craniofacial plasticity in teleosts

Craig Albertson, Dina Navon, Ira Male, Emily Tetrault, Benjamin Aaronson & Rolf Karlstrom
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes under different environmental conditions, is critical for the origins and maintenance of biodiversity; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying plasticity as well as how variation in those mechanisms can drive evolutionary change remain poorly understood. Here, we examine the cichlid feeding apparatus, an icon of both prodigious evolutionary divergence and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. We first provide a tissue-level mechanism for plasticity in craniofacial shape...

Data from: Shifts in timing and duration of breeding for 73 boreal bird species over four decades

Maria Hällfors, Laura Antão, Malcolm Itter, Aleksi Lehikoinen, Tanja Lindholm, Tomas Roslin & Marjo Saastamoinen
Breeding timed to match optimal resource abundance is vital for the successful reproduction of species, and breeding is therefore sensitive to environmental cues. As the timing of breeding shifts with a changing climate, this may not only affect the onset of breeding, but also its termination, and thus the length of the breeding period. We use an extensive dataset of over 820K nesting records of 73 bird species across the boreal region in Finland to...

Habitat use as an indicator of adaptive capacity to climate change

Claire Teitelbaum, Alexej Siren, Ethan Coffel, Jane Foster, Jacqueline Frair, Joseph Hinton, Radley Horton, David Kramer, Corey Lesk, Colin Raymond, David Wattles, Katherine Zeller & Toni Lyn Morelli
Aim: Populations of cold-adapted species at the trailing edges of geographic ranges are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change from the combination of exposure to warm temperatures and high sensitivity to heat. Many of these species are predicted to decline under future climate scenarios, but they could persist if they can adapt to warming climates either physiologically or behaviorally. We aim to understand local variation in contemporary habitat use and use this...

Appendix 1. Database of impact assessments for 100 range-shifting invasive plants

Mei Rockwell-Postel & Bethany A. Bradley
Environmental Impacts Classification of Alien Taxa (EICAT) assessments of 100 invasive plants projected to shift their ranges into Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, or Rhode Island by 2050.

Appendix 2. Database of impact assessment summaries for 100 range-shifting invasive plants

Mei Rockwell-Postel & Bethany A. Bradley
Summary reports of Environmental Impacts Classification of Alien Taxa (EICAT) assessments of 100 invasive plants projected to shift their ranges into Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, or Rhode Island by 2050.

Hudson River Estuary Tidal Marsh Sediment Data

Brian Yellen & Jonathan Woodruff
This repository contains data from sediment cores collected at six tidal wetland complexes that are located within the Hudson River Estuary. The sites include Stockport Marsh, Esopus Delta, Tivoli North Bay, Tivoli South Bay, Vanderburgh Cove, and Iona Island Marsh. A variety of core collection tools and methods were used to collect uncompacted records, including gouge coring, Russian peat coring, and piston push coring, with the method determined by coring environment. The general workflow for...

Data on Fossil Fuel Divestment Commitments through March 2018

Tyler Hansen & Robert Pollin

Data from: Evolutionary and phylogenetic insights from a nuclear genome sequence of the extinct, giant subfossil koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsi

Stephanie Marciniak, Mehreen R. Mughal, Laurie R. Godfrey, Richard J. Bankoff, Heritiana Randrianatoandro, Brooke E. Crowley, Christina M. Bergey, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Jeannot Randrianasy, Brigitte M. Raharivololona, Stephan C. Schuster, Ripan S. Malhi, Anne D. Yoder, , Logan Kistler & George H. Perry
No endemic Madagascar animal with body mass >10 kg survived a relatively recent wave of extinction on the island. From morphological and isotopic analyses of skeletal ‘subfossil’ remains we can reconstruct some of the biology and behavioral ecology of giant lemurs (primates; up to ~160 kg), elephant birds (up to ~860 kg), and other extraordinary Malagasy megafauna that survived well into the past millennium. Yet much about the evolutionary biology of these now extinct species...

Data from: Morphology, performance and fluid dynamics of the crayfish escape response

Jocelyn Hunyadi, Todd Currier, Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi, Brooke Flammang & Ethan Clotfelter
Sexual selection can result in an exaggerated morphology that constrains locomotor performance. We studied the relationship between morphology and the tail-flip escape response in male and female rusty crayfish (Faxonius rusticus), a species in which males have enlarged claws (chelae). We found that females had wider abdomens and longer uropods (terminal appendage of the tail fan) than males, while males possessed deeper abdomens and larger chelae, relative to total length. Chelae size was negatively associated...

Positive and negative interspecific interactions between coexisting rice planthoppers neutralize the effects of elevated temperatures

Finbarr Horgan, Finbarr Horgan, Arriza Arida, Goli Ardestani & Maria Liberty Almazan
Global warming is often predicted to increase damage to plants through direct effects on insect herbivores. However, the indirect impacts of rising temperatures on herbivores, mediated through interactions with their biotic environment, could dampen these effects. Using a series of reciprocal density experiments with gravid females and developing nymphs, we examined interspecific competition between two coexisting phloem feeders, Nilaparvata lugens (BPH) and Sogatella furcifera (WBPH), on rice at 25°C and 30°C. WBPH performed better (i.e.,...

Data from: A synthesis of the effects of cheatgrass invasion on U.S. Great Basin carbon storage

R Chelsea Nagy, Emily Fusco, Jennifer Balch, John Finn, Adam Mahood, Jenica Allen & Bethany Bradley
Non-native, invasive Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is pervasive in sagebrush ecosystems in the Great Basin ecoregion of the western U.S., competing with native plants and promoting more frequent fires. As a result, cheatgrass invasion likely alters carbon (C) storage in the region. Many studies have measured C pools in one or more common vegetation types: native sagebrush, invaded sagebrush, and cheatgrass-dominated (often burned) sites, but these results have yet to be synthesized. We performed a literature...

Non-adaptive host-use specificity in tropical armored scale insects

Nate B. Hardy, Daniel Peterson, Geoffrey Morse, Takao Itioka, Jiufeng Wei & Benjamin Normark
Most herbivorous insects are diet specialists in spite of the apparent advantages of being a generalist. This conundrum might be explained by fitness trade-offs on alternative host plants, yet evidence of such trade-offs has been elusive. Another hypothesis is that specialization is non-adaptive, evolving through neutral population genetic processes and within the bounds of historical constraints. Here we report on a striking lack of evidence for the adaptiveness of specificity in tropical canopy communities of...

A place to land: spatiotemporal drivers of stopover habitat use by migrating birds

Emily Cohen, Jeffrey Buler, Kyle Horton, Andrew Farnsworth, Peter Marra, Hannah Clipp, Jaclyn Smolinsky & Daniel Sheldon
Migrating birds require en route habitats to rest and refuel. Yet habitat use has never been integrated with passage to understand factors that determine where and when birds stopover during spring and autumn migration. Here, we introduce the stopover-to-passage ratio (SPR), the percentage of passage migrants that stop in an area, and use eight years of data from 12 weather surveillance radars to estimate over 50% SPR during spring and autumn through the Gulf of...

Massachusetts Beach Grain Size and Slope Data

Jonathan Woodruff, Nicholas Venti, Stephen Mabee, Alycia DiTroia & Douglas Beach

Data for Autonomous snapping and jumping polymer gels

Alfred J. Crosby, Yongjin Kim & Jay van den Berg

Successful biological control of winter moth, Operophtera brumata, in the northeastern United States

Hannah Broadley, Joseph Elkinton & George Boettner
Winter moth, Operophtera brumata, native to Europe, invaded the northeastern United States in the late 1990s, where it caused widespread defoliation of forests and shade trees ranging from 2,266 to 36,360 ha per year between 2003 and 2015 in Massachusetts. In 2005, we initiated a biological control effort based on the specialist tachinid parasitoid Cyzenis albicans, which had previously been introduced along with the generalist ichneumonid parasitoid Agrypon flaveolatum to control winter moth in Nova...

Female ornaments: is red skin color attractive to males and related to condition in rhesus macaques?

James Higham, Clare Kimock, Tara Mandalaywala, Michael Heistermann, Julie Cascio, Megan Petersdorf, Sandra Winters, Will Allen & Constance Dubuc
Sexual selection produces extravagant male traits, such as colorful ornaments, via female mate choice. More rarely, in mating systems in which males allocate mating effort between multiple females, female ornaments may evolve via male mate choice. Females of many anthropoid primates exhibit ornaments that indicate intra-individual cyclical fertility, but which have also been proposed to function as inter-individual quality signals. Rhesus macaque females are one such species, exhibiting cyclical facial color variation that indicates ovulatory...

Influence of sea turtle nesting on hunting behavior and movements of jaguars in the dry forest of northwest Costa Rica

Victor Montalvo, Todd K. Fuller, Carolina Saénz-Bolaños, Juan Carlos Cruz, Isabel Hagnauer, Hansell Herrera & Eduardo Carrillo
Jaguars (Panthera onca) are opportunistic predators that prey on large profitable prey items, such sea turtles at nesting beaches. Here we use jaguar and sea turtle track count surveys, combined with satellite telemetry of one jaguar, to evaluate whether jaguar hunting behavior and movements are influenced by seasonal sea turtle nesting in the Sector Santa Rosa of Área de Conservación Guanacaste in northwest Costa Rica. We used Generalized Linear Models to evaluate the effect of...

Data from: Flowering plant composition shapes pathogen infection intensity and reproduction in bumble bee colonies

Nicholas Barber, Lynn Adler, Olivia Biller & Rebecca Irwin
Pathogens pose significant threats to pollinator health and food security. Pollinators can transmit diseases during foraging, but the consequences of plant species composition for infection is unknown. In agroecosystems, flowering strips or hedgerows are often used to augment pollinator habitat. We used canola as a focal crop in tents, and manipulated flowering strip composition using plant species we had previously shown to result in higher or lower bee infection in short-term trials. We also manipulated...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Royal Botanic Gardens
  • University of Alaska Anchorage
  • Yale University
  • Cornell University
  • Rutgers University
  • University of Montana
  • Binghamton University
  • University of Washington
  • Columbia University