298 Works

Data from: Response of bluebunch wheatgrass to invasion: differences in competitive ability among invader-experienced and naïve populations

Alexis L. Gibson, Cara R. Nelson, Daniel Z. Atwater & Alexis Gibson
1. Invasive species may alter selective pressures on native plant populations, and there is some evidence that competition with invasive plants may lead to differences in competitive ability between populations that have experienced invasion and those that have not. Previous results have varied among species but also among populations of the same species. 2. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to determine whether there was variation in traits, or in ability to tolerate or suppress an...

Data from: Direct fitness benefits and kinship of social foraging groups in an Old World tropical babbler

Sara A. Kaiser, Thomas E. Martin, Juan C. Oteyza, Connor Armstad & Robert C. Fleischer
Molecular studies have revealed that social groups composed mainly of non-relatives may be widespread in group-living vertebrates, but the benefits favoring such sociality are not well understood. In the Old World, birds often form conspecific foraging groups that are maintained year-round and offspring usually disperse to other social groups. We tested the hypothesis that non-breeding group members are largely unrelated and gain direct fitness benefits through breeding opportunities (males) and brood parasitism (females) in the...

Data from: Maladaptive phenotypic plasticity in cardiac muscle growth is suppressed in high-altitude deer mice

Jonathan Paul Velotta, Catherine M. Ivy, Cole J. Wolf, Graham R. Scott & Zachary A. Cheviron
How often phenotypic plasticity acts to promote or inhibit adaptive evolution is an ongoing debate among biologists. Recent work suggests that adaptive phenotypic plasticity promotes evolutionary divergence, though several studies have also suggested that maladaptive plasticity can potentiate adaptation. The role of phenotypic plasticity, adaptive or maladaptive, in evolutionary divergence remains controversial. We examined the role of plasticity in evolutionary divergence between two species of Peromyscus mice that differ in native elevations. We used cardiac...

Data from: The hidden cost of sexually selected traits: the metabolic expense of maintaining a sexually selected weapon

Ummat Somjee, H. Arthur Woods, Meghan Duell & Christine W. Miller
Sexually selected weapons are among the most exaggerated traits in nature. Theory frequently assumes a high cost of this exaggeration; yet, those costs are rarely measured. We know very little about the energetic resources required to maintain these traits at rest and the difference in energetic costs for the largest relative to the smallest individuals. Knowledge in this area is crucial; resting metabolic rate can account for 30-40% of daily energy expenditure in wild animals....

Data from: Insect herbivores drive real-time ecological and evolutionary change in plant populations

Anurag A. Agrawal, Amy P. Hastings, M. T. J. Johnson, J. L. Maron & Juha-Pekka Salminen
Insect herbivores are hypothesized to be major factors affecting the ecology and evolution of plants. We tested this prediction by suppressing insects in replicated field populations of a native plant, Oenothera biennis, which reduced seed predation, altered interspecific competitive dynamics, and resulted in rapid evolutionary divergence. Comparative genotyping and phenotyping of nearly 12,000 O. biennis individuals revealed that in plots protected from insects, resistance to herbivores declined through time due to changes in flowering time...

Data from: Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Anna Sala, Dolores Asensio, Lucia Galiano, Guenter Hoch, Sara Palacio, Frida I. Piper & Francisco Lloret
Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand....

Data from: Fire-regime variability impacts forest carbon dynamics for centuries to millennia

Tara W. Hudiburg, Philip E. Higuera & Jeffrey A. Hicke
Wildfire is a dominant disturbance agent in forest ecosystems, shaping important biogeochemical processes including net carbon (C) balance. Long-term monitoring and chronosequence studies highlight a resilience of biogeochemical properties to large, stand-replacing, high-severity fire events. In contrast, the consequences of repeated fires or temporal variability in a fire regime (e.g., the characteristic timing or severity of fire) are largely unknown, yet theory suggests that such variability could strongly influence forest C trajectories (i.e., future states...

Data from: Fire catalyzed rapid ecological change in lowland coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest over the past 14,000 years

Shelley D. Crausbay, Philip E. Higuera, Douglas G. Sprugel & Linda B. Brubaker
Disturbance can catalyze rapid ecological change by causing widespread mortality and initiating successional pathways, and during times of climate change, disturbance may contribute to ecosystem state changes by initiating a new successional pathway. In the Pacific Northwest of North America (PNW), disturbance by wildfires strongly shapes the composition and structure of lowland forests, but understanding the role of fire over periods of climate change is challenging, because fire-return intervals are long (e.g., millennia) and the...

VTFT_Demography: global ageclass simulation data from the LPJ-wsl v2.0 Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

Leonardo Calle
Forest ecosystem processes follow classic responses with age, peaking production around canopy closure and declining thereafter. Although age dynamics might be more dominant in certain regions over others, demographic effects on net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) are bound to exist. Yet, explicit representation of ecosystem demography is notably absent in most global ecosystem models. This is concerning because the global community relies on these models to regularly update our collective understanding of...

Public opinion about management strategies for a low-profile Species across multiple jurisdictions: whitebark pine in the northern Rockies

Elizabeth Shanahan, Eric Raile, Helen Naughton, Michael Wallner & Kendall Houghton
1. As public land managers seek to adopt and implement conservation measures aimed at reversing or slowing the negative effects of climate change, they are looking to understand public opinion regarding different management strategies. 2. This study explores drivers of attitudes toward different management strategies (i.e., no management, protection, and restoration) for a low-profile but keystone tree species, the whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Since the whitebark pine species has a...

Data from: Native forage mediates influence of irrigated agriculture on migratory behavior of elk

Kristin J. Barker, Michael S. Mitchell & Kelly M. Proffitt
1. Ungulates migrate to maximize nutritional intake when forage varies seasonally. Populations of ungulates often include both migratory and non-migratory individuals, but the mechanisms driving individual differences in migratory behavior are not well-understood. 2. We quantified associations between hypothesized drivers of partial migration and the likelihood of migration for individual ungulates that experienced a range of environmental conditions and anthropogenic influences. 3. We evaluated the effects of forage variation, conspecific density, and human land uses...

Data from: Linkage mapping reveals strong chiasma interference in sockeye salmon: implications for interpreting genomic data

Morten T. Limborg, Ryan K. Waples, Fred W. Allendorf & James E. Seeb
Meiotic recombination is fundamental for generating new genetic variation and for securing proper disjunction. Further, recombination plays an essential role during the rediploidization process of polyploid-origin genomes because crossovers between pairs of homeologous chromosomes retain duplicated regions. A better understanding of how recombination affects genome evolution is crucial for interpreting genomic data; unfortunately, current knowledge mainly originates from a few model species. Salmonid fishes provide a valuable system for studying the effects of recombination in...

Data from: Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection

Vanessa Ezenwa, Sarah Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna Jolles & Kaori Sakamoto
Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example, when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen, shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in ways that have repercussions for other pathogens. In this case, negative interactions between two pathogens could emerge even in the absence of concurrent infection. Parasitic...

Experimental admixture among geographically disjunct populations of an invasive plant yields a global mosaic of reproductive incompatibility and heterosis

Ramona E. Irimia, José L. Hierro, Soraia Branco, Gastón Sotes, Lohengrin A. Cavieres, Özkan Eren, Christopher J. Lortie, Kristine French, Ragan M. Callaway & Daniel Montesinos
1. Invasive species have the ability to rapidly adapt in the new regions where they are introduced. Classic evolutionary theory predicts that the accumulation of genetic differences over time in allopatric isolation may lead to reproductive incompatibilities resulting in decreases in reproductive success and, eventually, to speciation. However, experimental evidence for this theoretical prediction in the context of invasive species is lacking. We aimed to test for the potential of allopatry to determine reproductive success...

Whole-genome resequencing confirms reproductive isolation between sympatric demes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) detected with allozymes

Atal Saha, Anastasia Andersson, Sara Kurland, Naomi Keehnen, Verena Kutschera, Ola Hössjer, Diana Ekman, Sten Karlsson, Marty Kardos, Gunnar Ståhl, Fred Allendorf, Nils Ryman & Linda Laikre
The sympatric existence of genetically distinct populations of the same species remains a puzzle in ecology. Coexisting salmonid fish populations are known from over 100 freshwater lakes. Most studies of sympatric populations have used limited numbers of genetic markers making it unclear if genetic divergence involves only certain parts of the genome. We return to the first reported case of salmonid sympatry, initially detected through contrasting homozygosity at a single allozyme locus (coding for lactate...

Positive interactions between an exotic invader and moss biocrusts vary across life-stage and correspond with the effect of water pulses on soil nitrogen

Mandy Slate, Morgan McLeod & Ragan Callaway
The size and frequency of resource pulses can affect plant interactions and increase the abundance of invasive species relative to native species. We examined resource pulses generated during desiccation and rehydration of communities of native biological soil crust (biocrust) forming mosses, in the context of positive associations between biocrusts and the invasive forb, Centaurea stoebe. We surveyed Centaurea and biocrust cover and evaluated how interactions among Centaurea, biocrusts, and water pulses influenced plant biomass and...

Data from: The stoichiometric signature of high-frequency fire in forest floor food webs

Orpheus Butler, Tom Lewis, Sarah Maunsell, Mehran Rezaei Rashti, James Elser, Brendan Mackey & Chengrong Chen
Fire regimes are shifting under climate change. Decadal-scale shifts in fire regime can disrupt the biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) within forest ecosystems, but the full extent of these disruptions is unknown. It is also unclear whether these disruptions have consequences for the ecological characteristics (e.g., biomass, abundance, and composition) of microbial and invertebrate communities, which together comprise the majority of terrestrial biodiversity and underpin many ecosystem processes. The theoretical...

Data from: Sex-specific contributions to nest building in birds

Mark Mainwaring, Jenó Nagy & Mark Hauber
The causes and consequences of interspecific variation in sex-specific contributions to animal parental care are relatively well understood during pregnancy or incubation and during offspring provisioning, but comparative patterns of sex-biased investment during nest-, den-, or other shelter-building have been almost completely overlooked. This is surprising because birthing shelter properties have important fitness consequences for both parents and offspring. Here, we address this gap in our knowledge by testing predictions concerning sex-specific contributions to avian...

Insect-mediated apparent competition between mammals in a boreal food web

Guillemette Labadie, Philip D. McLoughlin, Mark Hebblewhite & Daniel Fortin
Datasets generated and analyzed within the study area located in the Côte-Nord region of Québec, Canada. "DataFinal_Vegetation.csv" was used to evaluate the availability of deciduous vegetation (column Cover_Deciduous) in stands impacted by the spruce budworm (SBW, severity index values presented in column SBW_SevCum) outbreak and test our prediction that the reduction in canopy cover caused by SBW in coniferous stands would result in greater deciduous vegetation. We determined the percentage cover of deciduous vegetation for...

Data from: Modeling multilocus selection in an individual-based, spatially-explicit landscape genetics framework

Erin Landguth, Brenna R. Forester, Andrew J. Eckert, Andrew J. Shirk, Mitra Menon, Amy Whipple, Casey C. Day & Samuel A. Cushman
We implemented multilocus selection in a spatially-explicit, individual-based framework that enables multivariate environmental gradients to drive selection in many loci as a new module for the landscape genetics programs, CDPOP and CDMetaPOP. Our module simulates multilocus selection using a linear additive model, providing a flexible platform to evaluate a wide range of genotype-environment associations. Importantly, the module allows simulation of selection in any number of loci under the influence of any number of environmental variables....

Temperature perturbation of cellular host-microbe interactions explains continent-wide endosymbiont prevalence

Michael Hague, J. Dylan Shropshire, Chelsey Caldwell, John Statz, Kimberly Stanek, William Conner & Brandon Cooper
Endosymbioses influence host physiology, reproduction, and fitness, but these relationships require efficient microbe transmission between host generations to persist. Maternally transmitted Wolbachia are the most common known endosymbionts, but their frequencies vary widely within and among host populations for unknown reasons. Here we integrate genomic, cellular, and phenotypic analyses with mathematical models to provide an unexpectedly simple explanation for global wMel Wolbachia prevalence in Drosophila melanogaster. Cooling temperatures decrease wMel cellular abundance at a key...

Model and data for: Economical defense of resources structures territorial space use in a cooperative carnivore

Sarah Sells
Manuscript Abstract: Ecologists have long sought to understand space use and mechanisms underlying patterns observed in nature. We developed an optimality landscape and mechanistic territory model to understand mechanisms driving space use and compared model predictions to empirical reality. We demonstrate our approach using gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the model, simulated animals selected territories to economically acquire resources by selecting patches with greatest value, accounting for benefits, costs, and tradeoffs of defending and using...

Data from: Predicting multi-predator risk to elk (Cervus canadensis) in summer using predator scats

Kara MacAulay, Eric Spilker, Jodi Berg, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn Merrill
1. There is growing evidence that prey perceive the risk of predation and alter their behaviour in response, resulting in changes in spatial distribution and potential fitness consequences. Previous approaches to mapping predation risk across a landscape quantify predator space use to estimate potential predator-prey encounters, yet this approach does not account for successful predator attack resulting in prey mortality. An exception is a prey kill site that reflects an encounter resulting in mortality, but...

Demographic data collection in STEM organizations

Nicholas Burnett, Alyssa Hernandez, Emily King, Richelle Tanner & Kathryn Wilsterman
Professional organizations in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) can use demographic data to quantify recruitment and retention (R&R) of underrepresented groups within their memberships. However, variation in the types of demographic data collected can influence the targeting and perceived impacts of R&R efforts - e.g., giving false signals of R&R for some groups. We obtained demographic surveys from 73 U.S.-affiliated STEM organizations, collectively representing 712,000 members and conference-attendees. We found large differences in the...

Tree growth data, ISSR tree genetics data, and monotorpene concentration data relating to mountain pine beetle attacks on whitebark pine at Vipond Park, Montana, 2017-2018

Diana Six
Abstract This record contains three zip files of data. First, for the file treeGeneticISSRData, the data consists of genetic ISSR band scores. Two sets of trees were sampled for genetic analyses - large trees surviving mountain pine beetle and 'general population' trees that we just a little to small to be attacked that served as a proxy for the population without beetle selection. Second, for the file Treegrowthdata_, this dataset includes files that record tree...

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