304 Works

Data from: The transcriptional landscape of seasonal coat colour moult in the snowshoe hare

Mafalda S. Ferreira, Paulo C. Alves, Colin M. Callahan, João P. Marques, L. Scott Mills, Jeffrey M. Good & José Melo-Ferreira
Seasonal coat colour change is an important adaptation to seasonally changing environments but the evolution of this and other circannual traits remains poorly understood. In this study we use gene expression to understand seasonal coat colour moulting in wild snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). We used hair colour to follow the progression of the moult, simultaneously sampling skin from three moulting stages in hares collected during the peak of the spring moult from white winter to...

Data from: A comparison of regression methods for model selection in individual-based landscape genetic analysis

Andrew J. Shirk, Erin L. Landguth & Samuel A. Cushman
Anthropogenic migration barriers fragment many populations and limit the ability of species to respond to climate-induced biome shifts. Conservation actions designed to conserve habitat connectivity and mitigate barriers are needed to unite fragmented populations into larger, more viable metapopulations, and to allow species to track their climate envelope over time. Landscape genetic analysis provides an empirical means to infer landscape factors influencing gene flow, and thereby inform such conservation actions. However, there are currently many...

Data from: Not so old Archaea - the antiquity of biogeochemical processes in the archaeal domain of life

Carrine E. Blank
Since the archaeal domain of life was first recognized, it has often been assumed that Archaea are ancient, and harbor primitive traits. In fact, the names of the major archaeal lineages reflect our assumptions regarding the antiquity of their traits. Ancestral state reconstruction and relaxed molecular clock analyses using newly articulated oxygen age constraints show that although the archaeal domain itself is old, tracing back to the Archean eon, many clades and traits within the...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Life in interstitial space: biocrusts inhibit exotic but not native plant establishment in semi-arid grasslands

Mandy L. Slate, Ragan M. Callaway & Dean E. Pearson
1. Exotic plant species commonly exploit disturbances more successfully than native plants. This outcome is widely attributed to the fact that disturbance reduces biotic resistance from native plant competitors. However, biocrusts, communities of mosses, lichens and microorganisms, are a prominent component of semi-arid grasslands occurring in the interstitial spaces between vascular plants. Biocrusts may provide an important source of biotic resistance to invaders, different from native plant competition, but poorly understood. 2. We established a...

Data from: Botfly infections impair the aerobic performance and survival of montane populations of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus

Luke R. Wilde, Cole J. Wolf, Stephanie M. Poerter, Maria Stager, Zachary A. Cheviron, Nathan R. Senner & Stephanie M. Porter
1. Elevations >2000 m represent consistently harsh environments for small endotherms because of abiotic stressors such as cold temperatures and hypoxia. 2. These environmental stressors may limit the ability of populations living at these elevations to respond to biotic selection pressures — such as parasites or pathogens — that in other environmental contexts would impose only minimal energetic- and fitness-related costs. 3. We studied deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus) living along two elevational transects (2300...

Data from: Genetic consequences of a century of protection: serial founder events and survival of the little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii)

Kristina M. Ramstad, Rogan M. Colbourne, Hugh A. Robertson, Fred W. Allendorf & Charles H. Daugherty
We present the outcome of a century of post-bottleneck isolation of a long-lived species, the little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii, LSK) and demonstrate that profound genetic consequences can result from protecting few individuals in isolation. LSK were saved from extinction by translocation of five birds from South Island, New Zealand to Kapiti Island 100 years ago. The Kapiti population now numbers some 1200 birds and provides founders for new populations. We used 15 microsatellite loci...

Data from: Response of bluebunch wheatgrass to invasion: differences in competitive ability among invader-experienced and naïve populations

Alexis L. Gibson, Cara R. Nelson, Daniel Z. Atwater & Alexis Gibson
1. Invasive species may alter selective pressures on native plant populations, and there is some evidence that competition with invasive plants may lead to differences in competitive ability between populations that have experienced invasion and those that have not. Previous results have varied among species but also among populations of the same species. 2. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to determine whether there was variation in traits, or in ability to tolerate or suppress an...

Data from: Modern pollen from small hollows reflects Athrotaxis cupressoides density across a wildfire gradient in subalpine forests of the Central Plateau, Tasmania, Australia

Philip E. Higuera, Jesse L. Morris, Simon Haberle & Cathy Whitlock
Pollen assemblages from 50 small hollows were used to resolve fire-caused vegetation patterns in a ~2-km2 subalpine landscape on the Central Plateau of Tasmania, Australia. Sites were characterized by varying abundance of the dominant tree species, Athrotaxis cupressoides, reflecting mortality from a wildfire that occurred 53 years prior to sampling. Sites were classified a priori based on fire-related Athrotaxis mortality as burned (100% standing dead), unburned (<5% standing dead), and mixed (intermediate proportions). Non-parametric analysis...

Data from: An appraisal of the enzyme stability-activity trade-off

Scott R. Miller
A longstanding idea in evolutionary physiology is that an enzyme cannot jointly optimize performance at both high and low temperatures due to a trade-off between stability and activity. Although a stability-activity trade-off has been observed for well-characterized examples, such a trade-off is not imposed by any physical chemical constraint. To better understand the pervasiveness of this trade-off, I investigated the stability-activity relationship for comparative biochemical studies of purified orthologous enzymes identified by a literature search....

Data from: Measuring individual inbreeding in the age of genomics: marker-based measures are better than pedigrees

Martin Kardos, Gordon Luikart & Fred W. Allendorf
Inbreeding (mating between relatives) can dramatically reduce the fitness of offspring by causing parts of the genome to be identical by descent. Thus, measuring individual inbreeding is crucial for ecology, evolution and conservation biology. We used computer simulations to test whether the realized proportion of the genome that is identical by descent (IBDG) is predicted better by the pedigree inbreeding coefficient (FP) or by genomic (marker-based) measures of inbreeding. Genomic estimators of IBDG included the...

Data from: Insect herbivores drive real-time ecological and evolutionary change in plant populations

Anurag A. Agrawal, Amy P. Hastings, M. T. J. Johnson, J. L. Maron & Juha-Pekka Salminen
Insect herbivores are hypothesized to be major factors affecting the ecology and evolution of plants. We tested this prediction by suppressing insects in replicated field populations of a native plant, Oenothera biennis, which reduced seed predation, altered interspecific competitive dynamics, and resulted in rapid evolutionary divergence. Comparative genotyping and phenotyping of nearly 12,000 O. biennis individuals revealed that in plots protected from insects, resistance to herbivores declined through time due to changes in flowering time...

Data from: Integrating morphology and kinematics in the scaling of hummingbird hovering metabolic rate and efficiency

Derrick J.E. Groom, M. Cecilia B. Toledo, Donald R. Powers, Bret W. Tobalske, , Derrick J. E. Groom & Kenneth C. Welch
Wing kinematics and morphology are influential upon the aerodynamics of flight. However, there is a lack of studies linking these variables to metabolic costs, particularly in the context of morphological adaptation to body size. Furthermore, the conversion efficiency from chemical energy into movement by the muscles (mechanochemical efficiency) scales with mass in terrestrial quadrupeds, but this scaling relationship has not been demonstrated within flying vertebrates. Positive scaling of efficiency with body size may reduce the...

Data from: Females know better: sex-biased habitat selection by the European wildcat

Teresa Oliveira, Fermin Urra, José María Lopez-Martín, Elena Balleteros-Duperón, José Miguel Barea-Azcón, Marcos Moleón, José Maria Gil-Sánchez, Paulo Celio Alves, Francisco Díaz-Ruíz, Pablo Ferreras & Pedro Monterroso
The interactions between animals and their environment vary across species, regions, but also with gender. Sex‐specific relations between individuals and the ecosystem may entail different behavioral choices and be expressed through different patterns of habitat use. Regardless, only rarely sex‐specific traits are addressed in ecological modeling approaches. The European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is a species of conservation concern in Europe, with a highly fragmented and declining distribution across most of its range. We assessed...

Data from: The hidden cost of sexually selected traits: the metabolic expense of maintaining a sexually selected weapon

Ummat Somjee, H. Arthur Woods, Meghan Duell & Christine W. Miller
Sexually selected weapons are among the most exaggerated traits in nature. Theory frequently assumes a high cost of this exaggeration; yet, those costs are rarely measured. We know very little about the energetic resources required to maintain these traits at rest and the difference in energetic costs for the largest relative to the smallest individuals. Knowledge in this area is crucial; resting metabolic rate can account for 30-40% of daily energy expenditure in wild animals....

Data from: Fire-regime variability impacts forest carbon dynamics for centuries to millennia

Tara W. Hudiburg, Philip E. Higuera & Jeffrey A. Hicke
Wildfire is a dominant disturbance agent in forest ecosystems, shaping important biogeochemical processes including net carbon (C) balance. Long-term monitoring and chronosequence studies highlight a resilience of biogeochemical properties to large, stand-replacing, high-severity fire events. In contrast, the consequences of repeated fires or temporal variability in a fire regime (e.g., the characteristic timing or severity of fire) are largely unknown, yet theory suggests that such variability could strongly influence forest C trajectories (i.e., future states...

Data from: Direct fitness benefits and kinship of social foraging groups in an Old World tropical babbler

Sara A. Kaiser, Thomas E. Martin, Juan C. Oteyza, Connor Armstad & Robert C. Fleischer
Molecular studies have revealed that social groups composed mainly of non-relatives may be widespread in group-living vertebrates, but the benefits favoring such sociality are not well understood. In the Old World, birds often form conspecific foraging groups that are maintained year-round and offspring usually disperse to other social groups. We tested the hypothesis that non-breeding group members are largely unrelated and gain direct fitness benefits through breeding opportunities (males) and brood parasitism (females) in the...

Data from: Maladaptive phenotypic plasticity in cardiac muscle growth is suppressed in high-altitude deer mice

Jonathan Paul Velotta, Catherine M. Ivy, Cole J. Wolf, Graham R. Scott & Zachary A. Cheviron
How often phenotypic plasticity acts to promote or inhibit adaptive evolution is an ongoing debate among biologists. Recent work suggests that adaptive phenotypic plasticity promotes evolutionary divergence, though several studies have also suggested that maladaptive plasticity can potentiate adaptation. The role of phenotypic plasticity, adaptive or maladaptive, in evolutionary divergence remains controversial. We examined the role of plasticity in evolutionary divergence between two species of Peromyscus mice that differ in native elevations. We used cardiac...

Data from: Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Anna Sala, Dolores Asensio, Lucia Galiano, Guenter Hoch, Sara Palacio, Frida I. Piper & Francisco Lloret
Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand....

Data from: Fire catalyzed rapid ecological change in lowland coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest over the past 14,000 years

Shelley D. Crausbay, Philip E. Higuera, Douglas G. Sprugel & Linda B. Brubaker
Disturbance can catalyze rapid ecological change by causing widespread mortality and initiating successional pathways, and during times of climate change, disturbance may contribute to ecosystem state changes by initiating a new successional pathway. In the Pacific Northwest of North America (PNW), disturbance by wildfires strongly shapes the composition and structure of lowland forests, but understanding the role of fire over periods of climate change is challenging, because fire-return intervals are long (e.g., millennia) and the...

Data from: Desiccation and rehydration of mosses greatly increases resource fluxes that alter soil carbon and nitrogen cycling

Mandy L. Slate, Benjamin W. Sullivan & Ray M. Callaway
1. Mosses often have positive effects on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, but we know little about how environmentally determined cycles of desiccation and rehydration in mosses influence these processes. 2. In this context, we compared carbon and nitrogen in throughfall after precipitation passed through eight moss species that were either hydrated continuously or desiccated and rehydrated. Also, the throughfall of four moss species was added to soil and used to determine the net effect...

Data from: Native forage mediates influence of irrigated agriculture on migratory behavior of elk

Kristin J. Barker, Michael S. Mitchell & Kelly M. Proffitt
1. Ungulates migrate to maximize nutritional intake when forage varies seasonally. Populations of ungulates often include both migratory and non-migratory individuals, but the mechanisms driving individual differences in migratory behavior are not well-understood. 2. We quantified associations between hypothesized drivers of partial migration and the likelihood of migration for individual ungulates that experienced a range of environmental conditions and anthropogenic influences. 3. We evaluated the effects of forage variation, conspecific density, and human land uses...

Data from: Linkage mapping reveals strong chiasma interference in sockeye salmon: implications for interpreting genomic data

Morten T. Limborg, Ryan K. Waples, Fred W. Allendorf & James E. Seeb
Meiotic recombination is fundamental for generating new genetic variation and for securing proper disjunction. Further, recombination plays an essential role during the rediploidization process of polyploid-origin genomes because crossovers between pairs of homeologous chromosomes retain duplicated regions. A better understanding of how recombination affects genome evolution is crucial for interpreting genomic data; unfortunately, current knowledge mainly originates from a few model species. Salmonid fishes provide a valuable system for studying the effects of recombination in...

Data from: Linking native and invader traits explains native spider population responses to plant invasion

Jennifer Smith, Douglas Emlen, Dean Pearson, Jennifer N. Smith, Douglas J. Emlen & Dean E. Pearson
Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders’ web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion...

Data from: Competition and specialization in an African forest carnivore community

David Mills, Emmanuel Do Linh San, Hugh Robinson, Sam Isoke, Rob Slotow & Luke Hunter
Globally, human activities have led to the impoverishment of species assemblages and the disruption of ecosystem function. Determining whether this poses a threat to future ecosystem stability necessitates a thorough understanding of mechanisms underpinning community assembly and niche selection. Here, we tested for niche segregation within an African small carnivore community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We used occupancy modelling based on systematic camera trap surveys and fine-scale habitat measures, to identify opposing preferences between...

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