298 Works

Data from: Scale-dependent genetic structure of the Idaho giant salamander (Dicamptodon aterrimus) in stream networks

Lindy Mullen, H. Woods, Michael Schwartz, Adam Sepulveda & Winsor Lowe
The network architecture of streams and rivers constrains evolutionary, demographic, and ecological processes of freshwater organisms. This consistent architecture also makes stream networks useful for testing general models of population genetic structure and the scaling of gene flow. We examined genetic structure and gene flow in the facultatively paedomorphic Idaho giant salamander, Dicamptodon aterrimus, in stream networks of Idaho and Montana, USA. We used microsatellite data to test population structure models by (1) examining hierarchical...

Data from: The role of human outdoor recreation in shaping patterns of grizzly bear-black bear co-occurrence

Andrew Ladle, Robin Steenweg, Brenda Shepherd & Mark S. Boyce
Species distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a) occurrence...

Data from: Evaluating the role of inbreeding depression in heterozygosity-fitness correlations: how useful are tests for identity disequilibrium?

Martin Kardos, Fred W. Allendorf, Gordon Luikart & Marty Kardos
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been observed for several decades, but their causes are often elusive. Tests for identity disequilibrium (ID, correlated heterozygosity between loci) are commonly used to determine if inbreeding depression is a possible cause of HFCs. We used computer simulations to determine how often ID is detected when HFCs are caused by inbreeding depression. We also used ID in conjunction with HFCs to estimate the proportion of variation (r2) in fitness explained by...

Data from: Spatial genetic structure in American black bears (Ursus americanus): female philopatry is variable and related to population history

Thea V. Kristensen, Emily E. Puckett, Erin L. Landguth, Jerrold L. Belant, John T. Hast, Colin Carpenter, Jaime L. Sajecki, Jeff Beringer, Myron Means, John J. Cox, Lori S. Eggert, & Kimberly G. Smith
Previously, American black bears (Ursus americanus) were thought to follow the pattern of female philopatry and male-biased dispersal. However, recent studies have identified deviations from this pattern. Such flexibility in dispersal patterns can allow individuals greater ability to acclimate to changing environments. We explored dispersal and spatial genetic relatedness patterns across ten black bear populations—including long established (historic), with known reproduction >50 years ago, and newly established (recent) populations, with reproduction recorded <50 years ago—in...

Data from: Camera-based occupancy monitoring at large scales: power to detect trends in grizzly bears across the Canadian Rockies

Robin Steenweg, Mark Hebblewhite & Paul M. Lukacs
Monitoring carnivores is critical for conservation, yet challenging because they are rare and elusive. Few methods exist for monitoring wide-ranging species over large spatial and sufficiently long temporal scales to detect trends. Remote cameras are an emerging technology for monitoring large carnivores around the world because of their low cost, non-invasive methodology, and their ability to capture pictures of species of concern that are difficult to monitor. For species without uniquely identifiable spots, stripes, or...

Data from: Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles

Ian A. Warren, J. Cristobal Vera, Annika Johns, Robert Zinna, James H. Marden, Douglas J. Emlen, Ian Dworkin & Laura C. Lavine
Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce...

Data from: Patterns of rangeland productivity and land ownership: implications for conservation and management

Nathaniel P. Robinson, Brady W. Allred, David E. Naugle & Matthew O. Jones
Rangelands cover 40-50% of the earth’s terrestrial surface. While often characterized by limited, yet variable resource availability, rangelands are vital for humans, providing numerous ecosystem goods and services. In the conterminous United States (CONUS) the dominant component of rangeland conservation is a network of public rangelands, concentrated in the west. Public rangelands are interspersed with private and tribal rangelands resulting in a complex mosaic of land tenure and management priorities. We quantify ownership patterns of...

Data from: An expansion of age constraints for microbial clades that lack a conventional fossil record using phylogenomic dating

Carrine E. Blank
Most microbial taxa lack a conventional microfossil or biomarker record, and so we currently have little information regarding how old most microbial clades and their associated traits are. Building on the previously published oxygen age constraint, two new age constraints are proposed based on the ability of microbial clades to metabolize chitin and aromatic compounds derived from lignin. Using the archaeal domain of life as a test case, phylogenetic analyses, along with published metabolic and...

Data from: Linking landscape-scale differences in forage to ungulate nutritional ecology

Kelly M. Proffitt, Mark Hebblewhite, Wibke Peters, Nicole Hupp & Julee Shamhart
Understanding how habitat and nutritional condition affect ungulate populations is necessary for informing management, particularly in areas experiencing carnivore recovery and declining ungulate population trends. Variations in forage species availability, plant phenological stage, and the abundance of forage make it challenging to understand landscape-level effects of nutrition on ungulates. We developed an integrated spatial modeling approach to estimate landscape-level elk (Cervus elaphus) nutritional resources in two adjacent study areas that differed in coarse measures of...

Data from: Climate outweighs native vs. non-native range-effects for genetics and common garden performance of a cosmopolitan weed

Christoph Rosche, Isabell Hensen, Adrian Schaar, Uzma Zehra, Marie Jasieniuk, Ragan M. Callaway, Damase P. Khasa, Mohammad M. Al-Gharaibeh, Ylva Lekberg, David U. Nagy, Robert W. Pal, Miki Okada, Karin Schrieber, Kathryn G. Turner, Susanne Lachmuth, Andrey Erst, Tomonori Tsunoda, Min Sheng, Robin Schmidt, Yanling Peng, Wenbo Luo, Yun Jäschke, Zafar A. Reshi & Manzoor A. Shah
Comparing genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and performance between native and non-native populations has advanced our knowledge of contemporary evolution and its ecological consequences. However, such between-range comparisons can be complicated by high among-population variation within native and non-native ranges. For example, native vs. non-native comparisons between small and non-representative subsets of populations for species with very large distributions have the potential to mislead because they may not sufficiently account for within-range adaptation to climatic conditions,...

Data from: Mammal communities are larger and more diverse in moderately developed areas

Arielle Waldstein Parsons, Tavis Forrester, Megan C. Baker-Whatton, William J. McShea, Christopher T. Rota, Stephanie G. Schuttler, Joshua J. Millspaugh & Roland Kays
Developed areas are thought to have low species diversity, low animal abundance, few native predators, and thus low resilience and ecological function. Working with citizen scientist volunteers to survey mammals at 1427 sites across two development gradients (wild-rural-exurban-suburban-urban) and four plot types (large forests, small forest fragments, open areas and residential yards) in the eastern US, we show that developed areas actually had significantly higher or statistically similar mammalian occupancy, relative abundance, richness and diversity...

Data from: Apparent annual survival estimates of tropical songbirds better reflect life history variation when based on intensive field methods

Thomas E. Martin, Margaret M. Riordan, Rimi Repin, James C. Mouton & William M. Blake
Aim: Adult survival is central to theories explaining latitudinal gradients in life history strategies. Life history theory predicts higher adult survival in tropical than north temperate regions given lower fecundity and parental effort. Early studies were consistent with this prediction, but standard-effort netting studies in recent decades suggested that apparent survival rates in temperate and tropical regions strongly overlap. Such results do not fit with life history theory. Targeted marking and resighting of breeding adults...

Data from: Age and performance at fledging is a cause and consequence of juvenile mortality between life stages

Thomas E. Martin, Bret Tobalske, Margaret M. Riordan, Samuel B. Case & Kenneth P. Dial
Should they stay or should they leave? The age at which young transition between life stages, such as living in a nest versus leaving it, differs among species and the reasons why are unclear. We show that offspring of songbird species that leave the nest at a younger age have less-developed wings that cause poorer flight performance and greater mortality after fledging. Experimentally delayed fledging verified that older age and better developed wings provide benefits...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Climatic thresholds shape northern high-latitude fire regimes and imply vulnerability to future climate change

Adam M. Young, Philip E. Higuera, Paul A. Duffy & Feng Sheng Hu
Boreal forests and arctic tundra cover 33% of global land area and store an estimated 50% of total soil carbon. Because wildfire is a key driver of terrestrial carbon cycling, increasing fire activity in these ecosystems would likely have global implications. To anticipate potential spatiotemporal variability in fire-regime shifts, we modeled the spatially explicit 30-yr probability of fire occurrence as a function of climate and landscape features (i.e. vegetation and topography) across Alaska. Boosted regression...

Data from: Winter coat color polymorphisms identify global hotspots for evolutionary rescue from climate change

L. Scott Mills, Eugenia V. Bragina, Alexander V. Kumar, Marketa Zimova, Diana J.R. Lafferty, Jennifer Feltner, Brandon M. Davis, Klaus Hacklander, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good, Jose Melo-Ferreira, Andreas Dietz, Alexei V. Abramov, Natalia Lopatina & Kairsten Fay
Maintenance of biodiversity in a rapidly changing climate will depend on the efficacy of evolutionary rescue, whereby population declines due to abrupt environmental change are reversed by shifts in genetically-driven adaptive traits. However, a lack of traits known to be under direct selection by anthropogenic climate change has limited the incorporation of evolutionary processes into global conservation efforts. In 22 vertebrate species, some individuals undergo a seasonal color molt from summer brown to winter white...

Data from: Leaf-cutter ants engineer large nitrous oxide hot spots in tropical forests

Fiona M. Soper, Benjamin W. Sullivan, Brooke B. Osborne, Alanna N. Shaw, Laurent Philippot & Cory C. Cleveland
Though tropical forest ecosystems are among the largest natural sources of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), the spatial distribution of emissions across landscapes is often poorly resolved. Leaf-cutter ants (LCA, Atta and Acromyrmex, Myrmicinae) are dominant herbivores throughout Central and South America and influence multiple aspects of forest structure and function. In particular, their foraging creates spatial heterogeneity by concentrating large quantities of organic matter (including nitrogen, N) from the surrounding canopy into...

Data from: Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: the importance of replication in landscape genetics

Brian Hand, Ryan Kovach, Clint C. Muhlfeld, Alisa A. Wade, Diane Whited, Shawn Narum, Andrew Matala, Mike Ackerman, Brittany Garner, John Kimball, Jack Stanford, Gordon Luikart, Brian K. Hand, Diane C. Whited, Brittany A. Garner, Jack A. Stanford, John S. Kimball, Shawn R. Narum & Andrew P. Matala
Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity, and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modeling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4,583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively...

Data from: The hidden history of the snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus: extensive mitochondrial DNA introgression inferred from multilocus genetic variation

José Melo-Ferreira, Fernando A. Seixas, Ellen Cheng, L. Scott Mills & Paulo C. Alves
Hybridization drives the evolutionary trajectory of many species or local populations, and assessing the geographic extent and genetic impact of interspecific gene flow may provide invaluable clues to understand population divergence or the adaptive relevance of admixture. In North America, hares (Lepus spp.) are key species for ecosystem dynamics and their evolutionary history may have been affected by hybridization. Here we reconstructed the speciation history of the three most widespread hares in North America -...

Data from: How many routes lead to migration? Comparison of methods to assess and characterise migratory movements

Francesca Cagnacci, Stefano Focardi, Anne Ghisla, Bram Van Moorter, Eliezer Gurarie, Marco Heurich, Atle Mysterud, John Linnell, Manuela Panzacchi, Evelyn Merrill, Roel May, Torgeir Nygård, Christer Rolandsen, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn H. Merrill
1. Decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. 2. The main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterising migration at the individual and population level on the basis of animal location...

Data from: Hovering in the heat: effects of environmental temperature on heat regulation in foraging hummingbirds

Donald R. Powers, Kathleen M. Langland, Susan M. Wethington, Sean D. Powers, Catherine H. Graham & Bret W. Tobalske
At high temperature (>40 ºC) endotherms experience reduced passive heat dissipation (radiation, conduction, and convection) and increased reliance on evaporative heat loss. High temperatures challenge flying birds due to heat produced by wing muscles. Hummingbirds depend on flight for foraging, yet inhabit hot regions. We used infrared thermography to explore how lower passive heat dissipation during flight impacts body-heat management in broad-billed (Cynanthus latirostris, 3.0g), black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri, 3.0g), Rivoli’s (Eugenes fulgens, 7.5g), and blue-throated...

Data from: Cats, connectivity and conservation: incorporating datasets and integrating scales for wildlife management

Ross T. Pitman, Julien Fattebert, Samual T. Williams, Kathryn S. Williams, Russell A. Hill, Luke T. B. Hunter, Hugh Robinson, John Power, Lourens Swanepoel, Rob Slotow & Guy A. Balme
Understanding resource selection and quantifying habitat connectivity are fundamental to conservation planning for both land-use and species management plans. However, datasets available to management authorities for resource selection and connectivity analyses are often highly limited and fragmentary. As a result, measuring connectivity is challenging, and often poorly integrated within conservation planning and wildlife management. To exacerbate the challenge, scale-dependent resource use makes inference across scales problematic, resource use is often modelled in areas where the...

Data from: Patterns of hybridization among cutthroat trout and rainbow trout in northern Rocky Mountain streams

Kevin S. McKelvey, Michael K. Young, Taylor M. Wilcox, Daniel M. Bingham, Kristine L. Pilgrim & Michael K. Schwartz
Introgressive hybridization between native and introduced species is a growing conservation concern. For native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, this process is thought to lead to the formation of hybrid swarms and the loss of monophyletic evolutionary lineages. Previous studies of this phenomenon, however, indicated that hybrid swarms were rare except when native and introduced forms of cutthroat trout co-occurred. We used a panel of 86 diagnostic, single nucleotide polymorphisms...

Data from: Three-dimensional simulation for fast forward flight of a calliope hummingbird

Jialei Song, Bret W. Tobalske, Donald R. Powers, Tyson L. Hedrick & Haoxiang Luo
We present a computational study of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a calliope hummingbird (Selasphorus calliope) during fast forward flight. Three-dimensional wing kinematics were incorporated into the model by extracting time-dependent wing position from high-speed videos of the bird flying in a wind tunnel at 8.3 m s−1. The advance ratio, i.e. the ratio between flight speed and average wingtip speed, is around one. An immersed-boundary method was used to simulate flow around the wings and bird...

Data from: Tracing the footprints of a moving hybrid zone under a demographic history of speciation with gene flow

Mitra Menon, Erin Landguth, Alejandro Leal-Saenz, Justin Bagley, Anna Schoettle, Christian Wehenkel, Lluvia Flores-Renteria, Sam Cushman, Kristen Waring & Andrew Eckert
A lack of optimal gene combinations, as well as low levels of genetic diversity are often associated with the formation of species range margins. Conservation efforts rely on predictive modelling using abiotic variables and assessments of genetic diversity to determine target species and populations for controlled breeding, germplasm conservation and assisted migration. Biotic factors such as interspecific competition and hybridization, however, are largely ignored, despite their prevalence across diverse taxa and their role as key...

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